Basic Pharmacology Exam: Quiz!

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Basic Pharmacology Exam: Quiz! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Science of interaction between chemicals and living organisms.

    Explanation
    Pharmacology is the science that studies the interaction between chemicals and living organisms. It focuses on how drugs affect the body and how the body responds to drugs. This field is concerned with understanding the mechanisms of action, therapeutic uses, and potential side effects of drugs. Pharmacologists aim to develop safe and effective medications for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. They also investigate drug interactions, drug metabolism, and drug toxicity. Overall, pharmacology plays a crucial role in advancing healthcare by providing valuable insights into the effects of chemicals on living organisms.

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  • 2. 

    Part of pharmacology which deals with absorption, biotransformation, distribution, and elimination of drugs is:

    Explanation
    Pharmacokinetics is the branch of pharmacology that focuses on the processes of drug absorption, biotransformation (metabolism), distribution, and elimination within the body. It studies how drugs are absorbed into the bloodstream, how they are metabolized and transformed by the body, how they are distributed to different tissues and organs, and how they are eliminated from the body through urine, feces, or other routes. Understanding pharmacokinetics is crucial in determining the dosage, frequency, and duration of drug administration, as well as predicting drug interactions and potential side effects.

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  • 3. 

    Movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood.

    Explanation
    Absorption refers to the process by which a drug is taken up by the body and enters the bloodstream after it is administered at a particular site. It involves the movement of the drug from the site of administration, such as the gastrointestinal tract or the skin, into the bloodstream. This allows the drug to be distributed throughout the body and reach its target site of action. Absorption is an important pharmacokinetic process that determines the onset and intensity of drug effects.

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  • 4. 

    Metabolism which occurs before the drug reaches systemic circulation is

    Explanation
    Pre-systemic metabolism refers to the metabolic processes that occur before a drug reaches systemic circulation. This includes metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract and liver, where drugs may be broken down or modified before they can enter the bloodstream and reach their target sites. This process can significantly affect the bioavailability and effectiveness of a drug. Therefore, pre-systemic metabolism plays a crucial role in determining the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a drug.

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  • 5. 

    Movement of a drug from the blood into various tissues of the body and back.

    Explanation
    Distribution refers to the movement of a drug from the bloodstream into various tissues of the body and back. After absorption into the bloodstream, the drug is transported to different organs and tissues, where it can exert its effects. This process is important for ensuring that the drug reaches its target site and is distributed evenly throughout the body. The drug may also be redistributed back into the bloodstream for elimination or further distribution to other tissues. Overall, distribution plays a crucial role in determining the concentration and localization of a drug within the body.

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  • 6. 

    Chemical changes of drugs occurring in the liver.

    Explanation
    Biotransformation refers to the chemical changes that drugs undergo in the liver. This process involves the metabolism of drugs into different compounds, which can either enhance or reduce their pharmacological activity. The liver plays a crucial role in drug metabolism, as it contains enzymes that break down drugs into metabolites that can be easily eliminated from the body. Biotransformation is an essential step in drug metabolism, as it helps to detoxify drugs and convert them into forms that can be easily excreted.

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  • 7. 

    Loss of a drug from the body is:

    Explanation
    Elimination refers to the process by which a drug is removed or cleared from the body. This can occur through various routes such as metabolism by enzymes, excretion through urine or feces, or elimination through sweat or breath. Loss of a drug from the body is commonly referred to as elimination because it involves the removal of the drug from the system, reducing its concentration and effect over time.

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  • 8. 

    The relation between the total amount of drug in the body and concentration in plasma is:

    Explanation
    The volume of distribution refers to the theoretical volume in which a drug is evenly distributed throughout the body, assuming it is in the same concentration as in the plasma. It is a pharmacokinetic parameter that helps determine the dose required to achieve a desired drug concentration in the plasma. The total amount of drug in the body is directly related to the volume of distribution, as a larger volume of distribution indicates a larger amount of drug in the body. Therefore, the volume of distribution is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 9. 

    Plasma volume cleared from a certain substance per unit of time is:

    Explanation
    The term "clearance" refers to the rate at which plasma volume is cleared from a specific substance over a given period of time. It is a measure of how efficiently the substance is removed from the bloodstream. Clearance is often used in medical and pharmacological contexts to assess the effectiveness of drugs or to monitor kidney function, as the kidneys play a vital role in clearing substances from the blood.

