DNA And RNA Structure Test Quiz!

Reviewed by Farah Naz
Farah Naz, MBBS, Medicine |
Medical Expert
Review Board Member
Farah holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) from Dow University of Health Sciences. She gained valuable experience through internships in Radiology, Cardiology, and Neurosurgery, and has contributed to two research publications in medical journals. Passionate about healthcare education, Farah excels in crafting medical content, including articles, literature reviews, and e-learning courses. Leveraging her expertise, she meticulously reviews medical science quizzes, ensuring accuracy and educational value for aspiring healthcare professionals.
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DNA And RNA Structure Test Quiz! - Quiz


Do you know about RNA and DNA with their structures? Check out this amazing quiz and test your knowledge for the same. DNA and RNA are the essential molecules in cell biology. They help with keeping and reading genetic information that exemplifies all life. They are both linear polymers consisting of sugars, phosphates, and bases.

From the iconic double helix model of DNA to the versatile roles of RNA in protein synthesis and gene regulation, get ready to test your knowledge on nucleotide sequences, base pairing rules, replication, transcription, and translation processes. With carefully crafted questions ranging from basic concepts Read moreto more complex mechanisms, this quiz is your gateway to mastering the intricacies of DNA and RNA structure. Embark on this educational journey and unlock the secrets of genetic material that govern life itself!


DNA and RNA Structure Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    Who discovered the structure of DNA?

    • A.

      Watson, Crick and Franklin

    • B.

      Mendel

    • C.

      Einstein

    • D.

      Samuelson

    Correct Answer
    A. Watson, Crick and Franklin
    Explanation
    Watson, Crick, and Franklin are credited with discovering the structure of DNA. James Watson and Francis Crick, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, proposed the double helix structure of DNA in 1953. They built upon the work of Rosalind Franklin, a British biophysicist, who had produced X-ray crystallography images of DNA. Franklin's images provided crucial evidence for the helical structure of DNA. While Maurice Wilkins also played a significant role in the discovery, he is not mentioned as an option in this question. Mendel, Einstein, and Samuelson are not associated with the discovery of DNA's structure.

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  • 2. 

    In DNA, what pairs with Adenine?

    • A.

      Adenine

    • B.

      Guanine

    • C.

      Cytosine

    • D.

      Thymine

    Correct Answer
    D. Thymine
    Explanation
    Adenine pairs with Thymine in DNA. This is because in DNA, the base pairing rule states that Adenine always pairs with Thymine, and Guanine always pairs with Cytosine. This complementary base pairing is essential for DNA replication and the transmission of genetic information.

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  • 3. 

    What holds one strand of DNA to the other strand?

    • A.

      Covalent bonds

    • B.

      Ionic bonds

    • C.

      Hydrogen bonds

    • D.

      Carbon bonds

    Correct Answer
    C. Hydrogen bonds
    Explanation
    Hydrogen bonds hold one strand of DNA to the other strand. This is because the nitrogenous bases in DNA (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) form hydrogen bonds with each other. Adenine pairs with thymine through two hydrogen bonds, while cytosine pairs with guanine through three hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds provide the stability and complementary base pairing necessary for DNA replication and transcription. Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons, ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons, and carbon bonds are not specific types of bonds.

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  • 4. 

    What base is in RNA, but not in DNA?

    • A.

      Adenine

    • B.

      Guanine

    • C.

      Cytosine

    • D.

      Thymine

    • E.

      Uracil

    Correct Answer
    E. Uracil
    Explanation
    RNA (ribonucleic acid) is a molecule that is similar to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) but contains the base uracil instead of thymine. In DNA, thymine pairs with adenine, while in RNA, uracil pairs with adenine. Therefore, uracil is the base that is present in RNA but not in DNA.

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  • 5. 

    How many strands are RNA and DNA?

    • A.

      Both RNA and DNA are double stranded

    • B.

      RNA is single stranded and DNA is double stranded

    • C.

      RNA is double stranded and DNA is single stranded

    • D.

      Both RNA and DNA are single stranded. 

    Correct Answer
    B. RNA is single stranded and DNA is double stranded
    Explanation
    RNA is single stranded and DNA is double stranded. This is because RNA is made up of a single strand of nucleotides, while DNA is made up of two strands that are complementary to each other and form a double helix structure. The single-stranded nature of RNA allows it to fold into complex secondary structures and perform various functions in the cell, such as carrying genetic information and catalyzing chemical reactions. On the other hand, the double-stranded structure of DNA provides stability and allows for accurate replication and transmission of genetic information during cell division.

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  • 6. 

    Which of these nucleic acids contain nitrogenous bases?

    • A.

      DNA, only

    • B.

      RNA, only

    • C.

      DNA and RNA

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. DNA and RNA
    Explanation
    Both DNA and RNA contain nitrogenous bases. These nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) in DNA, and adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U) in RNA. These nitrogenous bases are essential for the genetic information storage and transfer processes in both DNA and RNA.

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  • 7. 

    DNA is the instructions for the cell. If it is in the nucleus, how do the instructions get into the cytoplasm and to the organelles?

    • A.

      The DNA will go through small holes (pores) in the nuclear membrane to the cytoplasm.

    • B.

      Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a copy of the instructions contained in DNA and it can move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. 

    • C.

      The instructions for the cell do not have to get into the cytoplasm. 

