Otterbein/Grant CRNA A&p Final Review - No Diagrams

51 Questions | Total Attempts: 86

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Otterbein/Grant CRNA A&p Final Review - No Diagrams - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Fetal hgb is the main O2 transport protein until 6 months of age.  It binds to oxygen with a _______ affinity compared to adult Hgb.
    • A. 

      Greater

    • B. 

      Lesser

  • 2. 
    The metabolic demands of a newborn are __ mL/kg/min, which is double that of an adult.
  • 3. 
    Newborns have immature contractile proteins, their cardiac output is extremely ___________ dependent.
    • A. 

      Heart rate

    • B. 

      Volume

  • 4. 
    The alveoli are immature until a child is 8-10 years old.  In a newborn, the ratio of alveolar surface to body surface is 1/3 of an adult's, but their minute ventilation is twice that on an adult.  This is due to their increased:
    • A. 

      Respiratory rate

    • B. 

      Tidal volume

  • 5. 
    Due to their relying on chemical thermogenesis (brown fat breakdown) instead of shivering, newborns are at a decreased risk of hypothermia intraoperatively.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    Newborns have the _______ total body water compared to weight.
    • A. 

      Highest

    • B. 

      Lowest

  • 7. 
    Glomerular filtration rate in a newborn is:
    • A. 

      Decreased

    • B. 

      Increased

    • C. 

      The same as an adult

  • 8. 
    In a newborn, nerve myelination is incomplete so conduction is slower but the distance impulses have to travel is shorter.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    Newborns are at a decreased risk of brain hemorrhage compared to adults.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    The release of antidiuretic hormone is stimulate when plasma osmolarity ________, or blood volume ___________.
    • A. 

      Increases, decreases

    • B. 

      Increases, increases

    • C. 

      Decreases, decreases

    • D. 

      Decreases, increases

  • 11. 
    Which of the following hormones have a POSITIVE feedback loop?
    • A. 

      Oxytocin

    • B. 

      TSH

    • C. 

      Cortisol

    • D. 

      ACTH

  • 12. 
    Glucocorticoid secretion is controlled via a positive feedback loop with ACTH from the anterior pituitary.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    Glucocorticoids _____ glucose production while ________ inflammatory responses.
    • A. 

      Increase, decreasing

    • B. 

      Decrease, decreasing

    • C. 

      Increase, increasing

    • D. 

      Decrease, increasing

  • 14. 
    Insulin has a circulatory half-life of 5-8 minutes due to the necessity to respond rapidly to changes in blood glucose levels.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    Insulin decreases the uptake of K+, mag, and phos.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Over 90% of thyroid hormones released from the thyroid gland epithelial cells is T4, which is converted to the more active form, T3, at the target tissue.  It's 99% protein bound when circulating.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Cortisol can cause muscle wasting.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    The liver receives 50% of cardiac output.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    Positive pressure ventilation, hypoxemia, hypercarbia, sympathetic stimuli, CHF, fluid overload, cirrhosis and anesthesia all _________ hepatic blood flow.
    • A. 

      Decrease

    • B. 

      Increase

  • 20. 
    With a decrease in hepatic venous pressure due to hypovolemia/hemorrhage, blood shifts from the hepatic veins and sinusoids into the central circulation - increasing the circulating blood volume by as much as 500 mL's, close to 10% of TBV.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    Glucocorticoids, catecholamines, glucagon, and thyroid hormone have this effect on gluconeogenesis, the opposite of insulin's effect on the process.
    • A. 

      Enhance

    • B. 

      Inhibit

  • 22. 
    The SNS stimulation caused by surgical stress stimulates:
    • A. 

      Glycogenolysis

    • B. 

      Gluconeogenesis

    • C. 

      Insulin

  • 23. 
    Gastric barrier pressure is calculated as lower esophageal sphincter pressure minus intragastric pressure.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach depends on stimulation of receptors in the membrane of the parietal cells.  Histamine, acetylcholine, vagal stimulation, and gastrin all _______ the secretion of hydrochloric acid.
    • A. 

      Increase

    • B. 

      Decrease

  • 25. 
    The ____________ is the functional unit of the kidney.
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