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  • 10. 

    The time required for change of plasma level by half____

    Explanation
    The term "half life" refers to the time it takes for the plasma level of a substance to decrease by half. It is commonly used in pharmacology to determine the rate at which a drug is eliminated from the body. By understanding the half life of a drug, medical professionals can determine the appropriate dosage and frequency of administration to maintain therapeutic levels in the body.

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  • 11. 

     Percentage of the dose which reaches systemic circulation unchanged.

    Explanation
    Bioavailability refers to the percentage of a drug dose that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged. It represents the fraction of the administered dose that is available to produce a pharmacological effect. Factors such as absorption, metabolism, and excretion can affect the bioavailability of a drug. A high bioavailability indicates that a large proportion of the drug reaches the systemic circulation, making it more effective. Conversely, a low bioavailability means that a significant portion of the drug is lost during the absorption and metabolism processes, resulting in reduced efficacy.

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  • 12. 

    Part of pharmacology which deals with mechanism of action and effects of drugs on the body is

    Explanation
    Pharmacodynamics is the branch of pharmacology that focuses on understanding how drugs interact with the body and produce their effects. It involves studying the mechanism of action of drugs, which refers to the specific biochemical and physiological processes through which a drug exerts its therapeutic or toxic effects. By studying pharmacodynamics, researchers can gain insights into how drugs interact with specific receptors, enzymes, or other targets in the body, and how these interactions lead to the desired therapeutic effects or adverse reactions. Overall, pharmacodynamics helps in understanding the relationship between drug concentration and its effects on the body.

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  • 13. 

    Changes caused by a drug occurring at the molecular and cellular levels.

    Explanation
    The term "mechanism of action" refers to the specific way in which a drug produces its effects at the molecular and cellular levels. It explains how the drug interacts with specific targets in the body, such as receptors or enzymes, to bring about a desired therapeutic effect. Understanding the mechanism of action is crucial for determining the effectiveness and potential side effects of a drug, as well as for developing new drugs with similar or improved mechanisms of action.

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  • 14. 

    Specialized cellular target macromolecule which receives the signal is

    Explanation
    The specialized cellular target macromolecule that receives the signal is called a receptor. Receptors are proteins located on the surface or inside the cells that bind to specific molecules, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, and initiate a cellular response. They play a crucial role in cell signaling, allowing cells to communicate and respond to their environment. By binding to the signaling molecule, the receptor triggers a series of events inside the cell, leading to a specific cellular response.

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  • 15. 

    A substance which forms/transmits the signal (ligates to the specialized cellular macromolecule) is

    Explanation
    A substance that forms or transmits a signal by binding to a specialized cellular macromolecule is called a ligand. Ligands can be small molecules, ions, or even larger proteins, and they bind to specific receptors on the surface of cells or within the cell. This binding triggers a cascade of events within the cell, leading to various cellular responses. Ligands play a crucial role in cell signaling and communication, allowing cells to respond to external stimuli and regulate their functions.

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  • 16. 

    Noxious and unintended response to a medicinal product.

    Explanation
    The given correct answer for this question is "adverse reaction." An adverse reaction refers to a negative and unintended response that occurs after the use of a medicinal product. This can include side effects, allergic reactions, or other harmful effects that may occur as a result of taking the medication. It is important to monitor and report any adverse reactions to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the medication.

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  • 17. 

    The response is most rapid following the binding of a ligand to:

    • A.

      Intracellular receptors 

    • B.

      Spare receptors

    • C.

      Ligand-gated ion channels 

    • D.

      Receptors the underwent phosphorylation 

    • E.

      G protein-coupled receptors

    • F.

      Enzyme-linked receptors

    • G.

      Receptors that underwent down-regulation 

    • H.

      Option 8

    Correct Answer
    C. Ligand-gated ion channels 
    Explanation
    The response is most rapid following the binding of a ligand to ligand-gated ion channels. Ligand-gated ion channels are proteins that form a pore in the cell membrane and open in response to the binding of a specific ligand. When the ligand binds to the channel, it causes a conformational change that allows ions to flow through the channel, resulting in a rapid response. This is different from other types of receptors, such as intracellular receptors or enzyme-linked receptors, which typically involve a slower signaling process.

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  • 18. 

    The fraction of the administered dose that reaches systemic circulation unchanged is 

    • A.