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a copy of the instructions contained in DNA and it can move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. 
    Explanation
    mRNA serves as a messenger that carries the instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm. It is a copy of the DNA instructions and is capable of moving through the nuclear membrane pores into the cytoplasm. Once in the cytoplasm, mRNA can deliver the instructions to the organelles, allowing them to carry out their functions. Therefore, the correct answer is that mRNA is responsible for transferring the instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and organelles.

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  • 8. 

    Where is DNA found?

    • A.

      In the nucleus

    • B.

      In the Cytoplasm

    • C.

      In human body

    • D.

      In mitochondria

    Correct Answer
    A. In the nucleus
    Explanation
    DNA is found in the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell and contains the genetic material, including DNA. DNA carries the instructions for the development, functioning, and reproduction of all living organisms. It is responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information from one generation to the next. The DNA in the nucleus is organized into structures called chromosomes.

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  • 9. 

    What is the smallest unit of nucleic acids?

    • A.

      Amino acids

    • B.

      Monosaccharide

    • C.

      Nucleotide

    • D.

      Glycerol

    Correct Answer
    C. Nucleotide
    Explanation
    A nucleotide is the smallest unit of nucleic acids. Nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, are made up of long chains of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. These nucleotides are linked together through phosphodiester bonds to form the backbone of the nucleic acid molecule. Therefore, nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids and play a crucial role in storing and transmitting genetic information.

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  • 10. 

    Which nucleic acid contains ribose?

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      RNA

    • C.

      Both of these

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. RNA
    Explanation
    RNA contains ribose because ribose is a sugar molecule that is a component of RNA. DNA, on the other hand, contains deoxyribose, which is a slightly different sugar molecule. Therefore, the correct answer is RNA.

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  • 11. 

    What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?

    • A.

      Sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), Amino acid, sulfur

    • B.

      Sugar (1 of 4 types), nitrogenous base and sulfur group

    • C.

      Sulfur group, phosphate group and nitrogenous base

    • D.

      Sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), Nitrogenous base, phosphate group

    Correct Answer
    D. Sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), Nitrogenous base, phosphate group
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), nitrogenous base, and phosphate group. A nucleotide is composed of these three components. The sugar can be either ribose or deoxyribose, and it forms the backbone of the nucleotide. The nitrogenous base can be adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine, and it pairs with another nitrogenous base in DNA. The phosphate group is responsible for linking the nucleotides together to form the DNA or RNA strand.

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  • 12. 

    DNA stands for

    • A.

      Deoxyribonucleic acid

    • B.

      Deoxynucleic acid

    • C.

      Deoxynuclear acid

    • D.

      Denatured acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Deoxyribonucleic acid
    Explanation
    DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms. The term "deoxyribose" refers to the sugar component of the DNA molecule, which is deoxyribose. "Nucleic acid" indicates that DNA is composed of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of the molecule. Therefore, the correct answer is deoxyribonucleic acid.

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  • 13. 

    The process by which DNA makes a copy of itself is called what?

    • A.

      Replication

    • B.

      Synthesis

    • C.

      Translation

    • D.

      Transcription

    Correct Answer
    A. Replication
    Explanation
    The process by which DNA makes a copy of itself is called replication. During replication, the DNA molecule unwinds and separates into two strands, and each strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. This results in two identical DNA molecules, each containing one original strand and one newly synthesized strand. Synthesis, translation, and transcription are all important processes in gene expression and protein synthesis, but they are not specifically related to DNA copying itself.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following shows the sequence and orientation of the primer’s DNA template?

    • A.

      5’-AGGCTTGACGACTCAGCT-3'

    • B.

      3’-AGGCTTGACGACTCAGCT-5’

    • C.

      3’-GAATCCAGTAGTCTGATC-5’

    • D.

      5’-GAATCCAGTAGTCTGATC-3’

    Correct Answer
    C. 3’-GAATCCAGTAGTCTGATC-5’
    Explanation
    The correct answer, 3'-GAATCCAGTAGTCTGATC-5', shows the sequence and orientation of the primer's DNA template. The primer's DNA template is read from the 3' end to the 5' end, and the sequence is GAATCCAGTAGTCTGATC.

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  • 15. 

    By which process RNA is made from DNA?

    • A.

      Transcription

    • B.

      Synthesis

    • C.

      Replication

    • D.

      Translation

    Correct Answer
    A. Transcription
    Explanation
    Transcription is the process by which RNA is made from DNA. During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA strand and synthesizes a complementary RNA molecule. This RNA molecule carries the genetic information from the DNA and can be used to produce proteins during translation. Therefore, transcription is the correct process by which RNA is made from DNA.

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Farah Naz |MBBS, Medicine |
Medical Expert
Farah holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) from Dow University of Health Sciences. She gained valuable experience through internships in Radiology, Cardiology, and Neurosurgery, and has contributed to two research publications in medical journals. Passionate about healthcare education, Farah excels in crafting medical content, including articles, literature reviews, and e-learning courses. Leveraging her expertise, she meticulously reviews medical science quizzes, ensuring accuracy and educational value for aspiring healthcare professionals.

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  • Current Version
  • Apr 09, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team

    Expert Reviewed by
    Farah Naz
  • May 13, 2019
    Quiz Created by
    Kwchiro
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