1.
What does a p-value indicate in statistical tests?
Correct Answer
C. Statistical significance
Explanation
A p-value in statistical tests measures the probability that the observed results are due to chance if the null hypothesis is true. A small p-value, typically less than 0.05, suggests that the observed data are unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, thus indicating significant evidence against the null hypothesis. This helps researchers decide whether to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative, implying that the observed effects are statistically significant and not due to random variation in the data.
2.
Which measure assesses central tendency?
Correct Answer
A. Median
Explanation
The median is a measure of central tendency, which represents the middle value in a data set when the values are arranged in order. Unlike the mean, the median is not skewed by extremely high or low values, making it a better measure of central tendency for skewed distributions. It effectively splits the dataset into two equal parts, where half the numbers are lower than the median and half are higher, providing a clear central point in the distribution of data.
3.
What test compares the means of two independent groups?
Correct Answer
C. T-test
Explanation
A T-test is a statistical test that compares the means of two independent groups to determine if there is a statistically significant difference between them. It is useful when dealing with small sample sizes or when the population standard deviation is unknown. The test calculates the probability that the difference between the group means is due to random chance, helping researchers to ascertain the impact of interventions or differences between groups in an experimental study.
4.
Which correlation coefficient indicates the strongest relationship?
Correct Answer
D. 1
Explanation
A correlation coefficient of 0.9 indicates a very strong positive relationship between two variables, meaning as one variable increases, the other also increases in a proportionally similar manner. The coefficient ranges from -1 to 1, where 1 is a perfect positive correlation, -1 is a perfect negative correlation, and 0 indicates no correlation. A value of 0.9 is close to 1, showing that the variables move together very closely, which is crucial for predicting one variable based on the other.
5.
What does 'ANOVA' stand for?
Correct Answer
C. Analysis of Variance
Explanation
ANOVA, or Analysis of Variance, is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more independent groups to find out if at least one group mean is significantly different from the others. It generalizes the T-test to more than two groups. By analyzing variance, it assesses whether the means of the groups are from the same population or not. This is particularly useful in experiments where multiple groups are subjected to different treatments.
6.
What type of data is used in quantitative research?
Correct Answer
C. Numerical
Explanation
Numerical data, also known as quantitative data, are data in the form of numbers. This type of data is used in quantitative research to quantify the behavior, opinions, or characteristics of subjects under study. It allows for precise measurement and statistical analysis to determine patterns, averages, predictions, and other quantifiable results that support a broader generalization of the population sample.
7.
Which term describes the likelihood of type I error?
Correct Answer
B. Significance level
Explanation
The significance level, often denoted as alpha, represents the probability threshold below which the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. It defines the risk of committing a Type I error â€” rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true. A common significance level used is 0.05, indicating a 5% risk that the observed effects are due to random chance rather than a real effect.
8.
What is the range of values for a correlation coefficient?
Correct Answer
B. -1 to 1
Explanation
A correlation coefficient can range from -1 to 1. This range quantifies the direction and strength of a linear relationship between two variables. A value of -1 signifies a perfect negative correlation, where one variable decreases as the other increases. A value of 1 indicates a perfect positive correlation, where both variables move in the same direction. A value of 0 means there is no linear correlation between the variables.
9.
Which graph is best for categorical data?
Correct Answer
C. Bar chart
Explanation
A bar chart is the best tool for representing categorical data because it displays data with rectangular bars whose lengths are proportional to the values they represent. It allows for easy comparison across different categories, making it clear to see which categories are more significant or less significant based on the metric being measured.
10.
What statistical method identifies clusters of similar cases?
Correct Answer
C. Cluster analysis
Explanation
Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group are more similar to each other than to those in other groups. It is often used in exploratory data analysis to identify structures within data without having prior knowledge of the group definitions. Itâ€™s widely used in various applications, including market research, pattern recognition, data analysis, and image processing.