Internal Environment And Homeostasis Trivia Quiz

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Internal Environment And Homeostasis Trivia Quiz

Are you aware of Internal environment and homeostasis? If you have learned about the process, there are a lot of things that take place when it comes to the human body and its adaptation to changes. Do you feel like you know enough to help you pass this test? Well take up the quiz below and get to find out for sure.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following fluids constitutes a portion of the internal environment:
    • A. 

      Interstitial fluid

    • B. 

      Plasma

    • C. 

      Both

    • D. 

      Neither

  • 2. 
    Homeostasis refers to the: 
    • A. 

      Ability of humans to stand on two feet

    • B. 

      Capability to control the external surroundings of the organism

    • C. 

      Nearly constant conditions that are maintained in the internal environment of multicellular organisms

  • 3. 
    Interstitial fluid is:
    • A. 

      Larger in volume than the plasma volume

    • B. 

      One of the extracellular fluids in the body

    • C. 

      Part of the internal environment

    • D. 

      The region found between cells

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 4. 
    Select the response demonstrating homeostasis
    • A. 

      Blood sugar drops during starvation

    • B. 

      Body temperature rises during fever

    • C. 

      The acidity of the extracellular fluid remains the same as diet changes

    • D. 

      An individual slips into irreversible shock

  • 5. 
    Plasma osmolarity:
    • A. 

      Has a range of 290 to 310 mOsmoles

    • B. 

      Is critical for maintaining fluid compartmentalization

    • C. 

      Is important for proper cell function

    • D. 

      Is equal to extracellular fluid osmolarity

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 6. 
    If a decrease in blood pressure were the stimulus for a negative feedback control system, the response produced by the effector cells of the control system would: 
    • A. 

      Decrease blood pressure

    • B. 

      Increase blood pressure

    • C. 

      No change blood pressure

  • 7. 
    A decrease in the hematocrit of a patient from 55% to 40% could occur if there was a (n): 
    • A. 

      Increase in erythrocyte production

    • B. 

      Decrease in blood plasma volume

    • C. 

      Insufficient vitamin B12

    • D. 

      Both a and b are correct

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct

  • 8. 
    Which of the following will stimulate the production of erythrocytes by the bone marrow:
    • A. 

      Increased arterial oxygen partial pressure

    • B. 

      Increased circulating concentrations of glucocorticoids

    • C. 

      Increased circulating erythropoietin

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 9. 
    Blood flowing from the lungs to the heart in the pulmonary veins enters the:
    • A. 

      Left atrium

    • B. 

      Left ventricle

    • C. 

      Right atrium

    • D. 

      Right ventricle

  • 10. 
    A decrease in the value of which of the following will increase resistance to blood flow:
    • A. 

      Blood vessel length

    • B. 

      Blood vessel radius

    • C. 

      Blood vessel viscosity

  • 11. 
    Cardiac action potentials are transmitted from the pacemaker region throughout the rest of the heart by:
    • A. 

      Gap junctions between adjacent cardiac muscle cells

    • B. 

      Nerves from the pacemaker region that synapse on individual cardiac muscle cells

    • C. 

      Paracrine agent released from cardiac muscle cells

    • D. 

      Synapses between adjacent cardiac muscle cells

  • 12. 
    The ion principally responsible for the resting membrane potential is: 
    • A. 

      Calcium

    • B. 

      Chloride

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Sodium

  • 13. 
    The plateau phase of the cardiac action potential is the result of an increased membrane permeability to: 
    • A. 

      Calcium ions

    • B. 

      Chloride ions

    • C. 

      Potassium ions

    • D. 

      Sodium ions

  • 14. 
    If the SA node of the heart were destroyed, the atria and the ventricles would no longer contact
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    Which of the following is responsible for the change in resting membrane potential in the ischemic zone of the heart?
    • A. 

      The permeability of ions is altered

    • B. 

      The Na+ / K+ ATPase pumps have limited action

    • C. 

      The gap junctions no longer facilitate conduction

  • 16. 
    The T wave of the electrocardiogram corresponds with which phase of cardiac activity?
    • A. 

      Contraction of the atria

    • B. 

      Contraction of the ventricles

    • C. 

      Relaxation of the atria

    • D. 

      Relaxation of ventricles

  • 17. 
    The heart is innervated by the: 
    • A. 

      Autonomic nervous system

    • B. 

      Central nervous system

    • C. 

      Peripheral nervous system

    • D. 

      Both A and C are correct

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 18. 
    Atropine is a drug that blocks the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. How will the administration of atropine affect heart rate?    
    • A. 

      Heart rate will increase

    • B. 

