Organizational Behaviour Chapter 12

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Organizational Behaviour Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. Personal characteristics that distinguish great leaders. Leadership researchers and consultants have returned to the notion that effective leaders possess specific personal characteristics.

    • A.

      Leadership

    • B.

      Shared leadership

    • C.

      Path-goal leadership

    • D.

      Situational leadership theory

    • E.

      Leadership substitutes

    Correct Answer
    A. Leadership
    Explanation
    The given answer "leadership" is correct because the passage states that effective leaders possess specific personal characteristics and that leadership involves influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute towards the success of organizations. This suggests that leadership is the overarching concept that encompasses all the other options listed.

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  • 2. 

    The view that leadership is broadly distributed rather than assigned to one person, such that people within the team and organization lead each other. Employees perform leadership roles. Associates work with champions of projects and other initiatives because they are willing to follow them. Includes competencies - skills, knowledge.

    • A.

      Path-goal leadership

    • B.

      Transactional leadership

    • C.

      Shared leadership

    • D.

      Fiedler's contingency model

    • E.

      Transformational leadership

    Correct Answer
    C. Shared leadership
    Explanation
    Shared leadership is the correct answer because it aligns with the given explanation. Shared leadership is the view that leadership is not limited to one person, but rather distributed among team members and employees. It emphasizes that individuals within the team and organization can lead each other, and that employees can take on leadership roles. This concept also includes the idea that associates are willing to follow champions of projects and initiatives, which further supports the notion of shared leadership.

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  • 3. 

    Associated with effective leadership to some extent, but the strongest predictors are high levels of extroversion and conscientiousness. With high extroversion, effective leaders are comfortable having an influential role in social settings. With higher conscientiousness, effective leaders set higher personal goals for themselves, are more motivated, and have higher performance expectations.

    • A.

      Leadership motivation

    • B.

      Drive

    • C.

      Self-concept

    • D.

      Personality

    • E.

      Integrity

    Correct Answer
    D. Personality
    Explanation
    Competency Perspective of Leadership

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  • 4. 

    Successful leaders have a positive self-evaluation, including high self-esteem, self-efficacy, and internal locus of control. They are confident in their leadership skills and ability to achieve objectives. These leaders also are complex and internally consistent.

    • A.

      Self-concept

    • B.

      Leadership motivation

    • C.

      Cognitive and practical intelligence

    • D.

      Emotional intelligence

    • E.

      Personality

    Correct Answer
    A. Self-concept
    Explanation
    Competency Perspective of Leadership

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  • 5. 

    Represents the inner motivation that leaders possess to pursue their goals and encourage others to move foward with theirs. Inspires inquisitiveness, an action-orientation, and boldness.

    • A.

      Cognitive and practical intelligence

    • B.

      Integrity

    • C.

      Drive

    • D.

      Self-concept

    • E.

      Knowledge of the business

    Correct Answer
    C. Drive
    Explanation
    Competency Perspective of Leadership

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  • 6. 

    Refers to truthfulness and consistency of words and actions, which is related to honesty and ethics. Leadership have a high moral capacity to judge dilemmas based on sound values and to act accordingly.

    • A.

      Personality

    • B.

      Leadership motivation

    • C.

      Self-concept

    • D.

      Cognitive and practical intelligence

    • E.

      Integrity

    Correct Answer
    E. Integrity
    Explanation
    Competency Perspective of Leadership

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  • 7. 

    A strong need for socialized power, meaning that they want power as a means to accomplish organizational objectives and similar good deeds. Contrasts with a need fo personalized power, which is the desire for power for personal gain or for the thrill one might experience from wielding power over others. Necessary because leaders are in contests for positions further up the hierachy. Effective leaders thrive rather than wither in the face of this competition.

    • A.

      Drive

    • B.

      Leadership motivation

    • C.

      Knowledge of the business

    • D.

      Cognitive and practical intelligence

    • E.

      Emotional intelligence

    Correct Answer
    B. Leadership motivation
    Explanation
    Competency Perspective of Leadership

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  • 8. 

    Effective leaders possess tacit and explicit knowledge of the business environment in which they operate.

    • A.

      Emotional intelligence

    • B.

      Cognitive and practical intellience

    • C.

      Knowledge of the business

    • D.

      Self-concept

    • E.

