Vaccinations And Immunization Trivia Knowledge Test! Quiz

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| By Aliciaperkins
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Aliciaperkins
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Quizzes Created: 11 | Total Attempts: 27,496
Questions: 16 | Attempts: 554

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Vaccinations And Immunization Trivia Knowledge Test! Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Passive immunity can best be described as 

    • A.

      The development of antibodies in response to antigenic stimulation

    • B.

      The transfer of protection through preformed antibodies produced by another individual

    Correct Answer
    B. The transfer of protection through preformed antibodies produced by another individual
    Explanation
    Passive immunity refers to the transfer of preformed antibodies from one individual to another, providing immediate protection against a specific pathogen. This can occur naturally, such as the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy or through breastfeeding. It can also be artificially induced through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as in the case of immunoglobulin therapy. This type of immunity does not involve the production of antibodies by the recipient's own immune system, but rather relies on the presence of antibodies produced by another individual.

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  • 2. 

    The colostral transfer of IgA in breast milk is an example of what type of immunity?

    • A.

      Active, natural immunity

    • B.

      Passive, natural immunity

    • C.

      Active, artificial immunity

    • D.

      Passive, artificial immunity

    Correct Answer
    B. Passive, natural immunity
    Explanation
    The colostral transfer of IgA in breast milk refers to the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her baby through breastfeeding. This is an example of passive immunity because the baby is receiving pre-formed antibodies from the mother, rather than producing them on its own. It is considered natural immunity because it occurs naturally through the normal process of breastfeeding.

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  • 3. 

    The induction of immunity to a pathogen by deliberate injection of a weakened, modified or related form of the pathogen which is no longer pathogenic is known as what?

    Correct Answer
    vaccination, vaccine
    Explanation
    Vaccination refers to the process of inducing immunity to a pathogen by injecting a weakened, modified, or related form of the pathogen that is no longer capable of causing disease. This stimulates the immune system to produce a response, including the production of antibodies, which can then protect the individual from future infections by the same pathogen. The term "vaccine" is often used interchangeably with vaccination, as it refers to the substance or preparation that is administered during the process of vaccination.

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  • 4. 

    What type of vaccine will produce a more robust immune response?

    • A.

      Intramuscular injection

    • B.

      Nasal spray

    Correct Answer
    B. Nasal spray
    Explanation
    A nasal spray vaccine is likely to produce a more robust immune response compared to an intramuscular injection. This is because the nasal spray vaccine is administered directly to the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, which are rich in immune cells. This allows for a targeted immune response at the site of entry for many respiratory infections. In contrast, an intramuscular injection delivers the vaccine into the muscle tissue, which may not provide the same level of localized immune response as the nasal spray.

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  • 5. 

    What type of vaccine usually confers lifelong immunity?

    • A.

      Live, attenuated

    • B.

      Inactivated

    • C.

      Toxoid

    • D.

      DNA recombinant

    Correct Answer
    A. Live, attenuated
    Explanation
    Live, attenuated vaccines usually confer lifelong immunity because they contain a weakened form of the virus or bacteria that can still replicate in the body, but not cause disease. This allows the immune system to mount a strong and long-lasting response, producing both antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and respond to future infections. In contrast, inactivated vaccines contain killed or inactivated pathogens, which may require booster shots to maintain immunity. Toxoid vaccines contain inactivated toxins produced by bacteria, while DNA recombinant vaccines use genetically engineered DNA to produce proteins that stimulate an immune response.

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  • 6. 

    Live, attenuated vaccines are difficult to create for bacteria because there are thousands of genes making them harder to control.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Live, attenuated vaccines are created by weakening the disease-causing organism so that it can still stimulate an immune response without causing illness. This process is more challenging for bacteria compared to viruses because bacteria have thousands of genes that contribute to their virulence. Controlling and manipulating these genes to create a safe and effective vaccine is a complex task. Therefore, it is true that live, attenuated vaccines are difficult to create for bacteria due to the large number of genes involved.

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  • 7. 

    The influenza vaccine is fertilized in a

    • A.

      Test tube

    • B.

      Ostrich egg

    • C.

      Pterodactyl egg

    • D.

      Chicken egg

    Correct Answer
    D. Chicken egg
    Explanation
    The influenza vaccine is fertilized in a chicken egg. This is because the virus used to make the vaccine is grown in chicken eggs. The virus is injected into the eggs, where it replicates and produces large quantities of the virus. The virus is then harvested from the eggs, purified, and used to make the vaccine. Chicken eggs are commonly used for vaccine production as they provide a suitable environment for the virus to grow and replicate.

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  • 8. 

