Pharmacology- Endocrine: Diabetes Treatment

39 Questions | Total Attempts: 94

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Pharmacology- Endocrine: Diabetes Treatment

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    ______________ is considered First line agent for Diabetes unless contraindicated
    • A. 

      Thiazolidinediones

    • B. 

      Biguanides

    • C. 

      DPP‐4 inhibitors

    • D. 

      Meglitinides

  • 2. 
    What is the Mechanism of action of Biguanides (Metformin)? 
    • A. 

      Decreases hepatic glucose production, increases insulin-mediated peripheral glucose uptake (Reduce the production of glucose by liver )

    • B. 

      Stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin

    • C. 

      Increase insulin sensitivity of the body cells and reduce the production of glucose by the liver

    • D. 

      Reduce production of glucose by the liver and increase insulin sensitivity

  • 3. 
    What is the MOA of Sulfonylureas?
    • A. 

      Decreases hepatic glucose production, increases insulin-mediated peripheral glucose uptake.

    • B. 

      Increased endogenous insulin secretion by binding to receptors on pancreatic beta cells, triggering a series of reactions which leads to insulin secretion (Stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin)

    • C. 

      Decrease insulin resistance via increasing muscle and adipose cell sensitivity to insulin, & suppresses hepatic glucose production

    • D. 

      Stimulate insulin secretion (rapidly and for a short duration) most effective in the presence of glucose

  • 4. 
    What is the MOA of Meglitinides? 
    • A. 

      Decreases hepatic glucose production, increases insulin-mediated peripheral glucose uptake.

    • B. 

      Increased endogenous insulin secretion by binding to receptors on pancreatic beta cells, triggering a series of reactions which leads to insulin secretion (Stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin)

    • C. 

      Stimulate insulin secretion (rapidly and for a short duration) most effective in the presence of glucose

    • D. 

      Slow the absorption of carbohydrates (sugar) ingested, decrease PP hyperglycemia

  • 5. 
    What is the MOA of Thiazolidinediones?
    • A. 

      Decreases hepatic glucose production, increases insulin-mediated peripheral glucose uptake.

    • B. 

      Increased endogenous insulin secretion by binding to receptors on pancreatic beta cells, triggering a series of reactions which leads to insulin secretion (Stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin)

    • C. 

      Intensify the effect of intestinal hormones (incretins) involved in the control of blood sugar, increase insulin release/synthesis, decrease glucagon levels

    • D. 

      Decrease insulin resistance via increasing muscle and adipose cell sensitivity to insulin, & suppresses hepatic glucose production

  • 6. 
    What is the MOA of  Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP‐4 inhibitors)?
    • A. 

      Inhibits Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4, slows incretin metabolism, increase insulin synthesis/release and decrease glucagon levels

    • B. 

      Inhibits breakdown of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted during meals, increase insulin release/synthesis, decrease glucagon levels

    • C. 

      Block enzymes that digest starches in the small intestine→ slows glucose absorption, decrease PP hyperglycemia

    • D. 

      Decrease insulin resistance via increasing muscle and adipose cell sensitivity to insulin, & suppresses hepatic glucose production

  • 7. 
    What is the MOA of  Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP‐1) receptor agonists
    • A. 

      Increase insulin sensitivity of the body cells and reduce the production of glucose by the liver

    • B. 

      Inhibits breakdown of glucagon-like peptide-1 secreted during meals, increase insulin release/synthesis, decrease glucagon levels

    • C. 

      Slow the absorption of carbohydrates (sugar) ingested, decrease PP hyperglycemia

    • D. 

      Bile acid binder, decrease glucose via unknown mechanisms

  • 8. 
    What is the MOA of Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors?
    • A. 

      Increase insulin sensitivity of the body cells and reduce the production of glucose by the liver

    • B. 

      Intensify the effect of intestinal hormones (incretins) involved in the control of blood sugar, increase insulin release/synthesis, decrease glucagon levels

    • C. 

      Reduce production of glucose by the liver and increase insulin sensitivity

    • D. 

      Block enzymes that digest starches in the small intestine→ slows glucose absorption, decrease PP hyperglycemia

  • 9. 
    What is the MOA of Bile acid sequestrants? 
    • A. 

      Reduce production of glucose by the liver and increase insulin sensitivity

    • B. 

      Stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin

    • C. 

      Bile acid binder, decrease glucose via unknown mechanisms

    • D. 