      Leadership motivation

    Correct Answer
    C. Knowledge of the business
    Explanation
    Competency Perspective of Leadership

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  • 9. 

    Leaders have above-average cognitive ability to process enormous amount of information. Leaders have practical knowledge; they are able to use their information of the business to solve real-world problems by adapting to, shaping, or selecting appropriate environments.

    • A.

      Knowledge of the business

    • B.

      Cognitive and practical intellience

    • C.

      Emotional intelligence

    • D.

      Leadership motivation

    • E.

      Drive

    Correct Answer
    B. Cognitive and practical intellience
    Explanation
    Competency Perspective of Leadership
    knowledge = intelligence
    information = knowledge

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  • 10. 

    Effective leaders have a high level of this. They are able to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, undestand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in themselves and others.

    • A.

      Self-concept

    • B.

      Drive

    • C.

      Emotional intelligence

    • D.

      Personality

    • E.

      Integrity

    Correct Answer
    C. Emotional intelligence
    Explanation
    Competency Perspective of Leadership

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  • 11. 

    Assumes that all effective leaders have the same personal chracteristics that are equally important in all situations. Alternative cominations of competencies may be equally successful. Views leadership as something within a person, yet experts emphasize that leadership is relational. People are effective leaders because of their favourable relationship with followers. On the contrary, skills and aptitudes only indicate potential, not leadership performance.

    • A.

      Evaluating the transformational leadership perspective

    • B.

      Competency perspective limitations and practical implications

    • C.

      Behavioural perspect of leadership

    • D.

      Fiedler's contingency model

    • E.

      The romance of leadership

    Correct Answer
    B. Competency perspective limitations and practical implications
    Explanation
    Competency Perspective of Leadership
    skills and aptitudes = competencies

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  • 12. 

    One clusters people-oriented behaviours. Includes showing mutual trust and respect for subordinates, demonstrating a genuine concern for their needs, and having a desire to look out for their welfare. Task-oriented leaders assign employees to specific tasks and ensure that they follow company rules. They establish stretch gooals and challenge employees to push beyond those high standards. Each of thse clusters of activities is fairly distinct. Assumes high levels of both styles are best in all situations. The best leadership style depends on the situation.

    • A.

      Competency perspective limitations and practical implications

    • B.

      Behavioural perspective of leadership

    • C.

      The romance of leadership

    • D.

      Evaluating the transformational leadership perspective

    • E.

      Leadership substitutes

    Correct Answer
    B. Behavioural perspective of leadership
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "behavioural perspective of leadership". The explanation for this answer is that the passage describes different clusters of behaviors exhibited by leaders, such as people-oriented behaviors and task-oriented behaviors. This aligns with the behavioral perspective of leadership, which focuses on the actions and behaviors of leaders rather than their traits or characteristics. The passage also mentions that the best leadership style depends on the situation, which further supports the idea that leadership is viewed from a behavioral perspective.

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  • 13. 

     Subordinates have higher effective organizational commitment. Perform their jobs better, engage in more organizational citizenship behaviours, and make better or more creative decisions. Circular logic by defining this in terms of the leader's success. Described a universal rather than contingency-oriented model. Relevant across cultures. The way visions are formed and communicated are more appropriate in some cultures than other cultures.

    • A.

      Implicit leadership theory

    • B.

      The romance of leadership

    • C.

      Evaluating the transformational leadership perspective

    • D.

      Competency perspective limitations and practical implications

    • E.

      Behavioural perspective of leadership

    Correct Answer
    C. Evaluating the transformational leadership perspective
    Explanation
    Transformational Perspect of Leadership

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  • 14. 

    Followers tend to distort their perception of the influence that leaders have on the environment. Life events are generated more from people than from uncontrollably natural forces. One way that followers support their perceptions that leaders make a difference is through fundamental attribution error. Research has found that leaders are given credit or blame for the company's success or failure because employees do not readily see the external forces that also influence these events.

    • A.

      Cross-cultural and gender issues in leadership

    • B.

      Competency perspective limitations and practical implications

    • C.

      Evaluating the transformational leadership perspective

    • D.

      Behavioural perspective of leadership

    • E.

      The romance of leadership

    Correct Answer
    E. The romance of leadership
    Explanation
    Implicit Leadership Perspective

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  • 15. 

