Fall 2016 Bio 1 Midterm Exam Review

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Fall 2016 Bio 1 Midterm Exam Review - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Scientists use observations and data to form and test ___.

    • A.

      Constants

    • B.

      Hypotheses

    • C.

      Theories

    • D.

      Conclusions

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypotheses
    Explanation
    Scientists use observations and data to form and test hypotheses. Hypotheses are educated guesses or proposed explanations for a phenomenon based on available evidence. Through careful observation and analysis of data, scientists can develop hypotheses that can be tested through experiments or further observations. This process allows scientists to make predictions and draw conclusions about the natural world.

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  • 2. 

    What gives water many properties that are important to living things?

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      Hydrogen bonds

    • C.

      Density

    • D.

      Specific heat

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydrogen bonds
    Explanation
    Hydrogen bonds give water many properties that are important to living things. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and the oxygen atom of another water molecule. This bonding gives water its high boiling point, which allows it to exist as a liquid at temperatures suitable for life. Hydrogen bonds also give water its unique ability to dissolve many substances, making it an excellent solvent. Additionally, hydrogen bonds contribute to water's high surface tension, which allows for capillary action and the movement of water through plants.

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  • 3. 

    The four main types of carbon-based molecules in organisms are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and ___.

    • A.

      Starches

    • B.

      Fatty acids

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Monosaccharides

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins
    Explanation
    Proteins are the fourth main type of carbon-based molecules in organisms. They are large, complex molecules made up of amino acids and play a crucial role in various biological processes. Proteins are involved in structural support, enzymatic reactions, transport, immune response, and many other functions in living organisms. They are essential for the growth, development, and functioning of cells and tissues.

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  • 4. 

    If an organic molecule model contains carbon atoms arranged in a long chain, it is probably a model of ___.

    • A.

      Starch

    • B.

      A lipid

    • C.

      Polar molecules

    • D.

      Protein

    Correct Answer
    B. A lipid
    Explanation
    If an organic molecule model contains carbon atoms arranged in a long chain, it is probably a model of a lipid. Lipids are organic molecules that are characterized by long chains of carbon atoms bonded together. They are an important component of cell membranes and serve as a source of energy in the body.

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  • 5. 

    Many factors should remain unchanged during an experiment. These factors are referred to as  ___.

    • A.

      Levels

    • B.

      Hypotheses

    • C.

      Controlled variables

    • D.

      Independent variables

    Correct Answer
    C. Controlled variables
    Explanation
    Controlled variables are the factors that are kept constant or unchanged during an experiment. These variables are carefully controlled in order to isolate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. By keeping these variables constant, researchers can ensure that any changes observed in the dependent variable are a result of the manipulation of the independent variable and not due to other factors.

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  • 6. 

    DNA and RNA are two types of ___.

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Lipids

    • D.

      Nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleic acids
    Explanation
    DNA and RNA are two types of nucleic acids. Nucleic acids are macromolecules that store and transmit genetic information in living organisms. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is responsible for storing genetic information, while RNA (ribonucleic acid) plays a role in protein synthesis and gene expression. Proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids are other types of biomolecules, but they are not specifically related to storing and transmitting genetic information like nucleic acids.

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  • 7. 

    The smallest basic unit of matter is the ___.

    • A.

      Atom

    • B.

      Cell

    • C.

      Compound

    • D.

      Molecule

    Correct Answer
    A. Atom
    Explanation
    An atom is the smallest basic unit of matter. It is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Atoms combine to form molecules, which are the building blocks of compounds. Cells, on the other hand, are the basic structural and functional units of living organisms, not matter itself. Therefore, the correct answer is atom.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons?

    • A.

      Element

    • B.

      Compound

    • C.

      Molecule

    • D.

      Ion

    Correct Answer
    D. Ion
    Explanation
    An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons. When an atom gains electrons, it becomes negatively charged and is called an anion. When an atom loses electrons, it becomes positively charged and is called a cation. Ions play a crucial role in chemical reactions and the formation of compounds. They can easily combine with other ions or atoms to form stable compounds through the process of ionic bonding.

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  • 9. 

    Atoms in molecules share pairs of electrons when they make ___.

    • A.

      Ionic bond

    • B.

      Covalent bond

    • C.

      Hydrogen bond

    • D.