      Heart rate will decrease

    • C. 

      Heart rate will not change

  • 19. 
    A patient presents with a hematocrit of 68%. What additional piece of evidence from the choices below would be of the greatest help in differentiating a diagnosis for this patient?
    • A. 

      Blood pressure

    • B. 

      Heart rate

    • C. 

      Hemoglobin levels

    • D. 

      Leukocyte count

  • 20. 
    With a hematocrit of 68%, what is the best differential diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Increased red blood cell formation or increased erythropoietin

    • B. 

      Increased red blood cell formation or decreased red blood cell destruction

    • C. 

      Increased red blood cell numbers or reduced blood plasma volume

    • D. 

      Decreased red blood cell numbers or increased blood plasma volume

  • 21. 
    The volume of blood pumped by each ventricle during one cardiac cycle is: 
    • A. 

      Cardiac output

    • B. 

      End diastolic volume

    • C. 

      End systolic volume

    • D. 

      Stroke volume

  • 22. 
    During mid-diastole:
    • A. 

      All valves are closed

    • B. 

      Aortic and pulmonary valves are open

    • C. 

      Ventricular pressure is greater than atrial pressure

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 23. 
    During isovolumetric ventricular contraction: 
    • A. 

      All valves into and out of the heart are closed

    • B. 

      Blood is being ejected from the ventricles

    • C. 

      Blood is flowing from the atria to the ventricles

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 24. 
    Question 24if an individual has an aortic stenosis, then: 
    • A. 

      Blood will pass into the left ventricle from the aorta during diastole

    • B. 

      Blood will not pass into the right ventricle from the right atrium

    • C. 

      The ejection of blood into the left ventricle will be enhanced

    • D. 

      The ejection of blood through the valve during systole will be restricted

  • 25. 
    Question 25Insufficiency of the left AV valve will produce a murmur heard during: 
    • A. 

      Systole

    • B. 

      Diastole

  • 26. 
    Question 26With an increase in left atrial pressure, you would expect to find:
    • A. 

      Pulmonary congestion

    • B. 

      Peripheral edema

    • C. 

      Increased right ventricular pressure

    • D. 

      Both A and C

    • E. 

      Both B and C

  • 27. 
    Question 27Which of the following will NOT increase stroke volume?
    • A. 

      Increased end-diastolic volume

    • B. 

      Increased contractility

    • C. 

      Increased end-systolic volume

    • D. 

      Increased stretch of the cardiac muscle fibers during ventricular filling

    • E. 

      Increased venous return

  • 28. 
    Question 28Starling's law of the heart refers to the increase in the force of cardiac contraction produced by increased: 
    • A. 

      Cardiac muscle fiber length

    • B. 

      Circulating epinephrine

    • C. 

      SA node activation

    • D. 

      Sympathetic stimulation

  • 29. 
    Question 29Release of calcium into the cytosol of cardiac muscle cells:
    • A. 

      Decreases binding to troponin

    • B. 

      Diminishes actin-myosin cross bridge binding

    • C. 

      Is in response to acetylcholine activity in the heart

    • D. 

      Leads to more force development in the heart

  • 30. 
    Question 30Arterial pressure does not fall to zero in the arteries during diastole because:
    • A. 

      Blood continues to flow through the heart even when its not beating

    • B. 

      Contraction of the smooth muscle in the atrial walls maintains arterial pressure

    • C. 

      Skeletal muscle contraction compress the arteries, maintaining arterial pressure

    • D. 

      The elastic fibers in the walls of the arteries that were stretched during systole maintain the arterial pressure as they relax during diastole

  • 31. 
    Question 31 MAP is:
    • A. 

      Closer to diastolic pressure than systolic pressure

    • B. 

      Closer to systolic pressure than to diastolic pressure

    • C. 

      The average of the two pressures

  • 32. 
    Question 32 Sympathetic fibers stimulate vascular smooth muscle to produce: 
    • A. 

      Vasoconstriction, decreased resistance

    • B. 

      Vasoconstriction, increased resistance

    • C. 

      Vasodilation, decreased resistance

    • D. 

      Vasodilation, increased resistance

  • 33. 
    Question 33You are experiencing mild anxiety and stress at this point in the quiz and epinephrine is being released in low amount from the adrenal gland medulla. What is the physiological consequence of the stress? 
    • A. 

      B1 and B2 receptor activation elicits an increase in heart rate and vasodilation

    • B. 

      B1 and B2 receptor activation elicits an increase in heart rate and vasoconstriction

    • C. 

      B1 and muscarinic receptor activation elicits increased heart rate and vasodilation

    • D. 

