DNA Molecule And DNA Fragments Quiz

50 Questions | Total Attempts: 102

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DNA Molecule And DNA Fragments Quiz

Can you answer the following DNA questions? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The role of pigments is to
    • A. 

      Absorb light energy to excite electrons

    • B. 

      It uses the carbon atoms to add to RuBP

    • C. 

      Combine O2 and H to make water

    • D. 

      Splite disaccharides into monosaccharides

  • 2. 
    Experimental evidence shows that the process of glycolysis is present and virtually identical in organisms from all three domains, Archaea,Bacteria, and Eukarya. Which of the following hypotheses could be best supported by this evidence? 
    • A. 

      All organisms carry out glycolysis in mitochondria.

    • B. 

      Glycolysis is a universal energy-releasing process and therefore suggests a common ancestor for all forms of life.

    • C. 

      Across the three domains, all organisms depend solely on the process of anaerobic respiration for ATP production.

    • D. 

      The presence of glycolysis as an energyreleasing process in all organisms suggests that convergent evolution occurred.

  • 3. 
    In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of 
    • A. 

      ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).

    • B. 

      ATP, NADH, and pyruvate.

    • C. 

      ATP, pyruvate, and oxygen.

    • D. 

      ATP, pyruvate, and acetyl CoA.

  • 4. 
    Which products from the LDR are required for the Calvin Cycle?
    • A. 

      C6H12O6 and O2

    • B. 

      CO2, O2

    • C. 

      ATP and NADPH

    • D. 

      H+ ions, and e-s

  • 5. 
    Most energy during cell respiration is harvested during 
    • A. 

      The Krebs cycle

    • B. 

      Oxidative phosphoralation

    • C. 

      Glycolysis

    • D. 

      Anaerobic respiration

  • 6. 
    CAM plants keep their stomates closed during the daytime to reduce excess water loss. They can do this because they
    • A. 

      Can fix CO2 into sugars in the mesophyll cells

    • B. 

      Can use the photosystems I and II at night.

    • C. 

      Modify rubisco so it does not bind with oxygen.

    • D. 

      Can incorporate CO2 into organic acids at night.

  • 7. 
    Select all correct answers: Hormones affect cells in many parts of the organism. Hormones...
    • A. 

      Begin signal transduction in cells that have receptor proteins in the membrane.

    • B. 

      Are only found in animals.

    • C. 

      Affect all cells the same way.

    • D. 

      Affect each cell type differently.

  • 8. 
    From the perspective of the cell receiving the message, the three stages of cell signaling are
    • A. 

      Signal reception, signal transduction, and cellular response

    • B. 

      Signal reception, nucleus disintegration, and new cell generation

    • C. 

      The alpha, beta, and gamma stages

    • D. 

      Signal reception, cellular response, and cell division

  • 9. 
    Guard cells do which of the following? (the cells that make the stomata)
    • A. 

      Help balance the photosynthesis-transpiration compromise

    • B. 

      Guard against mineral loss through the stomata

    • C. 

      Contain chloroplasts that import directly into the cells

    • D. 

      Accumulate and close the stomata

  • 10. 
    Which of the following experimental procedures would most likely reduce transpiration while allowing the normal growth of a plant?
    • A. 

      Subjecting the leaves of the plant to a partial vacuum

    • B. 

      Increasing the level of carbon dioxide around the plant

    • C. 

      Decreasing the relative humidity around the plant

    • D. 

      Increasing the exposure to direct sunlight

  • 11. 
    Which of the following describes the events of apoptosis?
    • A. 

      The cell dies, it is lysed, its organelles are phagocytized, its contents are recycled.

    • B. 

      Its DNA and organelles become fragmented, it dies, and it is phagocytized.

    • C. 

      The cell dies and the presence of its fragmented contents stimulates nearby cells to divide.

    • D. 

      Its DNA and organelles are fragmented, the cell shrinks and forms blebs, and the cell self-digests.

  • 12. 
    Crossing-over during meiosis permits scientists to determine
    • A. 

      The chance for variation in zygotes

    • B. 

      The rate of mutations

    • C. 

      The distance between genes on a chromosome

    • D. 

      Which traits are dominant or recessive

  • 13. 
    What are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?
    • A. 

      Sugar, Phosphate, lipid base

    • B. 

      Phosphate, 6 carbon sugar, Nitrogen Base

    • C. 

      5 carbon sugar, Phosphate, Lipase

    • D. 

      5 carbon sugar, Phosphate, and Nitrogenous Base

  • 14. 
    Sections of DNA actually code for how to make...
    • A. 

      Spores

    • B. 

      Nucleic acids

    • C. 

      Protiens

    • D. 

      Anti-codon

  • 15. 
    These small bits of DNA fragments attach because the DNA Template strand must be replicated from the 5’ – 3’ direction.
    • A. 

      Okazaki fragments

    • B. 

      RNA Primers

    • C. 

