Pharmacology Chapter 20/ Cholinergic Drugs

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Pharmacology Chapter 20/ Cholinergic Drugs - Quiz

In today’s quiz about the topic of pharmacology – the branch of medicine that concerns itself with drugs – we’ll be looking at cholinergic drugs, which are relative to nerve cells in which acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter. What do you know?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The neurotransmitter responsible for transmission of nerve impulses to effector cells in the parasymapthetic nervous system.

    Explanation
    Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter responsible for transmitting nerve impulses to effector cells in the parasympathetic nervous system. It is released by parasympathetic neurons and binds to receptors on target cells, causing a response. Acetylcholine plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including digestion, heart rate, and glandular secretions. It is also involved in the relaxation of smooth muscles and the constriction of pupils. Overall, acetylcholine acts as a chemical messenger that helps coordinate the parasympathetic nervous system's activities.

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  • 2. 

    Lack of normal muscle tone

    Explanation
    Atony refers to a lack of normal muscle tone. It is a condition characterized by weakened or relaxed muscles, leading to a loss of strength and control. This can occur in various parts of the body, such as the muscles of the stomach, bladder, or uterus. Atony can result from various factors, including nerve damage, hormonal imbalances, or muscle disorders. It can lead to symptoms like muscle weakness, difficulty in movement, or problems with organ function.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following are are a class of drugs that stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system.

    • A.

      Sympathomimetics

    • B.

      Parasympathomimetics

    • C.

      Cholinergic drugs

    • D.

      Cholinergic agonists

    • E.

      Sympothylotics

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Parasympathomimetics
    C. Cholinergic drugs
    D. Cholinergic agonists
    Explanation
    Parasympathomimetics, cholinergic drugs, and cholinergic agonists are all correct answers because they refer to a class of drugs that stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. These drugs mimic the effects of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, leading to increased activity in the parasympathetic nervous system. This can result in various effects such as increased gastrointestinal motility, pupillary constriction, and bronchoconstriction.

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  • 4. 

    A __________ receptor binds actetylcholine and mediates its acitons.

    Correct Answer(s)
    cholinergic
    Explanation
    A cholinergic receptor is a type of receptor that specifically binds to acetylcholine and facilitates its actions. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in various physiological processes within the body, including muscle contraction, memory, and cognition. Cholinergic receptors are found in the central and peripheral nervous systems and are classified into two types: nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. Activation of these receptors by acetylcholine leads to the transmission of signals between nerve cells and the subsequent physiological responses associated with acetylcholine. Therefore, the correct answer is cholinergic.

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  • 5. 

    ________- acting drugs work by inhibiting the action of acetylcholinesterase

    Correct Answer(s)
    indirect
    Explanation
    Indirect-acting drugs are a type of medication that work by inhibiting the action of acetylcholinesterase. Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in various functions including muscle movement and cognitive processes. By inhibiting the action of acetylcholinesterase, indirect-acting drugs increase the levels of acetylcholine in the body, leading to enhanced cholinergic activity. This can be beneficial in certain conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, where there is a decrease in acetylcholine levels.

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  • 6. 

    Muscarinic receptors are stimulated by ________, a substance isolated from mushrooms.

    • A.

      Muscarine

    • B.

      Acetylcholine

    • C.

      Dopamine

    • D.

      Nicotine

    Correct Answer
    A. Muscarine
    Explanation
    Muscarinic receptors are a type of receptor found in the nervous system that are specifically stimulated by muscarine, a substance isolated from mushrooms. Muscarine is a natural compound that acts as a non-selective agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It binds to these receptors, leading to various physiological responses in the body. Acetylcholine, dopamine, and nicotine are not specifically known to stimulate muscarinic receptors, making muscarine the correct answer.

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  • 7. 

    Indirect acting cholinergic drugs are also know as cholinesterase ________

    Correct Answer
    inhibitors
    Explanation
    Indirect acting cholinergic drugs, such as neostigmine or physostigmine, work by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in various functions including muscle movement and cognition. By inhibiting cholinesterase, these drugs increase the levels of acetylcholine in the body, leading to enhanced cholinergic activity. Therefore, the correct term to describe these drugs is "inhibitors."

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  • 8. 

    When acetylcholine directly binds to its receptor, _______ occurs.