    Cultural values and practices affect what leaders do. Culture shapes the leader's value and norms, which influence his or her decisions and actions. Also shapes the expectations that followers have of their leaders. An executive who acts inconsistently with cultural epectations is more likely to be perceived as an ineffective leader.

    • A.

      Behavioural perspective of leadership

    • B.

      The romance of leadership

    • C.

      Competency perspective limitations and practical implications

    • D.

      Cross-cultural and gender issues in leadership

    • E.

      Evaluating the transformational leadership perspective

    Correct Answer
    D. Cross-cultural and gender issues in leadership
    Explanation
    The given statement highlights the impact of cultural values and practices on leaders and their actions. It suggests that leaders who act inconsistently with cultural expectations are more likely to be perceived as ineffective. This aligns with the concept of cross-cultural issues in leadership, as it emphasizes the importance of understanding and adapting to different cultural contexts. Additionally, the mention of gender issues in leadership further supports the relevance of considering cultural factors when examining leadership effectiveness.

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  • 16. 

    Based on the expectancy theory of motivation that relates several leadership styles to specific employee and situational contingencies. Employee perceptions of expectancies between employee effort and performance. States that effective leaders ensure that employees who perform their jobs well receive more value rewards than those who perform poorly.

    • A.

      Implicit leadership theory

    • B.

      Fiedler's contingency model

    • C.

      Situational leadership theory

    • D.

      Path-goal leadership theory

    • E.

      Shared leadership

    Correct Answer
    D. Path-goal leadership theory
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership

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  • 17. 

    Clarifying behaviours that provide a psychologial structure for subordinates. The leader clarifies performance goals, and the standards against which performance will be judged. Also includes judicious use of rewards and disciplinary actions. Is the same as task-oriented leadership.

    • A.

      Supportive

    • B.

      The romance of leadership

    • C.

      Directive

    • D.

      Achieve-oriented

    • E.

      Participative

    Correct Answer
    C. Directive
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Path-Goal Leadership Styles

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  • 18. 

    These behaviours provide psychological support for subordinates. The leader is friendly and approachable; makes the work more pleasant; treats employees with equal respect; and shows concern for the status, needs, and well-being of employees. The same as people-oriented leadership and reflects the benefits of social support to help employees cope with stressful situations.

    • A.

      Participative

    • B.

      Supportive

    • C.

      Behavioural perspective of leadership

    • D.

      Directive

    • E.

      Achievement-oriented

    Correct Answer
    B. Supportive
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Path-Goal Leadership Styles

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  • 19. 

    These behaviours encouraged and faciliate subordinate involvement in decisions beyond their normal work activities. The leader consults with employees, ask for their suggestions, and takes these ideas into serious consideration before making a decision. Relates to involving employees in decisions.

    • A.

      Achievement-oriented

    • B.

      Cross-cultural and gender issues in leadership

    • C.

      Participative

    • D.

      Supportive

    • E.

      Directive

    Correct Answer
    C. Participative
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Path-Goal Leadership Styles

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  • 20. 

    These behaviours encourage employees to reach their peak performance. The leader sets challenging goals, expects employees to perform at their highest level, continuously seeks improvement in employee performance, and shows a high degree of confidence that employees will assume responsibility and accomplish challenging goals. Applies goal-setting theory as well as positive expectations in self-fulfilling prophecy.

    • A.

      Fiedler's contingency model

    • B.

      Directive

    • C.

      Achievement-oriented

    • D.

      Supportive

    • E.

      Participative

    Correct Answer
    C. Achievement-oriented
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Path-Goal Leadership Styles

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  • 21. 

    A combination of directive and supportive leadership is best for employees who are or perceive themselves to be inexperienced and unskilled. Directive leadership gives subordinates information about how to accomplish the task, whereas supportive leadership helps them cope with the uncertainties of unfamiliar work situations. Directive leadership is detrimental when employees are skilled and experienced beause it introduces too much supervisory control.

    • A.

      Task structure

    • B.

      Locus of control

    • C.

      Supportive

    • D.

      Team dynamics

    • E.

      Skill and experience

    Correct Answer
    E. Skill and experience
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Contingencies of Path-Goal Theory

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  • 22. 