      Binds to amylin receptors slows gastric emptying

  • 10. 
    What is the MOA of Amylin Analogs? 
    • A. 

      Slow the absorption of carbohydrates (sugar) ingested, decrease PP hyperglycemia

    • B. 

      Stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin

    • C. 

      Binds to amylin receptors slows gastric emptying

    • D. 

      Increase insulin sensitivity of the body cells and reduce the production of glucose by the liver

  • 11. 
    Which Diabetic medication has the following side effects: Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, Lactic acidosis
    • A. 

      Glyburide

    • B. 

      Metformin

    • C. 

      Prandin

    • D. 

      Januvia

  • 12. 
    This class of diabetic medication is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal function and needs to be held 24 hrs before and 48 hrs post IV dye load, choose one. 
    • A. 

      Sulfonylureas

    • B. 

      Meglitinides

    • C. 

      Biguanides

    • D. 

      Thiazolidinediones

  • 13. 
    This class of Diabetic medication is contraindicated if a person has an allergy to Sulfa drugs 
    • A. 

      Thiazolidinediones

    • B. 

      Sulfonylureas

    • C. 

      Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

    • D. 

      Biguanides

  • 14. 
    What diabetic medication is contraindicated in patients with CHF, causing weight gain and edema? 
    • A. 

      Biguanides (metformin)

    • B. 

      Thiazolidinediones (TZDs)

    • C. 

      Meglitinides

    • D. 

      Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

  • 15. 
    What medication is most effective in the presence of glucose and depends on glucose for activity? 
    • A. 

      Biguanides (metformin)

    • B. 

      Sulfonylureas

    • C. 

      Amylin mimetics

    • D. 

      Meglitinides

  • 16. 
    Select all: What medications decreased peak postprandial glucose  
    • A. 

      Meglitinides

    • B. 

      Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors

    • C. 

      Thiazolidinediones

    • D. 

      Biguanides

  • 17. 
    What medication is contraindicated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or cirrhosis? 
    • A. 

      Biguanides

    • B. 

      Bile acid sequestrants

    • C. 

      Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors

    • D. 

      GLP‐1 receptor agonists

  • 18. 
    Which diabetic medication suppresses glucagon secretion and Delays gastric emptying, which promotes satiety? 
    • A. 

      Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors

    • B. 

      Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

    • C. 

      Bile acid sequestrants

    • D. 

      Amylin Analogs

  • 19. 
    Which diabetic medication has a lower risk of hypoglycemia but causes pancreatitis, N/V, angioedema, anaphylaxis and has a caution for renal insufficiency patients?
    • A. 

      Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Agonists

    • B. 

      Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

    • C. 

      Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors

    • D. 

      Bile acid sequestrants

  • 20. 
    Which medication has a lower risk of hypoglycemia, causes weight loss, GI symptoms, Pancreatitis and is cautioned in patients with renal dysfunction and gastroparesis? 
    • A. 

      Thiazolidinediones:

    • B. 

      Meglitinides

    • C. 

      Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

    • D. 

      Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Agonists

  • 21. 
    Which medication causes GU infections, Weight loss, Polyuria, and increase LDL? 
    • A. 

      SGLT2 Inhibitors

    • B. 

      Amylin Analogs

    • C. 

      DPP‐4 inhibitors

    • D. 

      Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

  • 22. 
    Which medication used in both Type 1 and insulin dependent Type II DM and should be given via subcut injection – immediately prior to meals? 
    • A. 

      Thiazolidinediones

    • B. 

      Amylin Analogs

    • C. 

      DPP‐4 inhibitors

    • D. 

      Biguanides

  • 23. 
    What medication has a HIGHER risk of hypoglycemia, causes a headache, nausea, cough, and has a caution in gastroparesis?  
    • A. 

      Amylin Analogs

    • B. 

      TZDs

    • C. 

      Bile acid sequestrants:

    • D. 

      Meglitinides

  • 24. 
    What drug class causes constipation, indigestion, flatulence, hypersensitivity reactions possible dysphagia and can exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia? 
    • A. 

      Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

    • B. 

      Meglitinides:

    • C. 

      Bile Acid Sequestrants

    • D. 

      Amylin Analogs

  • 25. 
    Select all: What are the adverse drug reactions and cautions of Sulfonylureas? 
    • A. 

      Weight gain

    • B. 

      HTN

    • C. 

      Rash

    • D. 

      Photosensitivity

    • E. 

      Gastroparesis

    • F. 

      Hepatic impairment

    • G. 

      Renal impairment

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