Chapter 14: DNA: The Genetic Material

40 Questions | Total Attempts: 1832

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Chapter 14: DNA: The Genetic Material

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    DNA consists of two antiparallel strands of nucleotide chains held together by
    • A. 

      Peptide bonds.

    • B. 

      Polar covalent bonds.

    • C. 

      Ionic bonds.

    • D. 

      Hydrogen bonds.

    • E. 

      Complementary base pairing bonds.

  • 2. 
    The method of DNA replication, where each original strand is used as a template to build a new strand, is called the
    • A. 

      Conservative method.

    • B. 

      Semiconservative method.

    • C. 

      Disruptive method.

    • D. 

      Continuous method.

    • E. 

      Replication and amplification method.

  • 3. 
    The enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA molecules is called
    • A. 

      DNA ligase.

    • B. 

      DNA polymerase.

    • C. 

      DNA gyrase.

    • D. 

      DNA helicase.

    • E. 

      DNA endonuclease.

  • 4. 
    Griffith worked with
    • A. 

      Bacteriophage.

    • B. 

      Drosophila.

    • C. 

      Frog eggs.

    • D. 

      Streptococcus.

  • 5. 
    When nonvirulent bacteria were mixed with dead virulent bacteria, Griffith unexpectedly found that the injected mice died. He explained this behavior by suggesting the nonvirulent strain of bacteria as being
    • A. 

      Activated.

    • B. 

      Transformed.

    • C. 

      Translated.

    • D. 

      Transcribed.

    • E. 

      Expressed.

  • 6. 
    Avery and his coworkers showed the "transforming principle" as
    • A. 

      Protein.

    • B. 

      Polysaccharide.

    • C. 

      DNA.

    • D. 

      RNA.

    • E. 

      Lipid.

  • 7. 
    Which of the following statements about the Hershey-Chase experiment is false?
    • A. 

      DNA was labeled with radioactive phosphorus.

    • B. 

      Protein was labeled with radioactive sulfur.

    • C. 

      The virus-infected bacteria showed radioactive phosphorus.

    • D. 

      The virus-infected bacteria contained radioactive sulfur.

  • 8. 
    Hershey-Chase concluded from their experiment with T2 bacteriophage that
    • A. 

      Proteins are the genetic material.

    • B. 

      Polysaccharide coat contains the genetic material.

    • C. 

      DNA is the genetic material.

    • D. 

      Viruses are needed for DNA to function.

    • E. 

      DNA contains sulfur.

  • 9. 
    A bacteriophage typically attaches to the bacterium and then
    • A. 

      Converts the bacteria into immortal cells.

    • B. 

      Injects its nucleic acid into it, and then the ghost virus stays outside.

    • C. 

      Falls off every time.

    • D. 

      Viral protein is injected and the viral DNA stays outside.

    • E. 

      It becomes inactive.

  • 10. 
    DNA primase
    • A. 

      Creates a short RNA primer complementary to the RNA template.

    • B. 

      Creates a short DNA primer complementary to the RNA template.

    • C. 

      Creates a short DNA primer complementary to the DNA template.

    • D. 

      Creates a short template of an RNA primer that is complementary to the DNA primer.

    • E. 

      Creates a short RNA primer complementary to the DNA template.

  • 11. 
    An enzyme unwind DNA helical structure is
    • A. 

      DNA polymerase.

    • B. 

      DNA ligase.

    • C. 

      Helicase.

    • D. 

      DNA endonuclease.

    • E. 

      DNA exonuclease.

  • 12. 
    Which of the following is not a component of nucleic acids?
    • A. 

      Organic nitrogen bases

    • B. 

      Sugar

    • C. 

      Phosphate

    • D. 

      Protein

  • 13. 
    The reading of the bases along the length of a nucleic acid molecule for either transcription or translation is done from the
    • A. 

      1' end.

    • B. 

      2' end.

    • C. 

      3' end.

    • D. 

      4' end.

    • E. 

      5' end.

  • 14. 
    The chemical bond connecting one nucleotide with the next one along the nucleic acid chain is called a
    • A. 

      C = C bond.

    • B. 

      Hydrogen bond.

    • C. 

      Hydrophobic bond.

    • D. 

      Phosphodiester bond.

    • E. 

      Peptide bond.

  • 15. 
    Chargaff's rules for the pairing of nitrogen bases is
    • A. 

      A = C and G = T.

    • B. 

      A pairs with T and G pairs with C.

    • C. 

      A pairs with G and C pairs with T.

    • D. 

      A pairs with C and G pairs with T.

    • E. 

      T = C and G = A.

  • 16. 
    Information obtained by Franklin from X-ray crystallography on DNA suggested that it is a
    • A. 

      Helix.

    • B. 

      Ribbon.

    • C. 

      Hollow cylinder.

    • D. 

      Pleated sheet.

    • E. 

      Icosahedron.

  • 17. 
    The chemical bonds that stabilize the complimentary nitrogen bases into a double helix are
    • A. 

      Nitrogen bonds.

    • B. 

      Hydrogen bonds.

    • C. 

      Hydrophobic bonds.

    • D. 

      Peptide bonds.

    • E. 

      Phosphodiester bonds.

  • 18. 
    The two strands in the DNA molecule contain nitrogen bases which are
    • A. 

      Identical.

    • B. 

      Parallel.

    • C. 

      Complementary.

    • D. 

      The same in all species.

    • E. 

      Exact copies of the protein they make.

  • 19. 
    Replication of DNA is
    • A. 

      Conservative.

    • B. 

      Redundant.

    • C. 

      Dispersive.

    • D. 

      Semiconservative.

    • E. 

      Semidispersive.

  • 20. 
    DNA polymerase requires a(n)
    • A. 

      Amino acid primer.

    • B. 

      Lipid primer.

    • C. 

      Hydrophilic primer.

    • D. 

      DNA primer.

    • E. 

      RNA primer.

  • 21. 
    The lagging strand is replicated with stretches of Okazaki fragments and that is why its synthesis is considered to be
    • A. 

      Discontinuous.

    • B. 

      Continuous.

    • C. 

      Primed.

    • D. 

      Never stopping.

    • E. 

      Semiconservative.

  • 22. 
    Replication always proceeds by adding new bases to the
    • A. 

      1' end.

    • B. 

      2' end.

    • C. 

      3' end.

    • D. 

      4' end.

    • E. 

      5' end.

  • 23. 
    Which of the following statements about replication of DNA is false?
    • A. 

      The two strands are separated.

    • B. 

      Each strand is used as a template for making a new duplex.

    • C. 

      The synthesis on each strand is in the opposite direction.

    • D. 

      The newly synthesized DNA is packaged into one nucleus, and the old DNA is packaged into another nucleus.

  • 24. 
    The double helix model was proposed by
    • A. 

      Watson and Crick.

    • B. 

      Griffith.

    • C. 

      Avery.

    • D. 

      Franklin.

    • E. 

      Beadle and Tatum.

  • 25. 
    Griffith, a British microbiologist, used a bacteria and mice to demonstrate transformation. His results clearly offered evidence for that process. Transformation is
    • A. 

      The ability for bacterial homologous chromosomes to transform themselves into an exact copy, sometimes referred to as DNA replication.

    • B. 

      The ability of the nucleus of a cell to regenerate and repair itself when damaged by bacterial infections.

    • C. 

      The ability of the infected mice to transform the bacteria from pathogenic to non-pathogenic during the experiments.

    • D. 

      The ability to transfer genetic materials from one cell to another.

    • E. 

      The ability for the nucleus of a bacterial cell to bypass the process of DNA replication by transforming into a spore during unsuitable environmental conditions.

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