    Correct Answer
    stimulation
    Explanation
    When acetylcholine directly binds to its receptor, stimulation occurs. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in transmitting signals in the nervous system. When it binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of biochemical reactions that lead to the activation of the receptor and the subsequent transmission of signals. This stimulation can result in various physiological responses, such as muscle contraction, glandular secretion, or nerve impulse propagation.

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  • 9. 

    Cholinergic drugs ___________ the intestine and bladder, which results in _________ gastric secretions, GI motility, and urinary ________.

    • A.

      Stimulate, increased, frequency

    • B.

      Inhibit, decreased, retention

    • C.

      Stimulate, decreased, frequency

    • D.

      Inhibit, increased, retention

    Correct Answer
    A. Stimulate, increased, frequency
    Explanation
    Cholinergic drugs stimulate the intestine and bladder, which results in increased gastric secretions, GI motility, and urinary frequency.

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  • 10. 

    Constriction of the pupil.

    Correct Answer
    miosis
    Explanation
    Miosis refers to the constriction of the pupil, which is the opening in the center of the iris that allows light to enter the eye. When the pupil constricts, it becomes smaller in size. This can happen due to various reasons, such as exposure to bright light, certain medications, or certain medical conditions. Miosis helps to regulate the amount of light that enters the eye, protecting it from excessive brightness. Therefore, miosis is the correct term for the constriction of the pupil.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is an effect of cholinergic drugs.

    • A.

      Increased salivation and sweating

    • B.

      Reduced heart rate and vasodilation

    • C.

      Constriction of the bronchi in the lungs and narrowing of airways

    • D.

      Stimulation of the intestine and bladder.

    • E.

      Mydriasis

    • F.

      Decreased salivation and sweating

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increased salivation and sweating
    B. Reduced heart rate and vasodilation
    C. Constriction of the bronchi in the lungs and narrowing of airways
    D. Stimulation of the intestine and bladder.
    Explanation
    Cholinergic drugs activate the parasympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for rest and digestion. This activation leads to various effects such as increased salivation and sweating, reduced heart rate and vasodilation (widening of blood vessels), constriction of the bronchi in the lungs and narrowing of airways, and stimulation of the intestine and bladder. These effects are characteristic of cholinergic drugs and are a result of the increased release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in the parasympathetic response. Mydriasis (dilation of the pupils) is not an effect of cholinergic drugs, and decreased salivation and sweating are also not expected.

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  • 12. 

    Which cholinergic receptors are stimulated with high dosages of cholinergic drugs and cause many of the undesirable effects.

    Correct Answer(s)
    nicotinic, nicotinic receptors
    Explanation
    High dosages of cholinergic drugs stimulate nicotinic receptors, which are cholinergic receptors. These receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and play a role in various physiological processes. When stimulated with high dosages of cholinergic drugs, these receptors can cause many undesirable effects, such as muscle twitching, tremors, increased heart rate, and increased blood pressure.

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  • 13. 

    Oral direct acting drug that is used to treat atony of the bladder and GI tract.

    • A.

      Bethanechol

    • B.

      Carbachol

    • C.

      Donepezil

    • D.

      Physostigmine

    Correct Answer
    A. Bethanechol
    Explanation
    Bethanechol is a direct-acting drug that is used to treat atony of the bladder and GI tract. It works by stimulating the muscarinic receptors in the smooth muscles of the bladder and GI tract, leading to increased muscle tone and improved muscle contractions. This helps to relieve symptoms such as urinary retention and constipation. Carbachol is also a direct-acting muscarinic agonist, but it is primarily used as an ophthalmic solution to lower intraocular pressure. Donepezil is a cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and physostigmine is a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of anticholinergic toxicity.

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  • 14. 

    The following are indications for use of indirect-acting cholinergic drugs.

    • A.

      Myasthenia gravis

    • B.

      Antidote for anticholinergic poisoning

    • C.

      Alzheimers disease

    • D.

      Atony of the bladder and GI tract

    • E.

      Reduction of intraocular pressure in patient's with glaucoma

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Myasthenia gravis
    B. Antidote for anticholinergic poisoning
    C. Alzheimers disease
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes myasthenia gravis, antidote for anticholinergic poisoning, and Alzheimer's disease. These are all conditions or situations where indirect-acting cholinergic drugs can be used. In myasthenia gravis, these drugs help to improve muscle strength and function. In antidote for anticholinergic poisoning, they can counteract the effects of anticholinergic drugs. In Alzheimer's disease, cholinergic drugs can help improve cognitive function.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following are cardiovascular adverse effects of cholinergenic drugs

    • A.

