Ob Exam2

36 Questions | Total Attempts: 1263

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Ob Exam2

A test of how much is known about organizational behavior. Just the second exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    _____ is the view the individual has of himself or herself as a physical, social, and spiritual or moral being. 
    • A. 

      Self-concept

    • B. 

      Self-efficacy

    • C. 

      Organization-based self-esteem

    • D. 

      Cognition

    • E. 

      Personality

  • 2. 
    _____ is the most important source of self-efficacy beliefs
    • A. 

      Behavior models

    • B. 

      Persuasion from others

    • C. 

      Assessment of one's physical state

    • D. 

      Assessment of one's emotional state

    • E. 

      Prior experiences

  • 3. 
    Since paid employment is a prime determinant of overall self-esteem, unemployment can have a devastating impact on an individual's self-esteem. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 4. 
    You are rushing to class when a fellow student stops you and begins to discuss a personal problem. You want to break off the conversation so that you can get to class on time. You glance at your watch, but the other student keeps talking. You say "I've got to go. I'm going to be late for class." He continues. You turn and start to walk away, but the other student follows you and keeps talking as if he never received any of your verbal and nonverbal signals that the conversation must end. Which of the following concepts best explains the student's behavior? 
    • A. 

      He has an external locus of control

    • B. 

      He is a low self-monitor

    • C. 

      He has high self-efficacy

    • D. 

      He has low self-esteem

    • E. 

      He rates high on the agreeableness dimension

  • 5. 
    Many employees at Harley-Davidson factories have had the company logo tattooed on themselves. This example is an indication of ____. 
    • A. 

      Strong organizational identification

    • B. 

      Low self-esteem

    • C. 

      High self-monitoring

    • D. 

      Low self-efficacy

    • E. 

      High emotional intelligence

  • 6. 
    Among the Big Five personality dimensions, _____ had the strongest positive correlation with job performance. 
    • A. 

      Extroversion

    • B. 

      Agreeableness

    • C. 

      Conscientiousness

    • D. 

      Emotional stability

    • E. 

      Openness to experience

  • 7. 
    Based on research on the Big Five personality dimensions, which of the following is true? 
    • A. 

      The Big Five personality structure seems to be valid across a number of different cultures

    • B. 

      Openness to experience had the strongest positive correlation with job and training performance

    • C. 

      Agreeableness was a stronger predictor of job performance across all professions than was extroversion.

    • D. 

      Conscientiousness was a weak predictor of job performance

    • E. 

      For managers and sales people, emotional stability was associated with job success.

  • 8. 
    Personality testing as a tool for making decisions about hiring, training, and promotion is ____. 
    • A. 

      Rare

    • B. 

      Commonplace

    • C. 

      Empirically justified

    • D. 

      Exceptionally effective

    • E. 

      Unusual in Canada

  • 9. 
    _____ is defined as the ability to manage oneself and interact with others in mature and constructive ways. 
    • A. 

      Self-esteem

    • B. 

      Emotional intelligence

    • C. 

      Self-efficacy

    • D. 

      Locus of control

    • E. 

      Personality

  • 10. 
    It's the seventh week of the semester in Dr. Whitaker's organizational behavior class. Jennifer and Michelle have been classmates all semester, and have always gotten along well together. They are both upbeat, optimistic individuals who laugh easily, and generally see the best in people. However, one day Jennifer came to class feeling angry and upset after having a fight with her roommate, Roxanne. As Jennifer tells Michelle about the situation, Michelle feels herself getting angry as well. Quickly her mood becomes as negative as Jennifer's. What phenomenon explains Michelle's change in mood? 
    • A. 

      Emotional labor

    • B. 

      Emotional intelligence

    • C. 

      Emotional self-management

    • D. 

      Emotional self-awareness

    • E. 

      Emotional contagion

  • 11. 
    Varying interpretations of what we observe occur because ____. 
    • A. 

      People possess different information in the schemata used for interpretation

    • B. 

      our moods and emotions influence our focus of attention and evaluations of others

    • C. 

      . people tend to apply recently used cognitive categories during encoding

    • D. 

      Individual differences influence encoding events into schema

    • E. 

      Cognitive categories are identical for all people

  • 12. 
    At what stage of the information-processing model do you notice another student tapping her pencil on the desk during an exam? 
    • A. 

      Selective Attention/Comprehension

    • B. 

      Encoding and Simplification

    • C. 

      Storage and retention

    • D. 

      Retrieval and response

    • E. 

      Perception

  • 13. 
    If managers use ____, inaccurate evaluations of job applicants and employees may result. 
    • A. 

      Cognitive attributions

    • B. 

      Cognitive categories

    • C. 

      Valid stereotypes

    • D. 

      Salient features

    • E. 