    People with this believe that they have control over their work environment. Consequently, these employees prefer participative and achievement-oriented leadership styles and may become frustrated with a directive style. In contrast, people with this believe that their performance is due to more to luck and fate, so they tend to be more satisfied with directive and supportive leadership.

    • A.

      Locus of control

    • B.

      Participative

    • C.

      Skill and experience

    • D.

      Task structure

    • E.

      Team dynamics

    Correct Answer
    A. Locus of control
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Contingencies of Path-Goal Theory

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  • 23. 

    Leadership should adopt the directive style when the duty is nonroutine, because this style minimizes role ambiguity that tends to occur in these complex work situations particularly for inexperienced employees. The directive style is ineffective when employees have routine and simple tasks because the manager's guidance serves no purpose and may be viewed as unnecessarily close control. Employees in highly routine and simple jobs may require supportive leadership to help them cope with the tedious nature of the work and lack of control over the pace of work. Participative leadership is preferred for perfoming nonroutine tasks because the lack of rules and procedures gives them more discretion to achieve challenging goals. The participative style is ineffective for employees in routine tasks because they lack discretion over their work.

    • A.

      Team dynamics

    • B.

      Directive

    • C.

      Task structure

    • D.

      Skill and experience

    • E.

      Locus of control

    Correct Answer
    C. Task structure
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Contingencies of Path-Goal Theory
    duty = task

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  • 24. 

    Cohesive groups with performance-oriented norms act as a substitute for most leader inventions. High group cohesion substitutes for supportive leadership, whereas peformance-oriented group norms substitute for directive and possibly achievement-oriented leadership. When group cohesiveness is low, leaders should use the supportive style. Leaders should apply a directive style to counteract group norms that oppose the group's formal obectives. For example, the group leader may need to use legitimate power if group members have developed a norm to take it easy rather than get a project completed on time.

    • A.

      Team dynamics

    • B.

      Skill and experience

    • C.

      Locus of control

    • D.

      Achievement-oriented

    • E.

      Task structure

    Correct Answer
    A. Team dynamics
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Contingencies of Path-Goal Theory
    groups = teams

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  • 25. 

    A commercially popular but poorly supported leadership model, stating that effective leaders vary their style (telling, selling, participating, delegating) with the readiness of followers. In spite of its popularity, several studies and at least three reviews have concluded that this lacks empircal support.

    • A.

      Evaluating the transformational leadership perspective

    • B.

      Leadership substitutes

    • C.

      Situational leadership theory

    • D.

      Fiedler's contingency model

    • E.

      Changing the situation to match the leader's natural style

    Correct Answer
    C. Situational leadership theory
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Other Contingency Theories

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  • 26. 

    Suggests that effective leader effectivenes depends on whether the person's natural leadership is appropriately matched to the situation. Depends on the level of situational control, the degree of power and influence that the leader possesses in a particular situation.

    • A.

      Implicit leadership theory

    • B.

      Changing the situation to match the leader's natural style

    • C.

      Cross-cultural and gender issues in leadership

    • D.

      Situational leadership theory

    • E.

      Fiedler's contingency model

    Correct Answer
    E. Fiedler's contingency model
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Other Contingency Theories

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  • 27. 

    Suggested by Fiedler's contingency model. More recent scholars have proposed that leadership styles are hard-wired more than most contingency leadership theories assume. If leadership style is influenced by a person's personality, then organizations should engineer the situation to fit the leader's dominant style, rather than expect leaders to change their style with the situation.

    • A.

      Transformational leadership

    • B.

      Fiedler's contingency model

    • C.

      Leadership substitutes

    • D.

      Competency perspective limitations and practical implications

    • E.

      Changing the situation to match the leader's natural style

    Correct Answer
    E. Changing the situation to match the leader's natural style
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Other Contingency Theories

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  • 28. 

    A theory identifying contingencies that either limit the leader's ability to influence subordinates or make that particular leadership style unnecessary. Task-oriented leadership is also less important when employees are skilled and experienced. Research suggests that effective leaders help team members learn to lead themselves through this; in other words, co-workers take the place of leadership in high involvement and team structures. Co-workers instruct new employees thereby providing directive leadership.

    • A.

      Transactional leadership

    • B.

      Transformational leadership

    • C.

      Implicit leadership theory

    • D.

      Leadership substitutes

    • E.