      Bradycardia

    • B.

      Tachycardia

    • C.

      Hypotension

    • D.

      Hypertension

    • E.

      Syncope

    • F.

      Conduction abnormalities

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Bradycardia
    B. Tachycardia
    C. Hypotension
    D. Hypertension
    E. Syncope
    F. Conduction abnormalities
    Explanation
    Cholinergic drugs can affect the cardiovascular system in various ways. Bradycardia refers to a slower heart rate, which can be a side effect of cholinergic drug use. Tachycardia, on the other hand, refers to a faster heart rate, which can also occur as a result of cholinergic drug administration. Hypotension refers to low blood pressure, which can be caused by cholinergic drugs. Conversely, hypertension, or high blood pressure, can also be a cardiovascular adverse effect of these drugs. Syncope, or fainting, can occur due to the cardiovascular effects of cholinergic drugs. Lastly, cholinergenic drugs can cause conduction abnormalities, disrupting the normal electrical signals in the heart.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following are CNS adverse effects of cholinergic drugs

    • A.

      Headaches

    • B.

      Dizziness

    • C.

      Convulsions

    • D.

      Ataxia

    • E.

      Depression

    • F.

      Anxiety

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Headaches
    B. Dizziness
    C. Convulsions
    D. Ataxia
    Explanation
    The CNS adverse effects of cholinergic drugs include headaches, dizziness, convulsions, and ataxia. These symptoms are commonly observed when cholinergic drugs overstimulate the central nervous system. The excessive activation of cholinergic receptors can lead to increased neuronal activity, resulting in headaches and dizziness. In severe cases, convulsions may occur, which are involuntary muscle contractions. Ataxia, characterized by a lack of coordination and balance, can also be a CNS adverse effect of cholinergic drugs.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following are GI adverse effects of cholinergic drugs

    • A.

      Abdominal cramps

    • B.

      Increased secretions

    • C.

      Nausea and vomiting

    • D.

      Constipation

    • E.

      Diarrhea

    • F.

      Anorexia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Abdominal cramps
    B. Increased secretions
    C. Nausea and vomiting
    E. Diarrhea
    Explanation
    Cholinergic drugs can cause gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects. Abdominal cramps, increased secretions, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea are all common GI adverse effects associated with the use of cholinergic drugs. These drugs can stimulate the muscles in the GI tract, leading to increased contractions and potentially causing abdominal cramps. Increased secretions can occur in the salivary glands, respiratory tract, and GI tract, leading to symptoms such as excessive saliva production and increased mucus production. Nausea and vomiting can occur as a result of increased GI motility and stimulation of the vomiting center in the brain. Diarrhea can also result from increased GI motility and fluid secretion.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following are respiratory adverse effects of cholinergic drugs

    • A.

      Increased bronchial secretions

    • B.

      Bronchospasm

    • C.

      Cough

    • D.

      Dyspnea

    • E.

      Bronchitis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increased bronchial secretions
    B. Bronchospasm
    Explanation
    Cholinergic drugs can cause respiratory adverse effects such as increased bronchial secretions and bronchospasm. Increased bronchial secretions refer to an excessive production of mucus in the airways, which can lead to congestion and difficulty in breathing. Bronchospasm, on the other hand, is the sudden constriction of the muscles surrounding the airways, causing them to narrow and making it harder to breathe. These adverse effects can be problematic for individuals with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following miscellaneous adverse effects of cholinergic drugs

    • A.

      Lacrimation

    • B.

      Sweating

    • C.

      Salivation

    • D.

      Miosis

    • E.

      Mydriasis

    • F.

      Dehydration

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Lacrimation
    B. Sweating
    C. Salivation
    D. Miosis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is lacrimation, sweating, salivation, and miosis. These are all miscellaneous adverse effects of cholinergic drugs. Cholinergic drugs stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system, which can lead to increased tear production (lacrimation), excessive sweating (sweating), increased saliva production (salivation), and constriction of the pupil (miosis). These effects can be unwanted and may cause discomfort or other complications in patients taking cholinergic drugs.

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  • 20. 

    Contraindications for cholinergic drugs include

    • A.

      GI or GU tract obstruction

    • B.

      Bradycardia

    • C.

      Hyperthyroidism

    • D.

      Epilepsy

    • E.

      Hypotension

    • F.