      DNA SnRPs

    • D. 

      Exons

  • 16. 
    The ____________________ helps to remove the introns and put the exons together in the nucleus. 
    • A. 

      Helicase

    • B. 

      Ligase

    • C. 

      Spliceosome

    • D. 

      Promoter

  • 17. 
    The nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule is 5'-C-A-T-3'. A mRNA molecule molecule with a coplementary codon is transcribed from the DNA in the process of protein synthesis a tRNA pairs with a mRNA codon. What is the nucleotide sequence of the tRNA anti-codon? 
    • A. 

      5'-G-T-A-3'

    • B. 

      5'-G-U-A-3'

    • C. 

      5'-C-A-U-3'

    • D. 

      5'-U-A-C-3'

  • 18. 
    The correct sequence between genes and their phenotypic expression is
    • A. 

      RNA-DNA-protein-trait

    • B. 

      DNA-RNA-protein-trait

    • C. 

      Protein-DNA-RNA-trait

    • D. 

      Trait-DNA-RNA-protein

  • 19. 
     Once transcribed, eukaryotic mRNA typically undergoes substantial alteration thatincludes 
    • A. 

      excision of introns.

    • B. 

      fusion into circular forms known as plasmids.

    • C. 

      Fusion with other newly transcribed mRNA

    • D. 

      Linkage to histone molecules.

  • 20. 
    In the example of the lac Operon, lactase is created to help metabolize lactose when the amount of glucose is very low.  cAMP  (the inducer) will bind with the __________________  to tell the operon to begin transcription of the operon
    • A. 

      Repressor

    • B. 

      Activator protein

    • C. 

      Operator

    • D. 

      Co repressor

  • 21. 
    Which of the following are true of RNAi.Choose all that apply.
    • A. 

      It works to stop transcription from occuring

    • B. 

      It evolved to help stop viral infections

    • C. 

      It is found only in prokaryotes

    • D. 

      It was discovered when trying to genetically engineer a flower

  • 22. 
    • A. 

      Eukaryotes are less complex than prokaryotes and can not control which genes are randomly expressed.

    • B. 

      Eukaryotic cells are often specialized and need only to express specific regions of the DNA.

    • C. 

      Prokaryotes use and transcribe all of their DNA, while only eukaryotes have "junk DNA" which does not code for anything.

    • D. 

      Only Eukaryotes have ribosomes which transcribes specific sections of DNA.

  • 23. 
    The Cell cycle is a series of events in the life of a dividing eukaryotic cell. It consists of four stages: G1, S, G2, and M. The duration of the cell cycle varies from one species to another. The G1 phase varies the most. For example, embryonic cells can pass through the G1 phase so quickly that it hardly exists, whereas neurons are arrested in the cell cycle and do not divide.Since neurons are destined never to divide again, what conclusion can be made?
    • A. 

      These cells wil go through cell division.

    • B. 

      These cells will be permanently arrested in the G1 phase

    • C. 

      These cells will be permanently arrested in the G2 phase

    • D. 

      These cells will quickly enter the S-phase

  • 24. 
    Which is most affected by the fact that many viruses viral envelope is derived from its host's cell?
    • A. 

      It is more likely to infect other host cells undetected in animals.

    • B. 

      It protects the integrity of the viral genome.

    • C. 

      It reduces genetic variation in the host DNA

    • D. 

      It increases genetic variation of viral RNA

  • 25. 
    Photosynthesis has been occuring on this planet for approximately 3 billion years. In this time plants have evolved from small single celled bacteria in the ocean and diversified into many ecological niches. Some plants on earth such as giant sequoia manage to transport water 100s of meters into the air without the use of a pump. This is made possible by vascular tissue composed of small tubes that transport the water. They are able to do this because
    • A. 

      Hydrogen bonds among water molecules give it cohesive properties

    • B. 

      Water has adhesive properties

    • C. 

      Water is polar

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 26. 
    Identical heat lamps are arranged to shine on identical containers of water and methanol (wood alcohol), so that each liquid absorbs the same amount of energy minute by minute. The covalent bonds of methanol molecules are non-polar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. Which of the following graphs correctly describes what will happen to the temperature of the water and the methanol? 
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

  • 27. 
    In general, animal cells differ from plant cells in that animal cells have
    • A. 

      A cell wall made of cellulose

    • B. 

      Lysosomes

    • C. 

      Large vacuoles that store water

    • D. 

      Chloroplasts

  • 28. 
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      D

    • D. 

      E

  • 29. 
    Which of the following is an example of a hydrogen bond?
    • A. 

      The peptide bond between amino acids in a protein

    • B. 

      The bonds between two different proteins to create a quaternary structure

    • C. 

      The bond between Na+ and Cl- in salt

    • D. 