      B1 and B2 receptor activation elicits a decrease in heart rate and vasodilation

  • 34. 
    Question 34Venous return to the right atrium is increased by:
    • A. 

      Increasing depth of respiration

    • B. 

      Vigorous walking

    • C. 

      An increase in ventricular contraction strength

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 35. 
    Question 35The principle force that causes movement of the fluid from the tissues into the capillaries at rest is: 
    • A. 

      The hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid

    • B. 

      The hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the arteries

    • C. 

      The osmotic pressure created by the plasma proteins

    • D. 

      The osmotic pressure created by the interstitial proteins

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 36. 
    Question 36The net filtration of fluid from the arterial end of the capillaries to the interstitial fluid:
    • A. 

      Normally exceeds the flow of the fluid into capillaries from the interstitial fluid

    • B. 

      Provides most of the nutrients and oxygen delivered to a tissue

    • C. 

      Is described by diffusion

    • D. 

      Is described by bulk flow

    • E. 

      Both A and D

  • 37. 
    Question 37As a consequence of starvation or protein-deficient diet, the protein concentration: 
    • A. 

      Increases and water accumulates in the tissue spaces

    • B. 

      Decreases and water accumulates in the tissue spaces

    • C. 

      Increases and water accumulates in the tissue cells

    • D. 

      Decreases and water accumulates in the tissue cells

  • 38. 
    Question 38Rapid adjustments in systemic blood pressure are controlled by: 
    • A. 

      Autoregulation of arteriolar resistance

    • B. 

      Baroreceptor reflexes

    • C. 

      Chemoreceptor reflexes

    • D. 

      Kidney regulation of blood volume

  • 39. 
    Question 39 Each is a response to decreased systemic blood pressure from hemorrhage EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Arteriole dilation

    • B. 

      Decreased parasympathetic discharge to the heart

    • C. 

      Increased heart rate

    • D. 

      There are no exceptions listed

  • 40. 
    Question 40 Following a hemorrhage, blood volume is partially restored by movement of fluid from the interstitial fluid compartment to the blood because: 
    • A. 

      Arteriole vasoconstriction decreases capillary blood pressure

    • B. 

      Increased levels of circulating ADH increases the reabsorption of water

    • C. 

      Of an increase in the return of lymph to the venous blood

    • D. 

      Plasma protein concentration decreases

  • 41. 
    Question 41 Which substance is present in a lower concentration in the glomerular filtrate than in the blood plasma? 
    • A. 

      Glucose

    • B. 

      Potassium

    • C. 

      Protein

    • D. 

      Sodium

    • E. 

      Urea

  • 42. 
    Question 42If more of a substance appears in the urine than was filtered at the glomerulus, which of the following must have occurred: 
    • A. 

      Tubular reabsorption

    • B. 

      Tubular secretion

  • 43. 
    Question 43 Afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction __ blood flow into the glomerulus, which causes the glomerular capillary blood pressure to ____, leading to a(n) ____ in the net filtration pressure and a resultant ___ in the GFR
    • A. 

      Increases, increase, increase, increase

    • B. 

      Decreases, decrease, decrease, decrease

    • C. 

      Increases, increase, decrease, decrease

    • D. 

      Decreases, decrease, increase, increase

  • 44. 
    Question 44The reabsorption of water from the renal tubules: 
    • A. 

      Occurs by the active transport of water across the plasma membranes of the renal epithelial cells

    • B. 

      Occurs only in the distal tubule and collecting ducts

    • C. 

      Requires a solute gradient

    • D. 

      Requires the presence of ADH

  • 45. 
    Question 45Most (about 65%) of the salt and water filtered at the glomerulus is reabsorbed from which portion of the renal tubules in a normally hydrated individual: 
    • A. 

      Collecting ducts

    • B. 

      Distal tubule

    • C. 

      Loop of Henle

    • D. 

      Proximal tubule

  • 46. 
    Question 46ADH (vasopressin): 
    • A. 

      Decreases the active reabsorption of sodium from the collecting ducts

    • B. 

      Decreases the membrane permeability of the epithelial cells in the collecting ducts to water

    • C. 

      Increases the active reabsorption of sodium from the collecting ducts

    • D. 

      Increases the membrane permeability of the epithelial cells in the collecting ducts to water

  • 47. 
    Question 47 The loop of Henle is the site in the renal tubule where:
    • A. 

      A high medullary interstitial fluid osmolarity is generated

    • B. 

      Aldosterone acts

    • C. 

      ADH acts

    • D. 

      Potassium ions are secreted into the renal tubule

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 48. 
    Question 48 The ascending limb of the loop of Henle: 
    • A. 