      COPD

    • G.

      Alzheimers disease

    • H.

      Glaucoma

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. GI or GU tract obstruction
    B. Bradycardia
    C. Hyperthyroidism
    D. Epilepsy
    E. Hypotension
    F. COPD
    Explanation
    Cholinergic drugs stimulate the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, which can have various effects on the body. However, in certain conditions, the use of cholinergic drugs can be contraindicated. GI or GU tract obstruction is a contraindication because cholinergic drugs can increase the smooth muscle contractions in these areas, potentially worsening the obstruction. Bradycardia, or a slow heart rate, is a contraindication because cholinergic drugs can further decrease heart rate, potentially leading to cardiovascular complications. Hyperthyroidism is a contraindication because cholinergic drugs can increase thyroid hormone release, exacerbating the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Epilepsy is a contraindication because cholinergic drugs can increase neuronal excitability, potentially triggering seizures. Hypotension is a contraindication because cholinergic drugs can further decrease blood pressure. COPD is a contraindication because cholinergic drugs can cause bronchoconstriction, worsening breathing difficulties. Alzheimer's disease is not mentioned as a contraindication for cholinergic drugs. Glaucoma is a contraindication because cholinergic drugs can increase intraocular pressure, potentially damaging the optic nerve.

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  • 21. 

    Antidote for cholinergic drugs

    Correct Answer(s)
    atropine
    Explanation
    Atropine is the antidote for cholinergic drugs. Cholinergic drugs work by stimulating the cholinergic receptors in the body, which can lead to excessive stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. Atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, blocks the effects of acetylcholine at these receptors, effectively reversing the effects of cholinergic drug overdose or toxicity. It helps to counteract symptoms such as excessive salivation, sweating, bronchoconstriction, and bradycardia that can occur with cholinergic drug poisoning.

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  • 22. 

    What does SLUDGE stand for?

    Correct Answer(s)
    salivation, lacrimation, urinary incontinence, diarrhea, GI cramps, emesis
    Explanation
    SLUDGE is an acronym used in healthcare to remember the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning. Each letter represents a different symptom: salivation, lacrimation (excessive tearing), urinary incontinence, diarrhea, GI cramps, and emesis (vomiting). These symptoms are commonly seen in patients who have been exposed to certain pesticides or nerve agents. By remembering the acronym SLUDGE, healthcare professionals can quickly recognize and treat organophosphate poisoning.

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  • 23. 

    What is the acronym for the effects of a cholinergic crises?

    Correct Answer(s)
    SLUDGE
    Explanation
    SLUDGE is an acronym used to describe the effects of a cholinergic crisis. It stands for Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Diarrhea, Gastrointestinal distress, and Emesis. These symptoms occur due to excessive stimulation of the cholinergic receptors in the body, leading to increased secretion of saliva and tears, frequent urination and diarrhea, gastrointestinal discomfort, and vomiting. SLUDGE can be observed in conditions such as organophosphate poisoning or myasthenia gravis exacerbation, where there is an overactivation of the cholinergic system.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following drugs may antagonize the use of cholinergic drugs?

    • A.

      Anticholinergics

    • B.

      Antihistamines

    • C.

      Sympathomimetics

    • D.

      Sympalyotics

    • E.

      MAOIs

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Anticholinergics
    B. Antihistamines
    C. Sympathomimetics
    Explanation
    Anticholinergics, antihistamines, and sympathomimetics may antagonize the use of cholinergic drugs. Anticholinergics block the action of acetylcholine, which is the neurotransmitter involved in cholinergic signaling. Antihistamines can also have anticholinergic effects, blocking the action of acetylcholine. Sympathomimetics stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the fight-or-flight response, and can counteract the effects of cholinergic drugs.

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  • 25. 

    The nurse is reviewing the use of bethanechol in a patient who is experiencing postoperative urinary retention. Which statement best describes the mechanism of action of bethanechol?

    • A.

      It caused decreased bladder tone and motility

    • B.

      It causes increased bladder tone and motility

    • C.

      It increases the sensation of a full bladder

    • D.

      In causes the sphincters in the bladder to become tighter

    Correct Answer
    B. It causes increased bladder tone and motility
    Explanation
    Bethanechol is a cholinergic medication that stimulates the muscarinic receptors in the bladder, leading to increased bladder tone and motility. This helps in relieving urinary retention by promoting the contraction of the bladder muscles and facilitating urine flow.

