A Quiz On Innate Immunity

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A Quiz On Innate Immunity - Quiz

A quiz on Innate Immunity


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Macrophages and Neutrophils play a role in the Innate Immune Reaction

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Macrophages and neutrophils are both types of white blood cells that are part of the innate immune system. They play a crucial role in the initial response to pathogens and foreign substances in the body. Macrophages are responsible for engulfing and destroying pathogens, while neutrophils are the first responders to infection and inflammation. Together, these cells help to initiate and coordinate the innate immune response, which is the body's first line of defense against infections. Therefore, it is true that macrophages and neutrophils play a role in the innate immune reaction.

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  • 2. 

    Vasoactive and Chemotactic factors do what?

    • A.

      Trigger an Increase in blood flow and capillary permeability

    • B.

      Allow immune cells to differentiate betwen "self" and "nonself" cells

    • C.

      Signal T and B cells to proliferate and differentiate

    • D.

      Cause smooth muscle cells to constrict

    Correct Answer
    A. Trigger an Increase in blood flow and capillary permeability
    Explanation
    Vasoactive and chemotactic factors are substances that can trigger an increase in blood flow and capillary permeability. This means that they can cause blood vessels to dilate, allowing more blood to flow through them, and also make the capillary walls more permeable, allowing fluids and immune cells to move more easily between the blood vessels and surrounding tissues. This response is part of the body's immune and inflammatory processes, helping to bring more immune cells to the site of infection or injury and facilitate their movement into the affected tissues.

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  • 3. 

    Phagocytes migrate to sites of inflammation via what process?

    • A.

      Chemotaxis

    • B.

      Vasotaxis

    • C.

      Bownian motion

    • D.

      Facilitated diffusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Chemotaxis
    Explanation
    Phagocytes migrate to sites of inflammation via chemotaxis, which is the process of moving towards a chemical signal. Inflammation releases chemical signals called chemotactic factors, which attract phagocytes to the site of injury or infection. This directional movement allows phagocytes to reach the site quickly and efficiently, aiding in the immune response and the removal of pathogens or damaged cells.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is NOT a phagocyte?

    • A.

      Mast Cell

    • B.

      Dendritic Cell

    • C.

      Neutrophil

    • D.

      Natural Killer Cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Natural Killer Cell
    Explanation
    Natural Killer Cells are not phagocytes. Phagocytes are a type of immune cell that can engulf and destroy pathogens, while Natural Killer Cells are a type of lymphocyte that primarily target and kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells through the release of toxic substances.

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  • 5. 

    The innate immune reaction is more specific than the adaptive immune reaction

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the adaptive immune reaction is actually more specific than the innate immune reaction. The adaptive immune system is able to recognize and target specific pathogens or antigens by producing highly specialized immune cells called lymphocytes. These lymphocytes undergo a process of maturation and selection, resulting in the production of specific antibodies or T cells that can recognize and destroy specific pathogens. In contrast, the innate immune system relies on general mechanisms such as inflammation and phagocytosis to respond to a wide range of pathogens, but it lacks the ability to specifically target individual pathogens.

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  • 6. 

    A virus infects a cell's cytoplasm which of the following immune response components could deal with this problem?

    • A.

      Antimicrobial Peptides

    • B.

      Antibodies

    • C.

      Phagocytes

    • D.

      NK Cells

    Correct Answer
    D. NK Cells
    Explanation
    NK cells, also known as natural killer cells, are a type of lymphocyte that play a crucial role in the immune response against viral infections. They are capable of recognizing and destroying virus-infected cells directly, without the need for prior activation or antigen presentation. NK cells recognize infected cells by detecting changes in the surface markers of the infected cells, such as the downregulation of MHC class I molecules. Once identified, NK cells release cytotoxic granules containing perforin and granzymes, which induce apoptosis in the infected cells. Therefore, NK cells are an important component of the immune response that can effectively deal with a virus infecting a cell's cytoplasm.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is an indirect mechanism of tissue damage by pathogens

    • A.

      Exotoxin Production

    • B.

      Endotoxin

    • C.

      Direct cytopathic effect

    • D.

      Immune complexes

    Correct Answer
    D. Immune complexes
    Explanation
    Immune complexes can lead to tissue damage indirectly by triggering an immune response that causes inflammation. When pathogens enter the body, the immune system produces antibodies to neutralize them. However, in some cases, the antibodies can form complexes with the pathogens, leading to the activation of immune cells and the release of inflammatory mediators. This immune response can cause damage to surrounding tissues, leading to inflammation and tissue destruction. Therefore, immune complexes can be considered an indirect mechanism of tissue damage by pathogens.

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  • 8. 

