Unit 3 Target 2 (Part 1): DNA Vs RNA

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Unit 3 Target 2 (Part 1): DNA Vs RNA - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The primary function of DNA is to

    • A.

      Make proteins.

    • B.

      Store and transmit genetic information.

    • C.

      Control chemical processes withing cells.

    • D.

      Prevent mutations.

    Correct Answer
    B. Store and transmit genetic information.
    Explanation
    The primary function of DNA is to store and transmit genetic information. DNA contains the instructions for building and maintaining an organism. It carries the genetic code that determines an organism's traits and characteristics. This genetic information is passed on from parent to offspring during reproduction. DNA also plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, but its main purpose is to store and transmit genetic information.

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  • 2. 

    All of the following are true about DNA except

    • A.

      Short strands of DNA are contained in chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell.

    • B.

      Every DNA nucleotide contains a sugar, a phosphate group, and a base.

    • C.

      DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides joined by hydrogen bonds.

    • D.

      The long strands of nucleotides are twisted into a double helix.

    Correct Answer
    A. Short strands of DNA are contained in chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that short strands of DNA are contained in chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell. The other statements are all true about DNA. DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides joined by hydrogen bonds, and these long strands of nucleotides are twisted into a double helix. Additionally, every DNA nucleotide contains a sugar, a phosphate group, and a base. However, short strands of DNA are not contained in chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes are made up of long strands of DNA.

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  • 3. 

    Molecules of DNA are composed of long chains of 

    • A.

      Amino acids.

    • B.

      Fatty acids.

    • C.

      Monosaccharides.

    • D.

      Nucleotides.

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleotides.
    Explanation
    Molecules of DNA are composed of long chains of nucleotides. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and consist of a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine). These nucleotides are connected together through phosphodiester bonds to form a long, double-stranded helical structure known as DNA. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, while fatty acids are components of lipids. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of carbohydrates. Therefore, the correct answer is nucleotides.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is not part of a molecule of DNA?

    • A.

      Deoxyribose.

    • B.

      Nitrogenous base.

    • C.

      Phosphate.

    • D.

      Ribose.

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribose.
    Explanation
    Ribose is not part of a molecule of DNA because DNA is composed of deoxyribose sugar, not ribose sugar. The sugar molecule in DNA is called deoxyribose because it lacks an oxygen atom on the second carbon in the sugar ring. The nitrogenous base and phosphate groups are essential components of DNA, while ribose is found in RNA molecules instead.

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  • 5. 

    Refer to the illustration above.  The entire molecule shown in the diagram is called a(n)

    • A.

      Amino acid.

    • B.

      Nucleotide.

    • C.

      Polysaccharide.

    • D.

      Pyrimidine.

    Correct Answer
    B. Nucleotide.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is nucleotide. This is because the diagram shows a molecule consisting of a phosphate group, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogenous base. This structure is characteristic of a nucleotide, which is the building block of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, polysaccharides are large carbohydrates made up of repeating sugar units, and pyrimidine is a type of nitrogenous base found in nucleotides but does not describe the entire molecule shown in the diagram.

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  • 6. 

    RNA differs from DNA in that RNA

    • A.

      Is sometimes single-stranded.

    • B.

      Contains a different sugar molecule.

    • C.

      Contains the nitrogen base uracil.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    RNA differs from DNA in multiple ways. Firstly, RNA can be single-stranded, whereas DNA is always double-stranded. Secondly, RNA contains a different sugar molecule called ribose, while DNA contains deoxyribose. Lastly, RNA contains the nitrogen base uracil instead of thymine, which is found in DNA. Therefore, all of the given options are correct explanations of how RNA differs from DNA.

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  • 7. 

    RNA is chemically similar to DNA except that its sugars have an additional oxygen atom and the base thymine is replaced by a structurally similar base called

    • A.

      Uracil.

    • B.

      Alanine.

    • C.

      Cytosine.

    • D.

      Codon.

    Correct Answer
    A. Uracil.
    Explanation
    RNA is chemically similar to DNA, but it has some key differences. One of these differences is that RNA's sugars have an additional oxygen atom compared to DNA. Another difference is that RNA replaces the base thymine found in DNA with a structurally similar base called uracil. Therefore, the correct answer is uracil.

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  • 8. 

    In RNA molecules, adenine is complementary to 

    • A.

      Cytosine.

    • B.

      Guanine.

    • C.

      Thymine.

    • D.

      Uracil.

    Correct Answer
    D. Uracil.
    Explanation
    In RNA molecules, adenine is complementary to uracil. This is because RNA uses uracil instead of thymine as one of its four nucleotide bases. Adenine forms a complementary base pair with uracil through hydrogen bonding, where adenine and uracil are attracted to each other and form a stable structure within the RNA molecule. This base pairing is essential for the proper functioning of RNA in processes such as protein synthesis.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Oct 21, 2014
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    Jdowdyrobinson
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