      Actively transports NaCl into the surrounding interstitial fluid

    • B. 

      Is impermeable to water

    • C. 

      Is found in the renal cortex

    • D. 

      Drains into the proximal convoluted tubule

    • E. 

      Both A and B

  • 49. 
    Question 49A person on a high salt diet would be expected to have elevated: 
    • A. 

      Renin levels in the plasma

    • B. 

      Aldosterone levels in the plasma

    • C. 

      Angiotensin levels in the plasma

    • D. 

      Potassium excretion in the urine

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 50. 
    Question 50Which of the following will increase the GFR: 
    • A. 

      Decreasing arterial blood pressure

    • B. 

      Decreased plasma concentration of ADH

    • C. 

      Increased plasma concentration of angiotensin II

    • D. 

      Vasodilation of the afferent arterioles to the glomerular capillaries

  • 51. 
    Question 51Renin:
    • A. 

      Binds to receptors on vascular smooth, causing contraction

    • B. 

      Concentration in the blood is elevated during periods of low blood pressure

    • C. 

      Is secreted by the adrenal cortex

    • D. 

      Secretion is stimulated by angiotensin II

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 52. 
    Question 52Which of the following will produce an increase in blood pressure?
    • A. 

      Aldosterone

    • B. 

      Angiotensin II

    • C. 

      Increased sodium intake

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 53. 
    Question 53 After a severe hemorrhage:
    • A. 

      ADH is secreted by the pituitary

    • B. 

      GFR is reduced

    • C. 

      Renin is secreted by the kidneys

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 54. 
    Question 54A person ingests a liter of pure water. Which of the following will increase: 
    • A. 

      Excretion of water in the urine

    • B. 

      Plasma ADH levels

    • C. 

      Both of the above

    • D. 

      Neither of the above

  • 55. 
    Question 55An increase in plasma osmolarity will stimulate the secretion of: 
    • A. 

      Aldosterone

    • B. 

      Angiotensin

    • C. 

      ADH

    • D. 

      Renin

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 56. 
    Question 56Control of potassium excretion in the urine is achieved mainly by controlling the rate of: 
    • A. 

      Potassium filtration by the glomeruli

    • B. 

      Potassium reabsorption from the proximal tubule

    • C. 

      Potassium secretion into the distal tubule

    • D. 

      Potassium secretion into the proximal tubule

  • 57. 
    Question 57Why is diuretic, such as Furosemide, utilized in the management of CHF?
    • A. 

      Use of this diuretic may help reduce the pre-load on the heart

    • B. 

      Use of this diuretic may help increase the effective circulating volume

    • C. 

      Use of this diuretic may help increase the after-load on the heart

    • D. 

      Use of this diuretic may help reduce the extracellular fluid volume

  • 58. 
    Question 58 Which of the following is a probable mechanism to compensate for dehydration?
    • A. 

      Decreased reabsorption of sodium

    • B. 

      Increased GFR

    • C. 

      Increased release of ADH

    • D. 

      Decreased renin release

    • E. 

      Increased erythropoietin release

  • 59. 
    Question 59A metabolic acidosis can occur with extreme exercise. Which of the following would parallel this acid-base disturbance?
    • A. 

      Hypokalemia

    • B. 

      Hypernatremia

    • C. 

      Hyperkalemia

    • D. 

      Hyponatremia

  • 60. 
    Question 60Hyperventilation leads to a disruption in acid-base balance. The renal compensation will be: 
    • A. 

      Increased H+ excretion, increased bicarbonate excretion

    • B. 

      Decreased H+ excretion, decreased bicarbonate excretion

    • C. 

      Increased H+ excretion, decreased bicarbonate excretion

    • D. 

      Decreased H+ excretion, increased bicarbonate excretion

  • 61. 
    Question 61Contraction of the diaphragm:
    • A. 

      Increases the pressure in the alveoli of the lungs

    • B. 

      Increases the pressure in the intrapleural space of the thoracic cavity

    • C. 

      Decreases the pressure in the alveoli of the lungs

    • D. 

      Decreases the pressure in the atmosphere

  • 62. 
    Question 62An opening in the right side of the chest wall, piercing the parietal pleura, will cause the right lung to collapse because the pressure in the intrapleural space changes to become equal to the alveolar pressure. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 63. 
    Question 63During inspiration, the intrapleural pressure: 
    • A. 

      Increases

    • B. 

      Decreases

    • C. 

      Does not change

  • 64. 
    Question 64The alveolar pressure at the end of inspiration (just prior to initiation of expiration) is:
    • A. 