    Unlike live vaccines, advantages to inactivated vaccines include of all the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Does not require refrigeration

    • B.

      Microbes cannot revert back to virulent form

    • C.

      More stable and safe than live vaccine

    • D.

      Stimulates weaker immune response thus requiring booster shots

    Correct Answer
    D. Stimulates weaker immune response thus requiring booster shots
    Explanation
    Inactivated vaccines have several advantages over live vaccines, including the fact that they do not require refrigeration, the microbes used in the vaccine cannot revert back to a virulent form, and they are generally more stable and safe. However, one disadvantage of inactivated vaccines is that they stimulate a weaker immune response compared to live vaccines, which means that individuals may require booster shots to maintain their immunity.

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  • 9. 

    Toxoid vaccines are produced by rendering the harmful toxin inactive by treating them with what chemical?

    • A.

      Hydrochloric acid

    • B.

      Acetate

    • C.

      Formalin

    • D.

      Sterilized water

    Correct Answer
    C. Formalin
    Explanation
    upon treatment with formalin, the toxin moiety is removed, creating the toxoid

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  • 10. 

    All antigens are immunogens, but not all immunogens are antigens.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    All immunogens are antigens, but not all antigens are immunogens
    Antigens = any agent capable of binding specifically to components of the immune response
    Immunogen = any agent capable of inducing an immune response

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  • 11. 

    ____________ vaccine acts by linking antigens or toxoids from the microbe to the outer polysaccharides thus helping the immature immune system react to the polysaccharide coating and defend against disease-causing bacterium. 

    • A.

      Recombinant subunit

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Conjugate

    • D.

      Toxoid

    Correct Answer
    C. Conjugate
    Explanation
    The conjugate vaccine acts by linking antigens or toxoids from the microbe to the outer polysaccharides. This helps the immature immune system react to the polysaccharide coating and defend against disease-causing bacteria.

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  • 12. 

    The Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hib) is an example of what type of vaccine?

    • A.

      Subunit

    • B.

      Live, attenuated

    • C.

      DNA

    • D.

      Conjugate

    Correct Answer
    D. Conjugate
    Explanation
    The Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hib) is an example of a conjugate vaccine. Conjugate vaccines are created by combining a weak antigen with a strong antigen to enhance the immune response. In the case of the Hib vaccine, a sugar molecule from the bacteria is linked to a protein carrier. This combination helps stimulate a stronger immune response and provides protection against the bacteria.

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  • 13. 

    When mixed with an immunogen, this substance enhances the immune response. 

    Correct Answer
    adjuvant, immunologic adjuvant
    Explanation
    An adjuvant is a substance that, when mixed with an immunogen (a substance that induces an immune response), enhances the immune response. It helps to stimulate the immune system and improve the effectiveness of vaccines or immunotherapies. Adjuvants can activate immune cells, promote the production of antibodies, and increase the duration and strength of the immune response. Immunologic adjuvants specifically refer to substances that enhance the immune response.

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  • 14. 

    ________ is the only adjuvant used for human vaccines in the US. 

    • A.

      TLR agonsts (CpG)

    • B.

      Complete Freund's adjuvant

    • C.

      Alum (aluminum hydroxide)

    • D.

      Cytokines (IL-2)

    Correct Answer
    C. Alum (aluminum hydroxide)
    Explanation
    Alum (aluminum hydroxide) is the only adjuvant used for human vaccines in the US. Adjuvants are substances that are added to vaccines to enhance the immune response and increase the effectiveness of the vaccine. Alum has been used as an adjuvant for many years and is considered safe and effective. It works by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies against the vaccine antigen. Other adjuvants, such as TLR agonists (CpG), complete Freund's adjuvant, and cytokines (IL-2), may be used in research or veterinary vaccines, but they are not approved for use in human vaccines in the US.

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  • 15. 

    TLRs are typically impaired in vaccines, so in order to elicit a robust immune response,  __________ are combined with the antigen in the vaccine to stimulate the TLRs to produce an immune response. 

    • A.

      Recombinant DNA fragments

    • B.

      Adjuvants

    • C.

      Immunodominant epitopes

    • D.

      Cytokines

    Correct Answer
    B. Adjuvants
    Explanation
    Adjuvants are typically used in vaccines to stimulate the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and enhance the immune response. TLRs play a crucial role in recognizing pathogens and initiating an immune response. However, in vaccines, the antigens alone may not be sufficient to activate TLRs and generate a robust immune response. Adjuvants, which are substances added to vaccines, can stimulate the TLRs and enhance the immune response by providing additional signals to the immune system. Therefore, using adjuvants in combination with antigens in vaccines helps to elicit a stronger and more effective immune response.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 06, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Aliciaperkins
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