      Polymers

    Correct Answer
    B. Covalent bond
    Explanation
    When atoms in molecules form a covalent bond, they share pairs of electrons. This type of bond occurs when atoms have similar electronegativities and are able to share electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration. In a covalent bond, the shared electrons are attracted to both nuclei, creating a strong bond between the atoms. Ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons, hydrogen bonds are weaker interactions between molecules, and polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits.

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  • 10. 

    Substances are changed into different substances when bonds break and reform during ___.

    • A.

      Chemical equilibrium.

    • B.

      Chemical reactions.

    • C.

      Ion formation.

    • D.

      Hydrogen bonding.

    Correct Answer
    B. Chemical reactions.
    Explanation
    Chemical reactions involve the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, resulting in the transformation of substances into different substances. During a chemical reaction, the bonds between atoms in the reactants are broken, and new bonds are formed to create the products. This process can involve various types of reactions, such as synthesis, decomposition, combustion, and more. Therefore, it is through chemical reactions that substances undergo changes and are converted into different substances.

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  • 11. 

    Fats, oils, and cholesterol are all types of ___.

    • A.

      Hormones.

    • B.

      Lipids.

    • C.

      Cell membranes.

    • D.

      Fatty acids.

    Correct Answer
    B. Lipids.
    Explanation
    Fats, oils, and cholesterol are all types of lipids. Lipids are organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They are an essential component of living cells and play important roles in storing energy, providing insulation, and forming cell membranes. Hormones, cell membranes, and fatty acids are all related to lipids but do not encompass all the types mentioned in the question. Therefore, the correct answer is lipids.

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  • 12. 

    Protein polymers are made of a series of ___.

    • A.

      Amino acids

    • B.

      Monosaccharides

    • C.

      Histones

    • D.

      DNA strands

    Correct Answer
    A. Amino acids
    Explanation
    Protein polymers are made of a series of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are linked together through peptide bonds to form long chains. These chains then fold into specific three-dimensional structures, which determine the function of the protein. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of carbohydrates, histones are proteins involved in DNA packaging, and DNA strands are nucleic acids that carry genetic information. Therefore, the correct answer is amino acids.

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  • 13. 

    The activation energy needed for a chemical reaction is decreased by a ___.

    • A.

      Catalyst

    • B.

      Reactant

    • C.

      Substrate

    • D.

      Product

    Correct Answer
    A. Catalyst
    Explanation
    A catalyst is a substance that lowers the activation energy required for a chemical reaction to occur. It does this by providing an alternative pathway with a lower energy barrier for the reaction to proceed. By decreasing the activation energy, a catalyst increases the rate of the reaction without being consumed in the process. Therefore, a catalyst is the correct answer because it effectively reduces the energy barrier and facilitates the reaction.

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  • 14. 

    In the lock-and-key model of enzyme function shown in Figure 2.2, what is happening in step 2? 

    • A.

      The catalyzed reaction is releasing a product.

    • B.

      The active sites are restructuring the enzyme.

    • C.

      The enzyme is causing new bonds to form between the substrates.

    • D.

      The substrates are beginning to separate from each other.

    Correct Answer
    C. The enzyme is causing new bonds to form between the substrates.
    Explanation
    In step 2 of the lock-and-key model of enzyme function, the enzyme is causing new bonds to form between the substrates. This means that the enzyme is facilitating the reaction by bringing the substrates together in the correct orientation and providing the necessary conditions for the formation of new chemical bonds. This step is crucial for the catalysis of the reaction and the subsequent release of the product.

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  • 15. 

    Which aspect of a chemical reaction is affected by enzymes?

    • A.

      Direction

    • B.

      Rate

    • C.

      Equilibrium

    • D.

      PH

    Correct Answer
    B. Rate
    Explanation
    Enzymes affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. They do this by binding to the reactant molecules and facilitating the formation of the transition state, which then leads to the formation of products. Therefore, enzymes play a crucial role in increasing the rate at which chemical reactions proceed in biological systems.

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  • 16. 

    What pH would be considered a strong base?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      8

    • D.

      12

    Correct Answer
    D. 12
    Explanation
    A pH of 12 would be considered a strong base. pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, with values ranging from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is considered neutral, below 7 is acidic, and above 7 is alkaline. The higher the pH value, the more alkaline the solution is. A pH of 12 indicates a highly alkaline solution, making it a strong base.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following molecules found in the food we eat is most commonly broken down to make ATP (providing us with the most readily available energy)?

