Research methods midterm exam

Questions and Answers

- 1.
### ________ is the process of selecting observations.

Explanation

Sampling is the process of selecting observations from a population or a sample space to gather data and make inferences about the entire population. It involves choosing a subset of individuals or elements that are representative of the larger group. This method is used in various fields such as research, statistics, and market analysis to make accurate predictions and generalizations about a population based on a smaller sample.Rate this question:

- 2.
### _______ is the quality of a sample having the same distribution of characteristics as the population from which it was selected.

Explanation

Representativeness refers to the quality of a sample being a true reflection of the population it was drawn from. In other words, a representative sample accurately represents the characteristics and distribution of the larger population. This means that the sample should include individuals or elements that are similar to the population in terms of relevant characteristics, such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, or any other factors that are important to the study. A representative sample is crucial for making valid inferences and generalizations about the population as a whole.Rate this question:

- 3.
### ________ is the quality of a research finding that justifies the inference that is represents something more than the specific observations on which it was based.

Explanation

Generalizability refers to the extent to which research findings can be applied to a larger population or context beyond the specific observations on which they were based. It is the quality that allows researchers to draw broader inferences and conclusions from their study, suggesting that the findings have relevance and applicability beyond the immediate sample or situation. In other words, generalizability indicates that the research findings can be extended to other similar settings or groups, increasing the external validity of the study.Rate this question:

- 4.
### ______ is the unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis for analysis.

Explanation

The unit about which information is collected and that provides the basis for analysis is called an "element". This term refers to the specific object, entity, or component that is being studied or analyzed. It could be a person, an item, a variable, or any other distinct unit that is of interest in the context of the analysis. By collecting information about these elements, researchers or analysts can gain insights, identify patterns, and draw conclusions based on the data collected.Rate this question:

- 5.
### A ________ ________is the list or quasi-list of units that compose a population from which a sample is selected.

Explanation

A sampling frame is a comprehensive list or quasi-list of all the units that make up a population, from which a sample is chosen. It serves as a reference or inventory of all the potential individuals or elements that can be included in the sample. The sampling frame ensures that every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample, and it helps in minimizing bias and ensuring the representativeness of the sample.Rate this question:

- 6.
### ______ is the theoretically specified aggregation of study elements.

Explanation

Population refers to the entire group of individuals or objects that the researcher wants to study and make inferences about. It is the complete set of elements that meet certain criteria and are of interest to the researcher. In research, the population is the theoretically specified aggregation of study elements from which a sample is drawn to represent the larger group.Rate this question:

- 7.
### _________ __________is the sampling method that typically involved some random-selection mechanism based on probability theory.

Explanation

Probability sampling is a sampling method that involves a random-selection mechanism based on probability theory. This means that every member of the population has a known and non-zero chance of being selected for the sample. This method ensures that the sample is representative of the population, as each member has an equal opportunity to be chosen. By using probability sampling, researchers can make valid inferences about the entire population based on the characteristics observed in the sample.Rate this question:

- 8.
### _________ ___________ is a probability sampling procedure in which each element has an equal chance of selection independent of any other event in the selection process.

Explanation

Random selection is a probability sampling procedure where each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected, regardless of any other factors or events in the selection process. This means that every individual or item in the population has an unbiased and fair opportunity to be chosen, ensuring that the sample represents the population accurately. Random selection helps to minimize bias and increase the generalizability of the findings to the entire population.Rate this question:

- 9.
### A ________ is the summary description of a given variable in a population.

Explanation

A parameter is a summary description of a given variable in a population. It represents a characteristic or attribute of the entire population rather than just a sample. Parameters are used in statistical analysis to make inferences and draw conclusions about the population based on the available data.Rate this question:

- 10.
### ________ _________, even if never perfectly representative, are typically more representative than other types of samples because of the avoidance of sampling biases.

Explanation

Probability samples, even if never perfectly representative, are typically more representative than other types of samples because of the avoidance of sampling biases. This means that probability samples are selected in a way that every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. This helps to minimize the potential for bias and ensures that the sample is more likely to accurately reflect the characteristics of the population being studied.Rate this question:

- 11.
### ________ _________ ___________ is a type of probability sample in which units that compose a population are assigned numbers.

