Absorb light energy to excite electrons
It uses the carbon atoms to add to RuBP
Combine O2 and H to make water
Splite disaccharides into monosaccharides
All organisms carry out glycolysis in mitochondria.
Glycolysis is a universal energy-releasing process and therefore suggests a common ancestor for all forms of life.
Across the three domains, all organisms depend solely on the process of anaerobic respiration for ATP production.
The presence of glycolysis as an energyreleasing process in all organisms suggests that convergent evolution occurred.
ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).
ATP, NADH, and pyruvate.
ATP, pyruvate, and oxygen.
ATP, pyruvate, and acetyl CoA.
C6H12O6 and O2
ATP and NADPH
H+ ions, and e-s
The Krebs cycle
Can fix CO2 into sugars in the mesophyll cells
Can use the photosystems I and II at night.
Modify rubisco so it does not bind with oxygen.
Can incorporate CO2 into organic acids at night.
Begin signal transduction in cells that have receptor proteins in the membrane.
Are only found in animals.
Affect all cells the same way.
Affect each cell type differently.
Signal reception, signal transduction, and cellular response
Signal reception, nucleus disintegration, and new cell generation
The alpha, beta, and gamma stages
Signal reception, cellular response, and cell division
Help balance the photosynthesis-transpiration compromise
Guard against mineral loss through the stomata
Contain chloroplasts that import directly into the cells
Accumulate and close the stomata
Subjecting the leaves of the plant to a partial vacuum
Increasing the level of carbon dioxide around the plant
Decreasing the relative humidity around the plant
Increasing the exposure to direct sunlight
The cell dies, it is lysed, its organelles are phagocytized, its contents are recycled.
Its DNA and organelles become fragmented, it dies, and it is phagocytized.
The cell dies and the presence of its fragmented contents stimulates nearby cells to divide.
Its DNA and organelles are fragmented, the cell shrinks and forms blebs, and the cell self-digests.
The chance for variation in zygotes
The rate of mutations
The distance between genes on a chromosome
Which traits are dominant or recessive
Sugar, Phosphate, lipid base
Phosphate, 6 carbon sugar, Nitrogen Base
5 carbon sugar, Phosphate, Lipase
5 carbon sugar, Phosphate, and Nitrogenous Base
excision of introns.
fusion into circular forms known as plasmids.
Fusion with other newly transcribed mRNA
Linkage to histone molecules.
It works to stop transcription from occuring
It evolved to help stop viral infections
It is found only in prokaryotes
It was discovered when trying to genetically engineer a flower
Eukaryotes are less complex than prokaryotes and can not control which genes are randomly expressed.
Eukaryotic cells are often specialized and need only to express specific regions of the DNA.
Prokaryotes use and transcribe all of their DNA, while only eukaryotes have "junk DNA" which does not code for anything.
Only Eukaryotes have ribosomes which transcribes specific sections of DNA.
These cells wil go through cell division.
These cells will be permanently arrested in the G1 phase
These cells will be permanently arrested in the G2 phase
These cells will quickly enter the S-phase
It is more likely to infect other host cells undetected in animals.
It protects the integrity of the viral genome.
It reduces genetic variation in the host DNA
It increases genetic variation of viral RNA
Hydrogen bonds among water molecules give it cohesive properties
Water has adhesive properties
Water is polar
All of the above
A cell wall made of cellulose
Large vacuoles that store water
The peptide bond between amino acids in a protein
The bonds between two different proteins to create a quaternary structure
The bond between Na+ and Cl- in salt
The bond between carbon and hydrogen in methane (CH4)
The rate of lateral movement of phospholipids
The ability to move large molecules accross the concentration gradient
The rate of diffusion of small ions
All of the above
Enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops.
Enables the animal to remove hydrogen atoms from saturated phospholipids
Enables the animal to add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated phospholipids.
Makes the membrane less flexible, allowing it to sustain greater pressure from within the cell.
The evolution of larger cells after the evolution of smaller cells
The difference in plasma membranes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
The need for a large surface area to volume ratio to allow the cells's function
The observation that longer cells usually have a greater cell volume
An increase in a cell's anabolic activity
An increase in a cell's catabolic activity
An increased amino acid concentration
An increase in complex carbohydrates
It is a binding site that can accept a wide variety of differently shaped molecules.
It is a binding site, which is separate from the active site, and affects the activity of an enzyme when it is occupied by a ligand.
It is a description of an active site which has undergone an induced fit.
It has no affect on the function of the enzymatic activity.
Bacterial blocking inhibition
Oxidation of glucose to and water.
The final transfer of electrons to oxygen.
The difference in H+ ion concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The thermodynamically favorable transfer of phosphate from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle intermediate molecules of ADP.
They are species specific.
They always lead to the same cellular response.
They amplify the original signal many fold.
The number of molecules used is small and fixed.
It unwinds the DNA
It helps to hold open the unwound DNA
It lays down DNA nucleotides
It connects okazaki fragments
Helicase unwinds the double helix
DNA ligase links the okazaki fragments
Replication starts at one end of the DNA and finishes at the other
DNA strands grow in the 5' to 3' direction
Signal the end of translation
Help ribosome attach to the 5’ end of the mRNA
Help protect the mRNA from degredation
Facilitate the export of mature mRNA
Microphone and speaker
An infant suckling induces lactation, which in turn creates more suckling