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  • 26. 

    The family of a patient who has recently been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease is asking abou the new drug prescribed to treat this disease. The patient's wife says, "I'm so excited that there are drugs that can cure this disease! I can't wait for him to start treatment." Which reply from the nurse is appropriate?

    • A.

      "The sooner he starts the medicine, the sooner it can have this effect."

    • B.

      "These effects won't be seen for a few months."

    • C.

      "These drugs do not cure Alzheimer's disease. Let's talk abou what the physician said to expect with this drug therapy."

    • D.

      "His response to this drug therapy will depend on how far along he is in the disease process,"

    Correct Answer
    C. "These drugs do not cure Alzheimer's disease. Let's talk abou what the physician said to expect with this drug therapy."
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "These drugs do not cure Alzheimer's disease. Let's talk about what the physician said to expect with this drug therapy." This response is appropriate because it provides accurate information to the patient's wife and addresses her misconception that the drugs can cure the disease. It also suggests discussing the expectations and potential benefits of the drug therapy as outlined by the physician.

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  • 27. 

    The nurse is giving a dose of bethanechol to a postoperative patient. The nurse is aware that contraindications to bethanechol include:

    • A.

      Bladder atony

    • B.

      Peptic ulcer

    • C.

      Urinary retention

    • D.

      Hypothyroidism

    Correct Answer
    B. Peptic ulcer
    Explanation
    Bethanechol is a medication that stimulates the bladder muscle, causing it to contract and increase bladder emptying. However, it can also stimulate gastric acid secretion, which can worsen peptic ulcers. Therefore, peptic ulcer is a contraindication to the use of bethanechol. The other options listed, bladder atony, urinary retention, and hypothyroidism, are not contraindications to bethanechol.

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  • 28. 

    A patient took an accidental overdose of a choinergic drug while at home. He comes to the emergency department with severe abdominal cramping and bloody diarrhea. The nurse expects that which drug will be used to treat this patient?

    • A.

      Atropine

    • B.

      Physostigmine

    • C.

      Bethanechol

    • D.

      Phentolamine

    Correct Answer
    A. Atropine
    Explanation
    The patient is experiencing symptoms of cholinergic overdose, which include severe abdominal cramping and bloody diarrhea. Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that can counteract the effects of cholinergic overdose by blocking the action of acetylcholine in the body. It can help alleviate the symptoms and restore normal bowel function. Therefore, the nurse expects that atropine will be used to treat this patient.

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  • 29. 

    The nurse is reviewing the orders for a newly admitted patient and sees an order for edrophonium. The nurse expects that this drug is ordered for which reason?

    • A.

      To reduce symptoms and delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease

    • B.

      To treat the symptoms of myasthenia gravis

    • C.

      To aid in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis

    • D.

      To reverse the effects of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs after surgery.

    Correct Answer
    C. To aid in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis
    Explanation
    Edrophonium is a medication that is commonly used to aid in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the muscles and causes weakness and fatigue. Edrophonium works by temporarily improving muscle strength in individuals with myasthenia gravis. By administering edrophonium, healthcare providers can observe if there is an improvement in muscle strength, which helps in confirming the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Therefore, the nurse would expect that edrophonium is ordered to aid in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis.

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  • 30. 

    When giving intravenous cholinergic drugs, the nurse must watch for symptoms of a cholinergic crises, such as: (select all that apply)

    • A.

      Peripheral tingling

    • B.

      Hypotension

    • C.

      Dry mouth

    • D.

      Syncope

    • E.

      Dyspnea

    • F.

      Tinnitus

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Hypotension
    D. Syncope
    E. Dyspnea
    Explanation
    When administering intravenous cholinergic drugs, the nurse must be vigilant for symptoms of a cholinergic crisis. A cholinergic crisis occurs when there is an excess of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter affected by cholinergic drugs, in the body. Hypotension, syncope (fainting), and dyspnea (difficulty breathing) are all potential symptoms of a cholinergic crisis. These symptoms are indicative of the overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which can lead to a drop in blood pressure, loss of consciousness, and respiratory distress. Therefore, it is crucial for the nurse to closely monitor the patient for these signs to intervene promptly if a cholinergic crisis occurs.

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  • 31. 

    The desired effects of cholinergic drugs come from stimulation of which receptors?

    • A.

      Cholinergic

    • B.

      Nicotinic

    • C.

      Muscarinic

    • D.