      Faulty schema

  • 14. 
    Kelly's subordinate, Stewart, has performed below-average for most of the year. However, over the past couple of weeks, Stewart's performance has really improved. It's now time to evaluate Stewart's performance. Because of his improvement, Kelly has decided to give him good ratings. Kelly is committing which type of perceptual error? 
    • A. 

      Contrast effect

    • B. 

      Recency effect

    • C. 

      Central tendency

    • D. 

      Leniency

    • E. 

      Halo fallacy

  • 15. 
    Dr. White believes that one of his students, Brandon, definitely has room for improvement when it comes to class participation. However, he feels uncomfortable saying anything bad about anybody, so he rates Brandon’s class participation higher than he actually deserves. Dr. White is committing which type of perceptual error? 
    • A. 

      Halo

    • B. 

      Leniency

    • C. 

      Central tendency

    • D. 

      Recency effects

    • E. 

      Contrast effects

  • 16. 
    After giving a bogus test of academic potential to grade-school students, researchers informed teachers that certain students had high achievement potential. In reality, students were randomly assigned to the "high potential" and "control" (normal potential) groups. Research results showed that children designated as having high potential obtained significantly greater increases in intelligence and reading ability scores than did the control students. The teachers of the supposedly high potential group got better results because their high expectations caused them to give harder assignments, more feedback, and more recognition of achievement. Which of the following best explains this situation? 
    • A. 

      The Galatea effect

    • B. 

      The self-fulfilling prophecy

    • C. 

      The fundamental attribution bias

    • D. 

      The self-serving bias

    • E. 

      The golem effect

  • 17. 
    Frank had a 10:00 a.m. job interview. Although he showed up 10 minutes late, he was still hired. The job of stocker required Frank to maintain adequate supplies of construction materials in the warehouse. Two weeks after he was hired, stock of one key component was seriously low.  Frank’s supervisor, Jim, began to wonder if Frank has the skills and motivation necessary to succeed in this organization. Jim decided to keep a closer eye on Frank ‘s performance. Although he didn't like to admit it, this increased supervisory attention made Frank nervous. He felt like Jim was watching his every move and just waiting for him to make another mistake. Because he was nervous, Frank made several other errors on the job.  Frank’s poor performance didn't surprise Jim, however. Jim had been expecting Frank to mess up all along. Which of the following best explains this situation? 
    • A. 

      The Pygmalion effect

    • B. 

      Stereotyping

    • C. 

      The Galatea effect

    • D. 

      The self-serving bias

    • E. 

      The Golem effect

  • 18. 
    • A. 

      Recognize the few select individuals who have the potential to increase their performance.

    • B. 

      Set moderate performance goals.

    • C. 

      Help only the best employees advance through the organization.

    • D. 

      Positively reinforce employees, even if they do the job only moderately well.

    • E. 

      Introduce new employees as if they have outstanding potential.

  • 19. 
    John, a middle-level manager, noticed that all his subordinates were filling out their monthly reports incorrectly. He concluded that the report forms were too complicated and needed to be revised. John is basing his decision on which type of attributional information? 
    • A. 

      Low consistency

    • B. 

      Low consensus

    • C. 

      High consistency

    • D. 

      Low distinctiveness

    • E. 

      High consensus

  • 20. 
    Chris succeeded in writing a quarterly report on time, but failed to finish a computer program. If Chris exhibits the self-serving bias, he will attribute the quarterly report to ______ and the computer program to ____. 
    • A. 

      His hard work; his lack of ability

    • B. 

      Good luck; bad luck

    • C. 

      His ability; his lack of effort

    • D. 

      A good boss; task difficulty

    • E. 

      His hard work; task difficulty

  • 21. 
    What is the bottom-to-top sequence of needs in Maslow's need hierarchy? 
    • A. 

      Esteem, safety, physiological, self-actualization, love

    • B. 

      Physiological, safety, esteem, love, self-actualization

    • C. 

      Safety, physiological, esteem, love, self-actualization

    • D. 

      Physiological, safety, esteem, self-actualization, love

    • E. 

      Physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization

  • 22. 
    What is the primary managerial implication of Maslow's theory? 
    • A. 

      Job-security pledges have no motivational impact.

    • B. 

      Safety needs can be satisfied using status symbols

    • C. 

      A satisfied need may lose its motivational potential

    • D. 

      Greater job autonomy satisfies the esteem need.

    • E. 

      Greater job responsibility satisfies the love need.

  • 23. 
    One characteristic of high achievers is that they ____. 
    • A. 

      Prefer extreme difficulty

    • B. 

      Prefer situations in which their performance is due to their own efforts

    • C. 

      Desire feedback on their failures but not their successes

    • D. 

