Biology Chapter 10 Test

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Biology Chapter 10 Test - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Each organism has a unique combination of characteristics encoded in molecules of 

    • A.

      Protein.

    • B.

      Enzymes.

    • C.

      Carbohydrates.

    • D.

      DNA.

    Correct Answer
    D. DNA.
    Explanation
    DNA is the correct answer because it is the molecule that carries the genetic information and instructions for the development and functioning of all living organisms. DNA contains the unique combination of characteristics that make each organism different from one another. Proteins, enzymes, and carbohydrates are also important molecules in living organisms, but they do not encode the complete set of characteristics that DNA does.

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  • 2. 

    The primary function of DNA is to 

    • A.

      Make proteins.

    • B.

      Store and transmit genetic information.

    • C.

      Control chemical processes within cells.

    • D.

      Prevent mutations.

    Correct Answer
    B. Store and transmit genetic information.
    Explanation
    DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. Its primary function is to store and transmit genetic information from one generation to the next. DNA carries the instructions for building proteins, but its main role is to serve as a long-term storage medium for genetic information. It is responsible for passing on traits and characteristics from parents to offspring, making it crucial for the inheritance and evolution of species.

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  • 3. 

    All of the following are true about the structure of DNA except

    • A.

      Short strands of DNA are contained in chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell.

    • B.

      Every DNA nucleotide contains a sugar, a phosphate group, and a base.

    • C.

      DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides joined by hydrogen bonds.

    • D.

      The long strands of nucleotides are twisted into a double helix.

    Correct Answer
    A. Short strands of DNA are contained in chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell.
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "short strands of DNA are contained in chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell." This statement is false because short strands of DNA are not contained in chromosomes inside the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes are made up of long strands of DNA that are tightly coiled and condensed. The short strands of DNA are called fragments and are typically found outside the nucleus, such as in the mitochondria.

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  • 4. 

    Molecules of DNA are composed of long chains of

    • A.

      Amino acids.

    • B.

      Fatty acids.

    • C.

      Monosaccharides.

    • D.

      Nucleotides

    Correct Answer
    D. Nucleotides
    Explanation
    Molecules of DNA are composed of long chains of nucleotides. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and consist of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. These nucleotides are linked together through covalent bonds to form a long chain, which is the structure of DNA. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, fatty acids are components of lipids, and monosaccharides are single sugar molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is nucleotides.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not part of a molecule of DNA?

    • A.

      Deoxyribose

    • B.

      Nitrogenous base

    • C.

      Phosphate

    • D.

      Ribose

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribose
    Explanation
    Ribose is not part of a molecule of DNA. DNA is composed of deoxyribose, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. Ribose, on the other hand, is a sugar molecule found in RNA, not DNA. RNA contains ribose instead of deoxyribose, which is the key difference between the two nucleic acids.

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  • 6. 

    A nucleotide consists of 

    • A.

      A sugar, a protein, and adenine.

    • B.

      A sugar, an amino acid, and starch.

    • C.

      A sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.

    • D.

      A starch, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.

    Correct Answer
    C. A sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
    Explanation
    A nucleotide is a building block of DNA and RNA. It is composed of three main components: a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA), a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine in DNA, and uracil in RNA). The sugar provides the backbone structure, the phosphate group connects the sugars together, and the nitrogen-containing base determines the genetic information encoded in the nucleotide. Therefore, the correct answer is a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.

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  • 7. 

    The part of the molecule for which deoxyribonucleic acid is named is the 

    • A.

      Phosphate group.

    • B.

      Sugar.

    • C.

      Nitrogen base.

    • D.

      None of the above; DNA is not named after part of the molecule

    Correct Answer
    B. Sugar.
    Explanation
    DNA is named after its sugar component, deoxyribose. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that contains the genetic instructions for the development and functioning of living organisms. The sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose, which is a five-carbon sugar. The other options, phosphate group and nitrogen base, are also components of DNA but are not the parts for which DNA is specifically named. Therefore, the correct answer is sugar.

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  • 8. 

    The entire molecule shown in the diagram is called a(n)

    • A.

      Amino acid.

    • B.

      Nucleotide.

    • C.

      Polysaccharide.

    • D.

      Pyrimidine.

    Correct Answer
    B. Nucleotide.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is nucleotide because the diagram represents a molecule that consists of a phosphate group, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogenous base. This structure is characteristic of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, polysaccharides are composed of many sugar molecules, and pyrimidines are a type of nitrogenous base found in nucleotides but do not represent the entire molecule shown in the diagram.

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  • 9. 

    Purines and pyrimidines are

    • A.

      Bases found in amino acids.

    • B.

      Able to replace phosphate groups from defective DNA.

    • C.

      Names of specific types of DNA molecules.

    • D.

      Bases found in nucleotides.