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Lipids

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Vitamins

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbohydrates
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are the molecules found in the food we eat that are most commonly broken down to make ATP, providing us with readily available energy. Carbohydrates are easily converted into glucose, which is then used by the cells to produce ATP through cellular respiration. Lipids and proteins can also be broken down for energy, but carbohydrates are the preferred source as they are more efficiently metabolized. Vitamins, on the other hand, do not provide energy directly but are essential for various metabolic processes in the body.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is a major principle upon which cell theory is based?

    • A.

      All cells form by free-cell formation.

    • B.

      All cells have DNA.

    • C.

      All organisms are made of cells.

    • D.

      All cells are eukaryotic.

    Correct Answer
    C. All organisms are made of cells.
    Explanation
    The major principle upon which cell theory is based is that all organisms are made of cells. This principle states that cells are the basic units of life and that all living things are composed of one or more cells. This principle was proposed by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann in the 19th century and has since been widely accepted in the field of biology. The other options listed are not major principles of cell theory.

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  • 19. 

    Identify the type of cell shown in Figure 3.1.

    • A.

      Bacterial

    • B.

      Animal

    • C.

      Prokaryotic

    • D.

      Eukaryotic

    Correct Answer
    D. Eukaryotic
    Explanation
    The cell shown in Figure 3.1 is identified as eukaryotic. Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having a true nucleus that contains genetic material enclosed within a nuclear membrane. They also have other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. This distinguishes them from prokaryotic cells, which do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. The term "bacterial" refers to a specific type of prokaryotic cell, and "animal" is a broad category that includes both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

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  • 20. 

    Which organelle is the storehouse for a cell's genetic information?

    • A.

      Mitochondrion

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Centriole

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleus is the storehouse for a cell's genetic information. It contains the cell's DNA, which carries the instructions for the cell's activities and characteristics. The DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes, and the nucleus protects and regulates access to the DNA. This allows the cell to control gene expression and carry out essential cellular processes such as replication, transcription, and translation. The mitochondrion and chloroplast are involved in energy production and have their own DNA, but they do not store the cell's genetic information. The centriole is involved in cell division and does not store genetic information either.

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  • 21. 

    Which phrase best describes rough ER?

    • A.

      Studded with ribosomes

    • B.

      Protected by vesicles

    • C.

      Connected to the Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Stored in the central vacuole

    Correct Answer
    A. Studded with ribosomes
    Explanation
    Rough ER is described as "studded with ribosomes" because it contains ribosomes attached to its surface. These ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis. The rough appearance of the ER is due to the presence of these ribosomes.

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  • 22. 

    Which organelles supply energy to the cell?

    • A.

      Ribosomes

    • B.

      Centrosomes

    • C.

      Mitochondria

    • D.

      Vacuoles

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are the organelles that supply energy to the cell. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate the majority of the cell's energy in the form of ATP through cellular respiration. This process involves breaking down glucose and other molecules to release energy. Mitochondria have their own DNA and can reproduce independently within the cell. They are found in large numbers in cells that require a lot of energy, such as muscle cells.

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  • 23. 

    Which organelles contain enzymes that break down old cell parts?

    • A.

      Chloroplasts

    • B.

      Centrosomes

    • C.

      Lysosomes

    • D.

      Vacuoles

    Correct Answer
    C. Lysosomes
    Explanation
    Lysosomes contain enzymes that break down old cell parts. Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that function as the cell's recycling centers. They contain a variety of hydrolytic enzymes that are capable of breaking down various biological molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. These enzymes are responsible for the degradation and recycling of cellular waste, as well as the breakdown of old or damaged organelles.

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  • 24. 

    Which organelles are found only in plant cells?

    • A.

      Chloroplasts

    • B.

      Centrosomes

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Vacuoles

    Correct Answer
    A. Chloroplasts
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts are the correct answer because they are unique to plant cells and are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a pigment that gives plants their green color and allows them to absorb sunlight. They are not found in animal cells or other types of cells.

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  • 25. 

    What is the main function of the Golgi apparatus?

    • A.

      Communicate with other cells

    • B.

      Convert solar energy to chemical energy

    • C.

      Process and deliver proteins

    • D.