      Ganglionic

    Correct Answer
    C. Muscarinic
    Explanation
    Cholinergic drugs produce their desired effects by stimulating muscarinic receptors. Muscarinic receptors are a type of acetylcholine receptor found in various organs and tissues throughout the body. Stimulation of muscarinic receptors can lead to various physiological responses, such as increased glandular secretions, smooth muscle contraction, and decreased heart rate. Cholinergic drugs that specifically target muscarinic receptors are used in the treatment of conditions like glaucoma, urinary retention, and gastrointestinal disorders.

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  • 32. 

    The undesirable effects of cholinergic drugs come from stimulation of which receptors?

    • A.

      Cholinergic

    • B.

      Nicotinic

    • C.

      Muscarinic

    • D.

      Ganglionic

    Correct Answer
    B. Nicotinic
    Explanation
    Cholinergic drugs stimulate cholinergic receptors, which are divided into two main types: nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. The undesirable effects of cholinergic drugs come from the stimulation of nicotinic receptors. These receptors are found in the autonomic ganglia, skeletal muscles, and central nervous system. Stimulation of nicotinic receptors can lead to side effects such as increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, muscle twitching, and tremors.

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  • 33. 

    The patient mentions bethanechol when asked about his medication history. The nurse recognizes that this drug is used for the treatment of which condition?

    • A.

      Diarrhea

    • B.

      Urinary retention

    • C.

      Urinary incontinence

    • D.

      Bladder spasms

    Correct Answer
    B. Urinary retention
    Explanation
    Bethanechol is a medication that is used to treat urinary retention. Urinary retention is a condition where a person is unable to completely empty their bladder, leading to discomfort and potential complications. Bethanechol helps to stimulate the muscles in the bladder, allowing for improved urine flow and emptying of the bladder. It is not used for the treatment of diarrhea, urinary incontinence, or bladder spasms.

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  • 34. 

    When caring for a patient with a diagnosis of myasthenia gravis, the nurse can expect to see which drug ordered for the symptomatic treatment?

    • A.

      Bethanechol

    • B.

      Tacrine

    • C.

      Donepezil

    • D.

      Pyridostigmine

    Correct Answer
    D. Pyridostigmine
    Explanation
    Pyridostigmine is the correct answer for the symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis. It is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that increases the levels of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, improving muscle strength and reducing weakness. Bethanechol is a cholinergic agonist used for urinary retention, while tacrine and donepezil are cholinesterase inhibitors used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 35. 

    A 62-year-old woman has started taking donepezil for early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Her daughter expresses relief that "there is finally a pill to cure Alzeimer's disease." What is the nurse's best response?

    • A.

      "She should expect reversal of symptoms within a few days."

    • B.

      "The dosage should be increased if no improvement is noted."

    • C.

      "This drug may help to improve symptoms, but it is not intended as a cure."

    • D.

      "Yes, it has been a great help for many patients."

    Correct Answer
    C. "This drug may help to improve symptoms, but it is not intended as a cure."
    Explanation
    The nurse's best response is "This drug may help to improve symptoms, but it is not intended as a cure." This answer acknowledges that the drug may provide some relief and improvement in symptoms, but it clarifies that it is not a cure for Alzheimer's disease. This response provides accurate information and manages the daughter's expectations regarding the effectiveness of the medication.

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  • 36. 

    Cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) drugs have which therapeutic effect?

    • A.

      Urinary retention

    • B.

      Incrased gastroinitesinal motility

    • C.

      Mydriasis

    • D.

      Vasoconstriction

    Correct Answer
    B. Incrased gastroinitesinal motility
    Explanation
    Cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) drugs increase gastrointestinal motility. These drugs stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system, which promotes the release of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine then binds to cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to increased contractions and motility of the smooth muscles in the digestive system. This can help improve digestion and relieve symptoms such as constipation.

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  • 37. 

    Cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) drugs are indicated for which situation?

    • A.

      Treating a postoperative patient who has bradycardia

    • B.

      Lowering intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma

    • C.

      Inhibiting muscular activity in the bladder

    • D.

      Preventing salivation and sweating

    Correct Answer
    B. Lowering intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma
    Explanation
    Cholinergic (parasympathomimetic) drugs are indicated for lowering intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. Glaucoma is a condition characterized by increased pressure in the eye, which can lead to damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. Cholinergic drugs work by stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system, causing the pupil to constrict and increasing the outflow of fluid from the eye, thus reducing intraocular pressure. This helps to prevent further damage to the optic nerve and preserve vision in patients with glaucoma.

