Test: DNA Structure And Function! Quiz

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Test: DNA Structure And Function! Quiz - Quiz


DNA transports genetic information through its chemical structure and molecular behavior. DNA is a molecule that encompasses the instructions on organism needs to build, live, and reproduce. These rules are found inside every cell and are passed down from parents to their children. There are three stages of DNA. These include chemical structure, double helix, and the function of DNA. This quiz may pique your curiosity, and we promise you will enjoy it.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which is NOT a major function of the genetic material?

    • A.

      Store information

    • B.

      Catalyze chemical reactions

    • C.

      Replicate itself

    • D.

      Undergo mutation

    Correct Answer
    B. Catalyze chemical reactions
    Explanation
    The genetic material is responsible for storing information, replicating itself, and undergoing mutation. However, it does not directly catalyze chemical reactions. Instead, enzymes and other proteins are responsible for catalyzing chemical reactions in the cell.

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  • 2. 

    Nucleic acid was first discovered in pus cells by:

    • A.

      Chargaff

    • B.

      Meischer

    • C.

      Griffith

    • D.

      Hershey

    • E.

      Chase.

    Correct Answer
    B. Meischer
    Explanation
    Friedrich Miescher, a Swiss biochemist, is credited with the discovery of nucleic acids. In 1869, he isolated a substance from the nuclei of pus cells, which he called "nuclein." This substance was later identified as nucleic acid. Miescher's discovery laid the foundation for further research on nucleic acids and their role in genetics and heredity.

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  • 3. 

    The amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of _______ in DNA.

    • A.

      Cytosine

    • B.

      Uracil

    • C.

      Guanine

    • D.

      Thymine

    • E.

      ATP

    Correct Answer
    D. Thymine
    Explanation
    In DNA, adenine always pairs with thymine, forming a specific base pair. This means that the amount of adenine will always be equal to the amount of thymine in DNA. The other options, cytosine, uracil, guanine, and ATP, are not always equal in amount to adenine in DNA.

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  • 4. 

    The X-ray diffraction photography of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins was critical evidence of which aspect of DNA structure?

    • A.

      Indicating that DNA has a double helix structure.

    • B.

      Showing equal numbers of purines and pyrimidines.

    • C.

      Showing the bases of DNA were held together by hydrogen bonds.

    • D.

      Revealing the structure of the deoxyribose sugar.

    • E.

      Of the location of each adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.

    Correct Answer
    A. Indicating that DNA has a double helix structure.
    Explanation
    The X-ray diffraction photography of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins provided evidence that DNA has a double helix structure. This means that the DNA molecule consists of two strands that are twisted around each other in a helical shape. The X-ray diffraction pattern produced by Franklin and Wilkins showed a distinct X shape, indicating the presence of a helix. This discovery was crucial in understanding the overall structure of DNA and its role in genetic information storage and replication.

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  • 5. 

    Chargaff's rules showed that different species contain differing base compositions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Chargaff's rules, discovered by Austrian biochemist Erwin Chargaff, state that in DNA, the amount of adenine (A) is equal to the amount of thymine (T), and the amount of guanine (G) is equal to the amount of cytosine (C). This means that different species have different base compositions, as the proportions of A, T, G, and C can vary. Therefore, the statement that "Chargaff's rules showed that different species contain differing base compositions" is true.

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  • 6. 

    Watson and Crick's original model had the complementary bases of DNA are located on the outside of the helix, with the sugar-phosphate backbone on the inside. Were they...

    • A.

      Right?

    • B.

      Wrong?

    Correct Answer
    B. Wrong?
    Explanation
    Watson and Crick's original model of DNA had the complementary bases located on the inside of the helix, with the sugar-phosphate backbone on the outside. This model, known as the double helix structure, was a groundbreaking discovery in understanding the structure of DNA.

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  • 7. 

    Complementary base pairing always pairs a purine base with a pyrimidine base.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Complementary base pairing refers to the specific pairing of nucleotide bases in DNA. It follows a strict rule where adenine (purine base) always pairs with thymine (pyrimidine base), and cytosine (pyrimidine base) always pairs with guanine (purine base). This pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription processes. Therefore, the statement that complementary base pairing always pairs a purine base with a pyrimidine base is true.

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  • 8. 

    The basic unit of structure in a DNA molecule is a...

    • A.

      Nucleotide

    • B.

      Nucleoside

    • C.

      Nucleolus

    • D.

      Nuclein

    Correct Answer
    A. Nucleotide
    Explanation
    A nucleotide is the correct answer because it is the basic unit of structure in a DNA molecule. Nucleotides are composed of a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine). These nucleotides join together through phosphodiester bonds to form the DNA molecule, with the nitrogenous bases pairing up (adenine with thymine and cytosine with guanine) to create the double helix structure. Nucleoside is not the correct answer as it lacks the phosphate group, nucleolus is a structure within the nucleus of a cell, and nuclein is an outdated term for nucleic acids.

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  • 9. 

    The bonds between W and X are:

    • A.

      Polar covalent

    • B.

      Phosphodiester

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Ether

    Correct Answer
    C. Hydrogen
    Explanation
    The bonds between W and X are hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds occur when a hydrogen atom is attracted to an electronegative atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen. In this case, there is likely a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative atom in W, and another electronegative atom in X that is able to form a hydrogen bond with it. Hydrogen bonds are relatively weak compared to covalent or ionic bonds, but they play an important role in stabilizing the structure of molecules and facilitating interactions between molecules.

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  • 10. 