      Copy genetic material

    Correct Answer
    C. Process and deliver proteins
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is responsible for processing and delivering proteins within a cell. It receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum, modifies them, and packages them into vesicles for transport to their final destinations. This process involves adding sugars and other molecules to the proteins to modify their structure and function. Therefore, the main function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and deliver proteins within the cell.

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  • 26. 

    Which phrase best describes the property of selective permeability?

    • A.

      Some molecules pass

    • B.

      All ions pass

    • C.

      Large molecules pass

    • D.

      All molecules pass

    Correct Answer
    A. Some molecules pass
    Explanation
    Selective permeability refers to the property of a membrane or barrier that allows only certain molecules or ions to pass through while restricting the passage of others. In this case, the correct answer "some molecules pass" accurately describes selective permeability as it implies that only a subset of molecules is able to pass through the membrane or barrier, while others are not able to pass.

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  • 27. 

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are both sites of ___.

    • A.

      Energy conversion.

    • B.

      Lipid manufacturing.

    • C.

      Photosynthesis.

    • D.

      Protein synthesis.

    Correct Answer
    A. Energy conversion.
    Explanation
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are both organelles involved in energy conversion. Mitochondria are responsible for cellular respiration, where they convert nutrients into ATP, the main energy currency of cells. Chloroplasts, on the other hand, are found in plant cells and are responsible for photosynthesis, where they convert sunlight into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Therefore, both organelles play a crucial role in the conversion of energy within cells.

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  • 28. 

    Which word best describes the structure of the cell membrane?

    • A.

      Layered

    • B.

      Rigid

    • C.

      Nonpolar

    • D.

      Impermeable

    Correct Answer
    A. Layered
    Explanation
    The word "layered" best describes the structure of the cell membrane because it is composed of a phospholipid bilayer. This bilayer consists of two layers of phospholipids arranged with their hydrophilic (water-loving) heads facing outward and their hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails facing inward. This layered structure provides stability and acts as a barrier, controlling the movement of substances in and out of the cell.

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  • 29. 

    In Fig. 3.3, identify the structure labeled C.

    • A.

      Central Vacuole

    • B.

      Golgi Body

    • C.

      Mitochondria

    • D.

      Endoplasmic Reticulum

    Correct Answer
    D. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Explanation
    The structure labeled C in Fig. 3.3 is the Endoplasmic Reticulum. The Endoplasmic Reticulum is a network of membranes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It plays a key role in the synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins, as well as lipid metabolism and detoxification of drugs and toxins. It can be classified into two types: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), which is studded with ribosomes and involved in protein synthesis, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), which lacks ribosomes and is involved in lipid synthesis and detoxification.

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  • 30. 

    In Fig. 3.3, what is the function of the structure labeled F.

    • A.

      Hold water

    • B.

      Conduct photosynthesis

    • C.

      House genetic material

    • D.

      Produce energy molecules

    Correct Answer
    A. Hold water
    Explanation
    The structure labeled F in Fig. 3.3 is responsible for holding water. This means that it has the function of storing and retaining water within the organism or structure depicted in the figure.

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  • 31. 

    What is the function of the entire structure shown in the diagram?

    • A.

      Make cytoplasm

    • B.

      Regulate what goes in/out of a cell

    • C.

      Manufacture lipids

    • D.

      Produce proteins

    Correct Answer
    B. Regulate what goes in/out of a cell
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "regulate what goes in/out of a cell." The diagram likely depicts a cell membrane or a similar structure that controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell. This function is essential for maintaining homeostasis and allowing the cell to selectively transport molecules and ions across its boundary.

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  • 32. 

    The structures labeled B would be made of ___.

    • A.

      Lipids

    • B.

      Protein

    • C.

      Cellulose

    • D.

      Fatty acid chains

    Correct Answer
    B. Protein
    Explanation
    The structures labeled B would be made of protein because lipids are not typically involved in structural components, cellulose is a carbohydrate found in plant cell walls, and fatty acid chains are components of lipids rather than structural components themselves. Protein is known to be involved in the formation of various structural components in cells, such as the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.

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  • 33. 

    Unlike a eukaryoteic cell, a prokaryotic cell does not have...

    • A.

      DNA.

    • B.

      A nucleus.

    • C.

      Cytoplasm.

    • D.

      A cell membrane.