      The bond between carbon and hydrogen in methane (CH4)

  • 30. 
    The plasma membrane has many important functions. It is made of a phospholipid bi-layer that has proteins, cholesterol molecules, glycoproteins, and many other molecules embedded in it. Proteins in the plasma membrane serve six major functions: transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recogniton, intercellular joining, and attachment to the cytoskeleton. If you were to change the pH of the solution that surrounds the cell, what would be most likely to change as a result.
    • A. 

      The rate of lateral movement of phospholipids

    • B. 

      The ability to move large molecules accross the concentration gradient

    • C. 

      The rate of diffusion of small ions

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 31. 
    The presence of cholesterol in the plasma membranes of some animals 
    • A. 

      Enables the membrane to stay fluid more easily when cell temperature drops.

    • B. 

      Enables the animal to remove hydrogen atoms from saturated phospholipids

    • C. 

      Enables the animal to add hydrogen atoms to unsaturated phospholipids.

    • D. 

      Makes the membrane less flexible, allowing it to sustain greater pressure from within the cell.

  • 32. 
    In a lab experiment students measured the reaction rates of the enzyme catalase on Hydrogen Peroxide. The yellow line represents the control in the experiment. Which color line would most likely represent an increase in the amount of catalase?
    • A. 

      Red

    • B. 

      Green

    • C. 

      Blue

    • D. 

      Gray

  • 33. 
    The graph below demonstrates two chemical reactions. One is catalyzed by an enzyme, one is not. Which letter shows the energy of activation for the enzyme?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

  • 34. 
    Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cells?
    • A. 

      The evolution of larger cells after the evolution of smaller cells

    • B. 

      The difference in plasma membranes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    • C. 

      The need for a large surface area to volume ratio to allow the cells's function

    • D. 

      The observation that longer cells usually have a greater cell volume

  • 35. 
    Which of the following is likely to lead to an increase in the concentration of ATP in a cell?
    • A. 

      An increase in a cell's anabolic activity

    • B. 

      An increase in a cell's catabolic activity

    • C. 

      An increased amino acid concentration

    • D. 

      An increase in complex carbohydrates

  • 36. 
    • A. 

      It is a binding site that can accept a wide variety of differently shaped molecules.

    • B. 

      It is a binding site, which is separate from the active site, and affects the activity of an enzyme when it is occupied by a ligand.

    • C. 

      It is a description of an active site which has undergone an induced fit.

    • D. 

      It has no affect on the function of the enzymatic activity.

  • 37. 
    Penicillin is an antibiotic. It helps people get better from a variety of bacterial infections. Penicillin works by attaching itself to the active site on an enzyme that the bacteria uses to create the cell wall. This would be an example of 
    • A. 

      Non-competitive inhibition

    • B. 

      Competitive inhibition

    • C. 

      Cofactor inhibition

    • D. 

      Bacterial blocking inhibition

  • 38. 
    Identify the type of macromolecule using the hints below:Made of Carbon, Oxygen, and HydrogenUsed for Energy storageHydrophobic 
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate

    • B. 

      Lipid

    • C. 

      Protein

    • D. 

      Nucleic Acid

  • 39. 
    The direct energy source that drives ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is 
    • A. 

      Oxidation of glucose to and water.

    • B. 

      The final transfer of electrons to oxygen.

    • C. 

      The difference in H+ ion concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    • D. 

      The thermodynamically favorable transfer of phosphate from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle intermediate molecules of ADP.

  • 40. 
    Phosphorylation cascades involving a series of protein kinases are useful for cellular signal transduction because
    • A. 

      They are species specific.

    • B. 

      They always lead to the same cellular response.

    • C. 

      They amplify the original signal many fold.

    • D. 

      The number of molecules used is small and fixed.

  • 41. 
    What is the role topoisomerase?
    • A. 

      It unwinds the DNA

    • B. 

      It helps to hold open the unwound DNA

    • C. 

      It lays down DNA nucleotides

    • D. 

      It connects okazaki fragments

  • 42. 
    In DNA replication, which of the following does NOT occur? 
    • A. 

      Helicase unwinds the double helix

    • B. 

      DNA ligase links the okazaki fragments

    • C. 

      Replication starts at one end of the DNA and finishes at the other

    • D. 

      DNA strands grow in the 5' to 3' direction

  • 43. 
    Which of the following is NOT a function of the Poly-A Tail?
    • A. 

      Signal the end of translation

    • B. 

      Help ribosome attach to the 5’ end of the mRNA

    • C. 

      Help protect the mRNA from degredation

    • D. 

      Facilitate the export of mature mRNA

  • 44. 
    Which would you predict would have the largest affect on the expression of a gene due to a mutation?
    • A. 

      DNA methylation

    • B. 

      Histone acetylation

  • 45. 
    Identify the positive feedback loops
    • A. 

      Thermostat

    • B. 

      Trp Operon

    • C. 

      Microphone and speaker

    • D. 

      Lac operon

    • E. 

      An infant suckling induces lactation, which in turn creates more suckling