    Innate Immune receptors are clonally distributed

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Innate immune receptors are not clonally distributed. Clonal distribution refers to the distribution of receptors in a specific pattern or arrangement, which is not the case for innate immune receptors. Innate immune receptors are instead expressed on a wide range of cells and are not restricted to specific clones. Therefore, the correct answer is false.

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  • 9. 

    Most Microorganisms express repeating patterns of molecular structures termed:

    • A.

      Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs)

    • B.

      Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)

    • C.

      Patterned Histocompatibility Series (PHS)

    • D.

      Nannose Effected Linking Sections (NELS)

    Correct Answer
    A. Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs)
    Explanation
    Microorganisms express repeating patterns of molecular structures called Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs). These patterns are recognized by the immune system through specific receptors called Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs). PAMPs help the immune system identify and respond to potential pathogens, triggering an immune response to eliminate the invading microorganisms. The other options, Patterned Histocompatibility Series (PHS) and Nannose Effected Linking Sections (NELS), are not valid terms or concepts related to the recognition of molecular patterns by microorganisms.

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  • 10. 

    Cells have cytopolasmic receptors to help sense viral nucleic acid

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cells have cytoplasmic receptors to help sense viral nucleic acid. This statement is true. Cytoplasmic receptors play a crucial role in the innate immune response by recognizing viral nucleic acids, such as viral RNA or DNA, that are present in the cytoplasm of infected cells. These receptors can detect the presence of viral nucleic acids and initiate a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of antiviral defense mechanisms, including the production of interferons and the induction of an inflammatory response. This helps the cell to recognize and respond to viral infections, aiding in the elimination of the virus and the protection of the host organism.

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  • 11. 

    Interleukin 1 does which of the following?

    • A.

      Stimulates inflammation and fever

    • B.

      Signals apoptosis in damaged or diseased cells

    • C.

      Binds to antigen sites

    • D.

      Lowers localized body temperature

    Correct Answer
    A. Stimulates inflammation and fever
    Explanation
    Interleukin 1 is a cytokine that is released by immune cells in response to infection or injury. It plays a crucial role in initiating the inflammatory response by promoting the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Additionally, interleukin 1 also stimulates the production of other inflammatory molecules, such as prostaglandins and cytokines, which further contribute to the inflammatory process. Fever is another response triggered by interleukin 1, as it acts on the hypothalamus to increase body temperature. Therefore, the correct answer is that interleukin 1 stimulates inflammation and fever.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is NOT a mechanism in phagocytosis?

    • A.

      Acidification

    • B.

      Toxic nitrogen oxides

    • C.

      Antimicrobial peptides

    • D.

      Toxic chelation

    Correct Answer
    D. Toxic chelation
    Explanation
    Toxic chelation is not a mechanism in phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is the process by which cells engulf and ingest foreign particles or pathogens. Acidification occurs when the phagosome, the vesicle formed during phagocytosis, becomes more acidic, which helps in killing the engulfed microorganism. Toxic nitrogen oxides and antimicrobial peptides are both involved in the destruction of the engulfed microorganism. However, toxic chelation, which refers to the binding of metal ions to prevent their use by the microorganism, is not a mechanism in phagocytosis.

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  • 13. 

    Chronic Granulomatous Diseas is caused by:

    • A.

      Mutation in NADPH oxidase complex

    • B.

      Decrease or absence of eosinophil production

    • C.

      Decrease or absence of basophil production

    • D.

      Mutation in Major Histocompatibility Complex 1 or 2

    Correct Answer
    A. Mutation in NADPH oxidase complex
    Explanation
    Chronic Granulomatous Disease is caused by a mutation in the NADPH oxidase complex. This complex is responsible for producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that help to kill bacteria and fungi in the body. When there is a mutation in this complex, it impairs the ability of immune cells to produce ROS, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections. This genetic defect affects the function of phagocytes, which are a type of white blood cell involved in the body's immune response.

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  • 14. 

    Cytokines can function in an autocrine or paracrine manner

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cytokines are small proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling and communication within the immune system. They can act in an autocrine manner, meaning they can bind to receptors on the same cell that produced them, influencing their own activity. Additionally, cytokines can function in a paracrine manner, where they can travel to nearby cells and bind to their receptors, affecting their behavior. Therefore, the statement that cytokines can function in an autocrine or paracrine manner is true.

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  • 15. 

    Chemokines are specific in receptor usage

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Chemokines are not specific in receptor usage. Chemokines are a family of small proteins that play a key role in immune responses by attracting immune cells to sites of infection or inflammation. They bind to specific receptors on the surface of immune cells, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to cell migration. However, chemokines can also bind to multiple receptors, and different chemokines can bind to the same receptor. This versatility in receptor usage allows for a complex and dynamic regulation of immune cell movement and function. Therefore, the statement that chemokines are specific in receptor usage is false.

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