    Correct Answer
    B. A nucleus.
    Explanation
    A prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus. This is because prokaryotic cells are simpler and lack a distinct membrane-bound nucleus. Instead, their DNA is found in a region called the nucleoid, which is not enclosed by a membrane. In contrast, eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus that houses their DNA, which is separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane. The absence of a nucleus in prokaryotic cells allows for a more direct interaction between the genetic material and the cellular machinery.

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  • 34. 

    A membrane-bound sac used to transport substances into and out of cells is a ...

    • A.

      Pump

    • B.

      Macrophage

    • C.

      Lysosome

    • D.

      Vesicle

    Correct Answer
    D. Vesicle
    Explanation
    A vesicle is a membrane-bound sac that is responsible for transporting substances into and out of cells. It acts as a small transport vehicle within the cell, allowing molecules to be moved from one location to another. Vesicles are involved in various cellular processes such as secretion, exocytosis, endocytosis, and intracellular transport. They play a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis of the cell by regulating the movement of molecules and maintaining the integrity of the cell membrane.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is a network of proteins that supports and gives shape to a cell?

    • A.

      Cytoskeleton

    • B.

      Cytoplasm

    • C.

      Vesicles

    • D.

      Vacuoles

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytoskeleton
    Explanation
    The cytoskeleton is a network of proteins that provides structural support and shape to a cell. It is responsible for maintaining the cell's shape, organizing its internal components, and facilitating cell movement. The cytoskeleton is composed of three main types of protein filaments: microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. These filaments work together to give the cell its structure and allow it to carry out its functions.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following organelles can be found on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum?

    • A.

      Golgi apparatus

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Centrioles

    Correct Answer
    C. Ribosomes
    Explanation
    Ribosomes can be found on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum. This is because the endoplasmic reticulum is involved in protein synthesis, and ribosomes are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. The endoplasmic reticulum provides a platform for ribosomes to attach and synthesize proteins, which can then be transported and modified within the cell. Therefore, ribosomes are the correct answer as they are directly associated with the endoplasmic reticulum.

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  • 37. 

    Which organelle is the storehouse for most of a cell's genetic information?

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Mitochondrion

    • C.

      Centriole

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleus is the storehouse for most of a cell's genetic information. It contains the cell's DNA, which carries the instructions for the cell's functions and characteristics. The DNA is organized into structures called chromosomes, which are located within the nucleus. The nucleus also regulates the cell's activities and controls the expression of genes. Therefore, the nucleus is responsible for storing and controlling the cell's genetic information.

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  • 38. 

    What is the main function of the Golgi apparatus?

    • A.

      Convert solar energy to chemical energy

    • B.

      Communicate with other cells

    • C.

      Process and deliver proteins

    • D.

      Copy genetic material

    Correct Answer
    C. Process and deliver proteins
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is responsible for processing and delivering proteins within the cell. It receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and modifies them by adding sugars, lipids, or other molecules. It then packages the modified proteins into vesicles and sends them to their appropriate destinations within or outside the cell. This process ensures that proteins are properly folded, modified, and transported to their required locations, allowing them to perform their specific functions in the cell.

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  • 39. 

    What is the term for the jelly-like substance that is contained insidethe cell membrane?

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Organelle

    • D.

      DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytoplasm
    Explanation
    Cytoplasm is the correct answer because it refers to the jelly-like substance that is contained inside the cell membrane. It is a semi-fluid substance that fills the cell and holds all the organelles in place. The cytoplasm is where many cellular processes occur, including metabolism and protein synthesis. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, organelles are specialized structures within the cell, and DNA is the genetic material found within the nucleus.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is responsible for making membrane and protein?

    • A.

      Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    • B.

      Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Golgi Apparatus

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    A. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Explanation
    The rough endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for making membranes and proteins. It contains ribosomes on its surface, which are responsible for protein synthesis. The rough endoplasmic reticulum plays a crucial role in the production, folding, and modification of proteins. Additionally, it is involved in the synthesis of lipids and the transport of proteins to other parts of the cell or to the cell membrane. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and chloroplasts have other functions within the cell and are not primarily responsible for making membranes and proteins.

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  • 41. 

    A membrane-bound sac that contains digestive enzymes is a ...

    • A.

      Pump.

    • B.

      Macrophage.

    • C.

      Lysosome.

    • D.

      Vesicle.