    The bonds between Y  and Z  are:

    • A.

      Polar Covalent

    • B.

      Phosphodiester

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Ether

    Correct Answer
    B. Phosphodiester
    Explanation
    The bonds between Y and Z are phosphodiester bonds. Phosphodiester bonds are formed between a phosphate group and two sugar molecules in a DNA or RNA molecule. These bonds are strong and stable, allowing for the formation of the backbone of the DNA or RNA molecule. Polar covalent bonds involve the unequal sharing of electrons between atoms, hydrogen bonds occur when a hydrogen atom is attracted to an electronegative atom, and ethers are organic compounds characterized by an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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  • 11. 

    What do the 5' and 3' on this diagram indicate?

    • A.

      Which phosphates are available

    • B.

      Location of Deoxyribose sugars

    • C.

      Orientation of hydrogen bonds

    • D.

      Direction in which a strand of DNA is "read"

    Correct Answer
    D. Direction in which a strand of DNA is "read"
    Explanation
    The 5' and 3' on the diagram indicate the direction in which a strand of DNA is "read". DNA strands have a specific orientation, with one end referred to as the 5' end and the other end as the 3' end. This orientation is important because DNA is synthesized in a specific direction, with new nucleotides being added to the 3' end of the growing strand. The 5' to 3' directionality is also important for DNA replication and transcription processes.

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  • 12. 

    The 5' - 3'  and 3' - 5' of complementary strands is called ___________________.

    • A.

      Antisocial

    • B.

      Anticlimactic

    • C.

      Antiparallel

    • D.

      Antiperpendicular

    Correct Answer
    C. Antiparallel
    Explanation
    The 5' - 3' and 3' - 5' of complementary strands is called antiparallel because they run in opposite directions. In DNA, one strand runs from the 5' end to the 3' end, while the other strand runs from the 3' end to the 5' end. This antiparallel arrangement is important for DNA replication and the functioning of enzymes involved in DNA synthesis.

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  • 13. 

    We are able to keep an entire set of our genes in the nucleus of every cell thanks to...

    • A.

      A small number of genes

    • B.

      Histone proteins & supercoiling

    • C.

      Chromosomes

    • D.

      Nucleotides

    Correct Answer
    B. Histone proteins & supercoiling
    Explanation
    Histone proteins and supercoiling play a crucial role in keeping an entire set of our genes in the nucleus of every cell. Histone proteins help in organizing and packaging DNA into a compact structure called chromatin, which further condenses to form chromosomes. Supercoiling refers to the coiling of DNA upon itself, which helps in further compacting the genetic material. Together, histone proteins and supercoiling ensure that all the genes are tightly packed and protected within the nucleus, allowing efficient storage and regulation of genetic information.

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  • 14. 

    Unlike our somatic cells, the cells of prokaryotes are...

    • A.

      Haploid

    • B.

      Diploid

    • C.

      Tiny

    Correct Answer
    A. Haploid
    Explanation
    The cells of prokaryotes are haploid, meaning they contain only one set of chromosomes. This is in contrast to somatic cells, which are diploid and contain two sets of chromosomes. The term "haploid" refers to the number of sets of chromosomes present in a cell, and prokaryotes typically have a single circular chromosome. This characteristic allows for efficient replication and adaptation to changing environments in prokaryotes.

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  • 15. 

    The entire "library" of genes that members of a species share is called their __________.

    • A.

      Genetics

    • B.

      Genome

    • C.

      Gnome

    • D.

      Gnu

    Correct Answer
    B. Genome
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Genome". The term "genome" refers to the complete set of genetic material or genes present in an organism. It includes all the DNA sequences, including both coding and non-coding regions, that make up an individual's genetic makeup. This term is used to describe the entire collection of genes that members of a species share, encompassing all the hereditary information that is passed on from one generation to the next.

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  • 16. 

    The Griffiths experiment showed to the world that...

    • A.

      Bacteria cause pneumonia

    • B.

      Not all mice who get pneumonia will die

    • C.

      Something physically present in bacteria causes disease

    • D.

      Proteins are necessary for bacteria to be virulent.

    Correct Answer
    C. Something physically present in bacteria causes disease
    Explanation
    The Griffiths experiment showed that something physically present in bacteria causes disease. This experiment involved injecting mice with different strains of bacteria, and Griffiths observed that when mice were injected with heat-killed virulent bacteria, they still developed pneumonia. This indicated that the disease-causing factor was not the living bacteria themselves, but rather something physically present in the bacteria. This discovery revolutionized the understanding of infectious diseases and paved the way for further research on bacterial virulence factors.

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  • 17. 

    The Hershey and Chase experiment repeated the Griffiths experiment but used radioactive Sulfur and Phosphorus to trace the passing on of certain molecules. Which statement best reflects their results?

    • A.

      Second generation viruses produce their own proteins

    • B.

      Offspring viruses contain physical portions of parental DNA

    • C.

      Viruses create new DNA based on the genes in parental DNA

    • D.

      Protein is passed on to the next generation of viruses

    Correct Answer
    B. Offspring viruses contain physical portions of parental DNA
    Explanation
    The Hershey and Chase experiment used radioactive Sulfur and Phosphorus to trace the passing on of certain molecules. The experiment showed that when the bacteriophages infected the bacteria, only the radioactive DNA from the phages was found inside the bacteria, while the radioactive proteins remained outside. This indicated that the DNA was the genetic material being passed on from one generation of viruses to the next. Therefore, the statement "Offspring viruses contain physical portions of parental DNA" best reflects their results.

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