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  • 38. 

    During postoperative teaching, the nurse explains that the patient is receiving bethanechol (Urecholine) to treat

    • A.

      Postoperative hypotension

    • B.

      Urinary atony

    • C.

      Respiratoy atelectasis

    • D.

      Postoperative ischemic colitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Urinary atony
    Explanation
    Bethanechol (Urecholine) is a medication used to treat urinary atony, which is the inability of the bladder to contract and empty properly. Postoperative patients may experience urinary atony due to the effects of anesthesia and surgery on the bladder muscles. Bethanechol works by stimulating the bladder muscles, leading to increased bladder contractions and improved urinary flow. Therefore, it is the appropriate medication to treat urinary atony in this postoperative patient.

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  • 39. 

    Which is an adverse effect of bethanechol (Urecholine)?

    • A.

      Constipation

    • B.

      Hypertension

    • C.

      Tachycardia

    • D.

      Heachache

    Correct Answer
    D. Heachache
    Explanation
    Bethanechol is a cholinergic agonist that stimulates the muscarinic receptors in the body. One of the common adverse effects of bethanechol is a headache. This occurs due to the increased cholinergic activity in the brain, leading to vasodilation and increased blood flow, resulting in a headache. The other options, constipation, hypertension, and tachycardia, are not typically associated with bethanechol use.

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  • 40. 

    The nurse administering donepezil (Aricept) to a patient understands that the expected therapeutic action of this drug is to

    • A.

      Relieve anxiety and restless behavior of the patient.

    • B.

      increase levels of acetylcholine in the brain by blocking its breakdown.

    • C.

      block the effects of acetylcholine at the presynaptic neurons.

    • D.

      Help control associated urinary incontinence.

    Correct Answer
    B. increase levels of acetylcholine in the brain by blocking its breakdown.
    Explanation
    Donepezil (Aricept) is a medication commonly used to treat symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. It works by inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in memory and cognitive function. By blocking the breakdown of acetylcholine, donepezil increases the levels of this neurotransmitter in the brain. This helps to improve cognitive function and slow down the progression of symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 41. 

    When providing teaching to a patient diagnosed with myasthenia gravis, which instruction regarding the administration of physostigmine (Antilirium) is most appropriate?

    • A.

      Increase fluid and fiber in the diet to prevent constipation.

    • B.

      Take the medication 30 minutes before meals.

    • C.

      If a dose is missed, double the next dose to prevent withdrawal.

    • D.

      Common side effects include tachycardia and hypertension.

    Correct Answer
    B. Take the medication 30 minutes before meals.
  • 42. 

    The provider has ordered donepezil (Aricept) for the patient, and the patient states “I have no idea why I take this medication.” What is the most common diagnosis associated with the administration of donepezil (Aricept)?

    • A.

      Parkinson's disease

    • B.

      Blsdder retention

    • C.

      Alzheimer's disease

    • D.

      Urinary retention

    Correct Answer
    C. Alzheimer's disease
    Explanation
    Donepezil (Aricept) is commonly prescribed for patients with Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurological disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal proteins in the brain, leading to the death of brain cells and a decline in cognitive function. Donepezil is a medication that helps to improve cognitive function and slow down the progression of symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, it is likely that the patient has been prescribed donepezil because they have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease.

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  • 43. 

    The nurse is providing education to a patient on the primary uses of cholinergic drugs. Which uses would the nurse include in the teaching? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      To stimulate perstalsis

    • B.

      To elevate heart rate

    • C.

      To decrease intraocular pressure

    • D.

      To stimulate bladder emptying

    • E.

      To dilate pulmonary airways

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. To stimulate perstalsis
    C. To decrease intraocular pressure
    D. To stimulate bladder emptying
    Explanation
    Cholinergic drugs are medications that mimic the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the body. These drugs can be used to stimulate peristalsis, which is the movement of the gastrointestinal tract and helps with digestion. They can also be used to decrease intraocular pressure, which is beneficial in treating conditions like glaucoma. Additionally, cholinergic drugs can stimulate bladder emptying, making them useful in treating urinary retention. However, cholinergic drugs do not elevate heart rate or dilate pulmonary airways, so these options would not be included in the teaching.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Aug 25, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 06, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    Sstoec
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