      Desire feedback on their successes but not their failures

    • E. 

      Like to compete against people who are much more skilled than they are

  • 24. 
    A person's needs remain unchanged over his or her lifetime. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 25. 
    According to Herzberg's motivator-hygiene model, which of the following is a motivator? 
    • A. 

      Responsibility

    • B. 

      Company Policy

    • C. 

      Supervisor relations

    • D. 

      Salary

    • E. 

      Technical supervision

  • 26. 
    Mark has a Master's degree in electrical engineering and brings 10 years of experience to his current job. He is known for putting in long hours of hard work on his job. He receives a salary of $75,000, medical and dental coverage, and two weeks paid vacation per year. From Mark's perspective, which of the following is an outcome of the individual-organization exchange relationship?  A. Long hours worked.
    • A. 

      Long hours worked

    • B. 

      High levels of effort

    • C. 

      Two weeks paid vacation

    • D. 

      His master's degree in electrical engineering

    • E. 

      Ten years of prior experience

  • 27. 
    Pat and Chris are both computer programmers, but Pat earns more money than Chris. However, Chris perceives an equitable relationship because Pat ____. 
    • A. 

      Has more education and experience

    • B. 

      Takes longer breaks

    • C. 

      Works as hard as chris

    • D. 

      Work less than chris

    • E. 

      Needs the money more than chris

  • 28. 
    Pam is attempting to reduce inequity by attending night school for further job training. In other words, she is trying to ____. 
    • A. 

      Find a new comparison outcome

    • B. 

      Decrease her inputs

    • C. 

      Increase her outcomes

    • D. 

      Increase her inputs

    • E. 

      Decrease her outcomes

  • 29. 
    Chuck is concerned with what he considers to be an unfair situation at work. Although he put in 10 hours of overtime last week, he received the same pay as a co-worker who didn't put in any overtime. This week he decided to take an extra hour for lunch every day. Using the terminology of equity theory, Chuck has decided to ____. 
    • A. 

      Psychologically distort his inputs

    • B. 

      Decrease his inputs

    • C. 

      Increase his outcomes

    • D. 

      Increase his inputs

    • E. 

      Decrease his outcomes

  • 30. 
    According to the job characteristics model, _____ core job characteristics lead to _____ critical psychological states. 
    • A. 

      Three; five

    • B. 

      Five; three

    • C. 

      Eight; two

    • D. 

      Technical; non-technical

    • E. 

      Overt; covert

  • 31. 
    Lacy grew up in an upper-middle class family in a small town. As the only child, she was accustomed to receiving the latest toys and games from her parents. While her friends had to pay for their games out of their earned allowances, Lacy just asked her parents and received whatever she wanted. Lacy never really saw this as unfair, and would become upset and throw tantrums if she didn't get what she wanted. Even as an adult, Lacy just expected to get the best of everything, without having to work for it. Based on this information, Lacy likely falls into the _____ category of equity sensitivity. 
    • A. 

      Receivers

    • B. 

      Benevolent

    • C. 

      Entitles

    • D. 

      Sensitives

    • E. 

      Drivers

  • 32. 
    _____ is defined as the perceived fairness of the process used to make decisions regarding the allocation of rewards and resources. 
    • A. 

      Expectancy Theory

    • B. 

      Positive inequity

    • C. 

      Negative inequity

    • D. 

      Procedural justice

    • E. 

      Distributive justice

  • 33. 
    According to Vroom's expectancy theory, _____ represents an individual's belief that a particular outcome is contingent on accomplishing a specific level of performance. 
    • A. 

      Goal difficulty

    • B. 

      Valence

    • C. 

      Instrumentality

    • D. 

      Self-esteem

    • E. 

      Expectancy

  • 34. 
    The use of monetary incentives enhances the positive effects of goal setting, especially for difficult goals. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 35. 
    Carol is a recent high-school graduate with an excellent grade point average. After much thought, she decided that she wants to pursue a graduate degree in physics after she finishes college and eventually become a college professor. To attain this goal, she realizes that she must first study hard and do well in her undergraduate classes, then take the graduate entrance exam and apply to the best graduate programs in her field. Along the way, she wants to obtain an internship, as this will help her get into a quality graduate program. Carol's thought process best exemplifies which motivational mechanism of the goal setting process? 
    • A. 

      Directing attention.

    • B. 

      Regulating effort.

    • C. 

      Increasing persistence.

    • D. 

      Fostering strategies and action plans

    • E. 

      Receiving feedback.

  • 36. 
    _____ lets people know if they are headed toward their goals or if they are off course and need to redirect their efforts. 
    • A. 

      Valence

    • B. 

      Equity

    • C. 

      Expectancy

    • D. 

      Feedback

    • E. 

      Instrumentality