      Greater than or equal to the alveolar pressure just prior to initiation of inspiration

    • B. 

      Less than or equal to the alveolar pressure just prior to initiation of inspiration

    • C. 

      Equal to the alveolar pressure just prior to initiation of inspiration

  • 65. 
    Question 65Which of the following will increase airway resistance:
    • A. 

      Increased alveolar PCO2

    • B. 

      Release of histamine

    • C. 

      Sympathetic stimulation of airway smooth muscle

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 66. 
    Question 66 With COPD, such as asthma, you expect arterial PCO2 and decreased arterial pH
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 67. 
    Question 67Alveolar ventilation can be decreased without changing minute ventilation
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 68. 
    Question 68The maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiration is called the: 
    • A. 

      Tidal volume

    • B. 

      Vital capacity

    • C. 

      Residual volume

    • D. 

      Respiratory volume

  • 69. 
    Question 69With maximal expiratory effort, the volume of air in the lungs can be reduced to nearly zero
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 70. 
    Question 70 Pulmonary surfactant:
    • A. 

      Decreases alveolar surface tension

    • B. 

      Inhibits the diffusion of gases due to partial pressure differences

    • C. 

      Is produced in overabundance in the respiratory distress syndrome of newborns

    • D. 

      Provides an adhesive surface to which inhaled particles stick

  • 71. 
    Question 71 A man is accidentally exposed to carbon monoxide which combines with half the hemoglobin in his arterial blood. His arterial PO2 will initially be: 
    • A. 

      Unchanged

    • B. 

      Increased

    • C. 

      Decreased

    • D. 

      Both A and B

  • 72. 
    Question 72At an altitude of 10,000 feet, the atmospheric pressure is approximately 500 mm Hg and contains 20% oxygen. The partial pressure of inhaled oxygen at this altitude would be: 
    • A. 

      500 mm Hg

    • B. 

      250 mm Hg

    • C. 

      100 mm Hg

    • D. 

      70 mm Hg

  • 73. 
    Question 73The majority of the CO2 transported in the blood is in the form of: 
    • A. 

      Bicarbonate ions dissolved in the blood plasma

    • B. 

      Bicarbonate ions in the erythrocyte

    • C. 

      Carbon dioxide bound to hemoglobin

    • D. 

      Carbon dioxide dissolved in the blood plasma

  • 74. 
    Question 74 The percent hemoglobin saturation:
    • A. 

      Increases as PO2 increases

    • B. 

      Decreases as H+ decreases

    • C. 

      Decreases as body temperature decreases

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 75. 
    Question 75The oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve indicates that: 
    • A. 

      Raising the arterial PO2 will decrease the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells

    • B. 

      Hemoglobin saturation with oxygen is at least 75% in blood returning to the right atrium

    • C. 

      It becomes easier for hemoglobin to bind oxygen when temperature climbs from 37 degrees Celsius to 38 degrees Celsius and pH falls from 7.4 to 7.3

    • D. 

      The affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is higher in the capillaries of exercising skeletal muscles than it is in the capillaries of the lungs

  • 76. 
    Question 76The percent saturation of hemoglobin will increase at a given fixed PO2 if the:
    • A. 

      Blood H+ concentration decreases

    • B. 

      Temperature decreases

    • C. 

      Both of these

    • D. 

      Neither of these

  • 77. 
    Question 77The low oxygen partial pressure of air at high altitude leads to an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance: 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 78. 
    Question 78At 18,500 feet pulmonary edema is expected. Why? 
    • A. 

      Increased cardiac output overwhelms the low pressure pulmonary circulation and increased capillary filtration occurs across the pulmonary capillaries

    • B. 

      Decreased plasma volume and increased hematocrit increases pulmonary vascular resistance causing pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary capillary filtration

    • C. 

      Increased pulmonary vascular resistance occurs with decreased PO2 resulting in pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary capillary filtration

  • 79. 
    Question 79Native high altitude dwellers have different physiological responses to the high altitude than native sea level dwellers. Which of the following responses would they have in common? 
    • A. 

      Hemoglobin content

    • B. 

      Hypoxic ventillary response

    • C. 

      Hypercapnic ventilatory response

    • D. 

      Ventilation-perfusion coupling of gas exchange

  • 80. 
    Question 80When we first hyperventilate and then hold our breath:
    • A. 

      Peripheral and central chemoreceptors detect higher than normal extracellular pH that then declines

    • B. 

      Centracl chemoreceptors detect a decline in oxygen

    • C. 

      Peripheral chemoreceptors detect a decline in oxygen

    • D. 

      There is an increase in carbon dioxide production that then declines