    Correct Answer
    C. Lysosome.
    Explanation
    A membrane-bound sac that contains digestive enzymes is called a lysosome. Lysosomes are organelles found in animal cells that function as the cell's recycling center. They break down various macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates, into smaller molecules that can be reused by the cell. The digestive enzymes within the lysosome are highly acidic and can break down a wide range of substances. Lysosomes also play a crucial role in the immune system by destroying foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses, engulfed by the cell.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following is a feature found only in plant cells?

    • A.

      Central vacuole

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Centriole

    Correct Answer
    A. Central vacuole
    Explanation
    The central vacuole is a feature found only in plant cells. It is a large, membrane-bound organelle that occupies a significant portion of the cell's volume. The central vacuole stores water, nutrients, and waste products, and also helps maintain turgor pressure, which is important for plant cell structure and support. In contrast, mitochondria, nucleus, and centriole are found in both plant and animal cells. Mitochondria are responsible for energy production, the nucleus contains the cell's genetic material, and centrioles play a role in cell division.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following is a feature found only in animal cells?

    • A.

      Central vacuole

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Centriole

    Correct Answer
    D. Centriole
    Explanation
    Centrioles are cylindrical structures found only in animal cells. They play a crucial role in cell division by organizing the microtubules that form the spindle apparatus. This helps in the separation of chromosomes during cell division. Plant cells do not contain centrioles, making it a feature exclusive to animal cells. The other options, such as central vacuole, mitochondria, and nucleus, are found in both animal and plant cells.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following is not found in a plant cell?

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Flagella

    Correct Answer
    D. Flagella
    Explanation
    Flagella are not found in plant cells. Flagella are whip-like structures that are responsible for cell movement. While flagella are present in many types of cells, including some bacteria and animal cells, they are not found in plant cells. Plant cells have cell walls, chloroplasts, and large central vacuoles, which are not mentioned in the question but are characteristic features of plant cells.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following is not found in a animal cell?

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Cell wall

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      Vacuole

    Correct Answer
    B. Cell wall
    Explanation
    The cell wall is not found in an animal cell. While both plant and bacterial cells have a cell wall, animal cells do not possess this feature. Animal cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane, which provides structure and protection to the cell. The cell wall, on the other hand, is a rigid layer found outside the plasma membrane in plant cells and some bacteria, providing additional support and protection.

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  • 46. 

    What structure is labeled A?

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Vacuole

    • D.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    Correct Answer
    A. Cell wall
    Explanation
    The structure labeled A is the cell wall. The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane in plant cells, fungi, and some bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, helping it maintain its shape and preventing it from bursting. The cell wall is made up of cellulose in plant cells and peptidoglycan in bacteria. Unlike the cell membrane, the cell wall is not selectively permeable and allows substances to pass through small channels called plasmodesmata.

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  • 47. 

    What structure is labeled B?

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Vacuole

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    D. Chloroplast
    Explanation
    The structure labeled B in the given options is the chloroplast. Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells that are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that captures sunlight and uses it to produce glucose and oxygen. This organelle is essential for the survival of plants and is not found in other types of cells.

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  • 48. 

    What structure is labeled C?

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Vacuole

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    C. Vacuole
    Explanation
    C is labeled as vacuole because vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of plants, fungi, and some protists. They are responsible for storing water, nutrients, and waste products. Vacuoles also play a role in maintaining the shape and structure of the cell, as well as regulating the cell's internal environment.

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  • 49. 

    What type of cell is this?

    • A.

      Bacterial cell

    • B.

      Animal cell

    • C.

      Prokaryote cell

    • D.

      Eukaryote cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Eukaryote cell
    Explanation
    This cell is classified as a eukaryote cell because it contains a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Eukaryote cells are found in organisms belonging to the domain Eukarya, which includes plants, animals, fungi, and protists. In contrast, prokaryote cells, such as bacterial cells, lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Animal cells are a type of eukaryote cell, but the question specifically asks for the type of cell, not the organism it belongs to.

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  • 50. 

    What structure is labeled A?

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Mitochondrion

    • C.

      Rough E.R.

    • D.

      Smooth E.R.

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The structure labeled A is the nucleus. The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains the cell's genetic material, including DNA, and is responsible for controlling the cell's activities by regulating gene expression. The nucleus is often referred to as the "control center" of the cell because it plays a crucial role in cell division, growth, and metabolism.

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