    Correct Answer
    D. Bases found in nucleotides.
    Explanation
    Purines and pyrimidines are bases found in nucleotides. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA, and they consist of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, and uracil) are the specific types of nitrogenous bases that pair up with each other to form the double helix structure of DNA. Therefore, the correct answer is that purines and pyrimidines are bases found in nucleotides.

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  • 10. 

    The scientists credited with establishing the structure of DNA are

    • A.

      Avery and Chargaff.

    • B.

      Hershey and Chase.

    • C.

      Mendel and Griffith.

    • D.

      Watson and Crick.

    Correct Answer
    D. Watson and Crick.
    Explanation
    Watson and Crick are credited with establishing the structure of DNA. In 1953, they proposed the double helix model of DNA, which showed how the two strands of DNA are twisted together. Their discovery was based on the work of other scientists, including Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, and Linus Pauling. Watson and Crick's model provided a breakthrough in understanding the molecular structure of DNA and laid the foundation for modern genetics and molecular biology.

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  • 11. 

    Watson and Crick built models that demonstrated that

    • A.

      DNA and RNA have the same structure.

    • B.

      The DNA helix is held together by hydrogen bonds.

    • C.

      Guanine forms hydrogen bonds with adenine.

    • D.

      Thymine forms hydrogen bonds with cytosine.

    Correct Answer
    B. The DNA helix is held together by hydrogen bonds.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the DNA helix is held together by hydrogen bonds. Watson and Crick's models of DNA showed that the two strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs. These base pairs consist of adenine (A) bonding with thymine (T), and guanine (G) bonding with cytosine (C). The hydrogen bonds between these base pairs provide stability to the DNA molecule and allow for the replication and transmission of genetic information.

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  • 12. 

    The base-pairing rules state that the following are base pairs in DNA:

    • A.

      Adenine-thymine; uracil-cytosine.

    • B.

      Adenine-thymine; guanine-cytosine.

    • C.

      Adenine-guanine; thymine-cytosine.

    • D.

      Uracil-thymine; guanine-cytosine.

    Correct Answer
    B. Adenine-thymine; guanine-cytosine.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is adenine-thymine; guanine-cytosine. This is because in DNA, adenine always pairs with thymine, forming two hydrogen bonds, and guanine always pairs with cytosine, forming three hydrogen bonds. This complementary base pairing is essential for the stability and replication of DNA.

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  • 13. 

    ATTG is to TAAC as

    • A.

      AAAT is to TTTG

    • B.

      TCGG is to AGAT

    • C.

      GTCC is to CAGG

    • D.

      CGAA is to TGCG

    Correct Answer
    C. GTCC is to CAGG
    Explanation
    The given pairs of sequences follow a pattern where each letter in the original sequence is replaced by its complementary base in the corresponding pair. In the first pair, ATTG is replaced by TAAC, where A is replaced by T, T is replaced by A, G is replaced by C, and C is replaced by G. Similarly, in the answer pair, GTCC is replaced by CAGG, following the same pattern.

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  • 14. 

    During DNA replication, a complementary strand of DNA is made for each original DNA strand. Thus, if a portion of the original strand is CCTAGCT, then the new strand will be

    • A.

      TTGCATG

    • B.

      AAGTATC

    • C.

      CCTAGCT

    • D.

      GGATCGA

    Correct Answer
    D. GGATCGA
    Explanation
    During DNA replication, a complementary strand of DNA is made for each original DNA strand. This means that the new strand will have the same sequence of nucleotides as the original strand, but with the complementary bases. In the given question, the original strand is CCTAGCT. The complementary bases are G (for C), G (for C), A (for T), T (for A), C (for G), G (for C), and A (for T). Therefore, the new strand will be GGATCGA.

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  • 15. 

    The enzymes responsible for adding nucleotides to exposed DNA template bases are

    • A.

      Replicases.

    • B.

      DNA polymerases.

    • C.

      Helicases.

    • D.

      Nucleotidases.

    Correct Answer
    B. DNA polymerases.
    Explanation
    DNA polymerases are enzymes responsible for adding nucleotides to exposed DNA template bases during DNA replication. These enzymes catalyze the formation of phosphodiester bonds between the incoming nucleotides and the growing DNA strand. They are essential for the accurate and efficient replication of DNA. Replicases are a broader term that refers to any enzyme involved in DNA replication, including DNA polymerases. Helicases are enzymes that unwind the DNA double helix, while nucleotidases are enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of nucleotides.

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  • 16. 

    RNA differs from DNA in that RNA

    • A.

      Is single-stranded.

    • B.

      Contains a different sugar molecule.

    • C.

      Contains the nitrogen base uracil.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    RNA differs from DNA in multiple ways. Firstly, RNA is single-stranded, whereas DNA is double-stranded. Secondly, RNA contains a different sugar molecule called ribose, while DNA contains deoxyribose. Lastly, RNA contains the nitrogen base uracil instead of thymine, which is found in DNA. Therefore, all of the given options are correct explanations of how RNA differs from DNA.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not found in DNA?