      Pharmacology 

    • B.

      Elimination 

    • C.

      Ligand

    • D.

      Biotransformation 

    • E.

      Adverse reaction 

    • F.

      Pre-systemic metabolism 

    • G.

      Adverse event 

    • H.

      Agonist 

    • I.

      Volume of distribution 

    • J.

      Distribution 

    • K.

      Clearance 

    • L.

      Half life 

    • M.

      Bioavailability 

    • N.

      Absorption 

    • O.

      Option 15

    Correct Answer
    M. Bioavailability 
    Explanation
    Bioavailability refers to the fraction of the administered dose of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged. It represents the extent and rate at which a drug is absorbed and becomes available at the site of action. This parameter is important in determining the efficacy and therapeutic response of a drug. A high bioavailability indicates that a large proportion of the administered dose reaches the systemic circulation, while a low bioavailability suggests that a significant portion of the drug is lost or metabolized before reaching its target site.

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  • 19. 

    Changes in gene expression occur following binding of a ligand to 

    • A.

      Receptors that underwent phosphorylation

    • B.

      G protein-coupled receptors 

    • C.

      Spare receptors

    • D.

      Ligand-gated ion channels

    • E.

      Intracellular receptors

    • F.

      Receptors that underwent down regulation 

    • G.

      Enzyme- linked receptors

    Correct Answer
    E. Intracellular receptors
    Explanation
    Intracellular receptors are located inside the cell, typically in the cytoplasm or nucleus, and are activated by ligands that can pass through the cell membrane. Once the ligand binds to the intracellular receptor, it undergoes a conformational change, allowing it to bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. This leads to changes in gene expression, resulting in various cellular responses. In contrast, other types of receptors listed, such as G protein-coupled receptors, ligand-gated ion channels, and enzyme-linked receptors, do not directly regulate gene expression.

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  • 20. 

    Insulin acts at the extracellular domain of membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase and causes its phosphorylation. afterward, tyrosine kinase activated intracellular enzymes responsible for glucose catabolism. to which family of receptors does tyrosine kinase belong? 

    • A.

      Ligand-gated ion channels 

    • B.

      Intracellular receptors 

    • C.

      Enzyme linked receptors

    • D.

      G protein-coupled receptors 

    • E.

      Spare receptors

    Correct Answer
    C. Enzyme linked receptors
    Explanation
    The correct answer is enzyme linked receptors. Insulin acts on the extracellular domain of a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase, causing its phosphorylation. This tyrosine kinase then activates intracellular enzymes responsible for glucose catabolism. Enzyme linked receptors, also known as receptor tyrosine kinases, are a family of receptors that have an intracellular domain with kinase activity. When a ligand, such as insulin, binds to the extracellular domain of these receptors, it triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of intracellular enzymes.

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  • 21. 

    What receptors have only hydrophobic ligands? 

    • A.

      Ligand-gated ion channels 

    • B.

      Intracellular receptors 

    • C.

      Spare receptors 

    • D.

      Enzyme linked receptors

    • E.

      G protein-coupled receptors

    Correct Answer
    B. Intracellular receptors 
    Explanation
    Intracellular receptors are the receptors that have only hydrophobic ligands. These receptors are located inside the cell and are activated by hydrophobic molecules that can easily pass through the cell membrane. Once activated, these receptors can directly bind to DNA and regulate gene expression, leading to changes in cellular function. Unlike other receptors, intracellular receptors do not require a ligand-gated ion channel or a signaling pathway to transmit their signals.

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  • 22. 

    Gastric acid secretion is stimulated by acetylcholine, histamine, and gastrin, the membrane receptor-mediated binding of acetylcholine, histamine, or gastrin results in activation of adenylyl cyclase...

    • A.

      Ligand-gated ion channels 

    • B.

      Gq 

    • C.

      Enzyme-linked

    • D.

      Gs 

    • E.

      Intracellular

    • F.

      Gi 

    Correct Answer
    D. Gs 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Gs. Gs is a type of membrane receptor that is involved in the activation of adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP). In the context of gastric acid secretion, the binding of acetylcholine, histamine, or gastrin to their respective membrane receptors (which can be ligand-gated ion channels or Gq receptors) leads to the activation of Gs receptors. This activation of Gs receptors then stimulates adenylyl cyclase, resulting in an increase in cAMP levels and subsequent secretion of gastric acid.

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