Explanation

Simple random sampling is a type of probability sample where each unit in a population is assigned a number. This allows for equal chances of selection for each unit, ensuring a representative sample. It is a straightforward and unbiased method of sampling that is commonly used in research studies and surveys.Rate this question:

- 12.
### _________ ___________ is a type of probability sample in which every

*k*th unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample.Explanation

Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling where every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample. This method involves selecting a random starting point in the list and then selecting every kth unit thereafter. This ensures that the sample is representative of the population and reduces the potential for bias. Systematic sampling is often used when the list of units is ordered in a specific way, such as by date or alphabetical order.Rate this question:

- 13.
### ________ _________ is the standard distance between elements selected in the sample.

Explanation

The sampling interval refers to the standard distance between elements selected in the sample. It is the predetermined gap or interval that is used to select sample units from a population. This interval ensures that the sample is representative of the population and helps to avoid bias in the selection process. By using a consistent sampling interval, researchers can ensure that each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the sample.Rate this question:

- 14.
### __________ ___________is a probability sampling procedure that uses stratification to ensure that appropriate numbers of elements are drawn from homogeneous subsets of that population.

Explanation

Stratified sampling is a probability sampling procedure that divides a population into homogeneous subsets called strata. This technique ensures that an appropriate number of elements are drawn from each stratum, based on their proportion in the population. By doing so, stratified sampling allows for a more accurate representation of the population and reduces sampling bias.Rate this question:

- 15.
### _________ ______________ ____________is a sampling method aimed at ensuring that enough cases of certain minority groups are selected to allow for subgroup comparisons within each of these minority groups.

Explanation

Disproportionate stratified sampling is a sampling method that focuses on selecting enough cases from specific minority groups to enable subgroup comparisons within each of these groups. This technique ensures that the sample is representative of the population and allows for a more accurate analysis of the characteristics and behaviors of these minority groups. By intentionally over-sampling certain minority groups, disproportionate stratified sampling provides a more comprehensive understanding of their unique characteristics and allows for meaningful comparisons within these groups.Rate this question:

- 16.
### _________ is a procedure employed in connection with sampling whereby units selected with unequal probabilities are assigned weights in such a manner to make the sample representative of the population from which it was selected.

Explanation

Weighting is a procedure used in sampling to assign different weights to units selected with unequal probabilities. This ensures that the sample accurately represents the population from which it was selected. By assigning weights, the units with higher probabilities of being selected are given more influence in the analysis, while units with lower probabilities have less influence. This helps to account for any biases or variations in the sampling process, allowing for a more accurate representation of the population.Rate this question:

- 17.
### __________ _____________is a multi-stage sampling procedure in which natural groups (clusters) are sampled initially, with the members of each selected group being subsampled afterward.

Explanation

Cluster sampling is a multi-stage sampling procedure where natural groups or clusters are initially sampled, and then members within each selected cluster are subsampled. This method is commonly used when it is difficult or impractical to sample individuals directly, such as when the population is geographically dispersed or when there is a lack of a comprehensive sampling frame. By selecting clusters and then subsampling within them, cluster sampling can provide a representative sample of the population while also being more cost-effective and logistically feasible.Rate this question:

- 18.
### ________ _________is also referred to as convenience sampling.

Explanation

Availability sampling is a type of sampling technique where the researcher selects participants based on their availability and accessibility. It is also known as convenience sampling because it is convenient and easy to access individuals who are readily available. This method is often used when it is difficult to reach a large and diverse population or when time and resources are limited. The researcher may choose participants who are easily accessible, such as friends, family members, or individuals in close proximity. However, it is important to note that availability sampling may introduce bias and may not represent the entire population accurately.Rate this question:

- 19.
### ________ _________is a type of sampling in which units are selected into the sample on the basis of prespecified characteristics so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics as are assumed to exist in the population being studied.

Explanation

Quota sampling is a type of sampling where units are selected into the sample based on pre-determined characteristics. This ensures that the sample reflects the same distribution of characteristics as assumed to exist in the population being studied. In quota sampling, the researcher sets quotas for each characteristic (such as age, gender, or income level) and selects participants who meet those quotas until the desired sample size is reached. This method allows for a more representative sample and helps to ensure that the sample accurately reflects the population being studied.Rate this question:

- 20.
### In practice, there is greater likelihood that a _________ sample will be representative of the population from which it is drawn than will a _________ sample.

Explanation

A probability sample is more likely to be representative of the population because it is based on random selection, ensuring that each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. On the other hand, a nonprobability sample does not involve random selection and may be biased, as certain individuals or groups may be overrepresented or underrepresented. Therefore, a probability sample is generally considered more reliable and accurate in reflecting the characteristics of the population.Rate this question:

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