    • A.

      Adenine

    • B.

      Cytosine

    • C.

      Uracil

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Uracil
    Explanation
    Uracil is not found in DNA. Instead, it is one of the four nitrogenous bases found in RNA, along with adenine, cytosine, and guanine. DNA, on the other hand, contains adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine as its nitrogenous bases. Therefore, uracil is the correct answer as it is not present in DNA.

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  • 18. 

    RNA is chemically similar to DNA except that its sugars have an additional oxygen atom, and the base thymine is replaced by a structurally similar base called

    • A.

      Uracil.

    • B.

      Alanine.

    • C.

      Cytosine.

    • D.

      Codon.

    Correct Answer
    A. Uracil.
    Explanation
    RNA is chemically similar to DNA, but it differs in a few key ways. One difference is that RNA has an additional oxygen atom in its sugars compared to DNA. Another difference is that RNA uses uracil as a base, while DNA uses thymine. Uracil is structurally similar to thymine, making it the correct answer in this case. Alanine, cytosine, and codon are not bases found in RNA, so they are incorrect options.

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  • 19. 

    A ribosome has

    • A.

      One binding site for DNA.

    • B.

      Three binding sites used during translation.

    • C.

      Four binding sites for tRNA.

    • D.

      No binding sites since the proteins must detach.

    Correct Answer
    B. Three binding sites used during translation.
    Explanation
    A ribosome is a cellular structure responsible for protein synthesis. During translation, the process of converting mRNA into a polypeptide chain, a ribosome has three binding sites. The A site binds to the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA, the P site holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain, and the E site releases the tRNA after it has delivered its amino acid. These binding sites play a crucial role in coordinating the movement of tRNA molecules and the synthesis of proteins.

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  • 20. 

    Suppose that you are given a polypeptide sequence containing the following sequence of amino acids: tyrosine, proline, aspartic acid, isoleucine, and cysteine. Use the portion of the genetic code given in the table below to determine the DNA sequence that codes for this polypeptide sequence.mRNAAmino acidUAC, UAUtyrosineCCU, CCC, CCA, CCGprolineGAU, GACaspartic acidAUU, AUC, AUAisoleucineUGU, UGCcysteine    

    • A.

      AUGGGUCUAUAUACG

    • B.

      ATGGGTCTATATACG

    • C.

      GCAAACTCGCGCGTA

    • D.

      ATAGGGCTTTAAACA

    Correct Answer
    B. ATGGGTCTATATACG
    Explanation
    The given polypeptide sequence is "tyrosine, proline, aspartic acid, isoleucine, and cysteine". Looking at the table, the corresponding mRNA sequence for each amino acid is "UAC, UAU" for tyrosine, "CCU, CCC, CCA, CCG" for proline, "GAU, GAC" for aspartic acid, "AUU, AUC, AUA" for isoleucine, and "UGU, UGC" for cysteine. By combining these mRNA sequences, we can determine the DNA sequence that codes for this polypeptide sequence. The correct answer, "ATGGGTCTATATACG", is one possible DNA sequence that codes for the given polypeptide sequence.

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  • 21. 

    Transcription is the process by which genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to a(n)

    • A.

      RNA molecule.

    • B.

      DNA molecule.

    • C.

      Uracil molecule.

    • D.

      Transposon.

    Correct Answer
    A. RNA molecule.
    Explanation
    Transcription is the process of copying genetic information from DNA to RNA. During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA and creates a complementary RNA strand. This RNA molecule carries the genetic information from the DNA and is essential for protein synthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is RNA molecule.

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  • 22. 

    Each nucleotide triplet in mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid is called a

    • A.

      Mutagen.

    • B.

      Codon.

    • C.

      Anticodon.

    • D.

      Exon.

    Correct Answer
    B. Codon.
    Explanation
    A codon is a nucleotide triplet in mRNA that codes for a specific amino acid during protein synthesis. It acts as a template for the assembly of amino acids in the correct order to form a protein. This process is known as translation. Mutagens are agents that can cause changes in DNA sequences, while anticodons are found in tRNA and are complementary to codons. Exons are sections of DNA or RNA that code for a part of the final protein product.

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  • 23. 

    Which enzyme is responsible for unwinding the DNA during DNA replication?

    • A.

      Protease

    • B.

      DNA polymerase

    • C.

      RNA polymerase

    • D.

      Helicase

    Correct Answer
    D. Helicase
    Explanation
    HeliCase is the enzyme responsible for unwinding the DNA during DNA replication. It binds to the DNA and uses ATP to break the hydrogen bonds between the two strands, separating them and creating a replication fork. This allows the DNA polymerase to access the single strands and synthesize new complementary strands.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 01, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    MrsWest

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