      The romance of leadership

    Correct Answer
    D. Leadership substitutes
    Explanation
    Contingency Perspective of Leadership: Leadership Substitues
    take the place of = substitute

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  • 29. 

    Explains how leaders change teams or organizations by creating, communicating, and modelling a vision for the organization or work unit, and inspriring employees to strive for that vision. Should be thought of as managing or doing things right. Is about leading - changing the organization's strategies and culture so that they have a better fit with the surrounding environment. 

    • A.

      Transformational leadership

    • B.

      Transactional leadership

    • C.

      Path-goal leadership theory

    • D.

      Shared leadership

    • E.

      Leadership

    Correct Answer
    A. Transformational leadership
    Explanation
    Transformational Perspective of Leadership: Transformational Versus Transactional Leadership

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  • 30. 

    Leadership that helps organizations achieve their current objectives more efficiently, such as linking job performance to valued rewards and ensuring that employees have the resources needed to get the job done.

    • A.

      Shared leadership

    • B.

      Transactional leadership

    • C.

      Transformational leadership

    • D.

      Leadership

    • E.

      Implicit leadership theory

    Correct Answer
    B. Transactional leadership
    Explanation
    Transformational Perspective of Leadership: Transformational Versus Transactional Leadership

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  • 31. 

    When transformational leaders shape this of a realistic and attractive future that bonds employees together and focuses their energy toward a superordinate organizational goal. Reflects a future for the company or work unit that is ultimately accepted and valued by organizational members. Might originate with the leader, but is just as likely to emerge from the employees, clients, suppliers, or other stakeholders.

    • A.

      Communicating the vision

    • B.

      Modelling the vision

    • C.

      Skill and experience

    • D.

      Creating a strategic vision

    • E.

      Building commitment toward the vision

    Correct Answer
    D. Creating a strategic vision
    Explanation
    Transformational Perspective of Leadership: Elements of Transformational Leadership

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  • 32. 

    When transformational leaders frame messages around a grand purpose with emotional appeal that captivates employees and other corporate stakeholders. Framing helps transformational leaders establish a common mental model so that the group or organization will act collectively toward the desirable goal.

    • A.

      Creating a strategic vision

    • B.

      Building commitment toward the vision

    • C.

      Modelling the vision

    • D.

      Team dynamics

    • E.

      Communicating the vision

    Correct Answer
    E. Communicating the vision
    Explanation
    Transformational Perspective of Leadership: Elements of Transformational Leadership

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  • 33. 

    Transformational leaders not only talk about a vision but they enact it. They walk the talk by stepping outside the executive suite and doing things that symbolize the vision. They are also reliable and persistent in their actions, thereby legitimizing the vision and providing further evidence that they can be trusted.

    • A.

      Creating a strategic vision

    • B.

      Modelling the vision

    • C.

      Communicating the vision

    • D.

      Building commitment toward the vision

    • E.

      Task structure

    Correct Answer
    B. Modelling the vision
    Explanation
    Transformational Perspective of Leadership: Elements of Transformational Leadership

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  • 34. 

    When transformational leaders use their words, symbols, and stories build a contagious enthusiasm that energizes enacting their vision and staying on course. Their persistence and consistency reflect an image of honesty, trust, and integrity. Finally, leaders do this by involving employees in the process of shaping the organization's vision.

    • A.

      Communicating the vision

    • B.

      Locus of control

    • C.

      Creating a strategic vision

    • D.

      Building commitment toward the vision

    • E.

      Modelling the vision

    Correct Answer
    D. Building commitment toward the vision
    Explanation
    Transformational Perspective of Leadership: Elements of Transformational Leadership

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  • 35. 

    Stating that people evaluate a leader's effectiveness in terms of how well that person fits preconceived beliefs about the features and behaviours of effective leaders (leadership prototypes), and that they tend to inflate the influence of leaders on organizational events. This prototype comparison occurs because peope have an inherent need to quickly evaluate people as leaders, yet leadership effectiveness is often ambuiguous and might not be apparent for a long time.

    • A.

      Path-goal leadership theory

    • B.

      Transactional leadership

    • C.

      Shared leadership

    • D.

      Transformational leadership

    • E.

      Implicit leadership theory

    Correct Answer
    E. Implicit leadership theory
    Explanation
    Implicit Leadership Perspective: Prototypes of Effective Leaders

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 09, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Krista_500
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