Organizational Behavior Test Quiz

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Organizational Behavior Test Quiz - Quiz

Dive into the intricacies of workplace dynamics with the Organizational Behavior Test Quiz. This quiz offers an enlightening exploration into the fascinating realm of organizational behavior, focusing on the psychology and sociology behind how individuals and groups interact within a workplace setting.

Through thought-provoking questions and scenarios, this quiz will challenge your understanding of topics such as leadership styles, communication patterns, team dynamics, and organizational culture.

By delving into the complexities of organizational behavior, you'll gain insights that can empower you to navigate workplace challenges with confidence and effectiveness. So, buckle up and embark on this enlightening journey to deepen Read moreyour understanding of how organizations function and thrive.


Organizational Behavior Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    _______ is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within organizations for the purposes of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization's effectiveness.

    • A.

      Organizational Development

    • B.

      Human Resources Management

    • C.

      Organizational Behaviour

    • D.

      People Management

    Correct Answer
    C. Organizational Behaviour
    Explanation
    Organizational Behaviour is a field of study that investigates how individuals, groups, and structure influence behavior within organizations, with the goal of improving the organization's effectiveness. It focuses on understanding and managing human behavior in the workplace, including topics such as motivation, leadership, communication, and decision-making. By studying organizational behavior, organizations can gain insights into how to create a positive work environment, enhance employee performance, and promote overall organizational success.

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  • 2. 

    Over the past two decades, business schools have added required courses on people skills to many curricula. Why have they done this?

    • A.

      Managers no longer need technical skills in subjects such as economics behaviour in the workplace.

    • B.

      There is an increased emphasis in controlling employee behaviour the the workplace.

    • C.

      Managers need to understand human behaviour if they are to be effective.

    • D.

      These skills enable managers to effectively lead human resources departments.

    Correct Answer
    C. Managers need to understand human behaviour if they are to be effective.
    Explanation
    Business schools have added required courses on people skills to their curricula because managers need to understand human behavior if they are to be effective. This suggests that having knowledge and skills in understanding and managing human behavior is crucial for managers in order to succeed in their roles. By understanding human behavior, managers can effectively lead and motivate their teams, resolve conflicts, and create a positive work environment. This emphasis on people skills recognizes the importance of interpersonal relationships and communication in the workplace for managerial success.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is most likely to be a belief held by a successful manager?

    • A.

      Technical knowledge is all that is needed for success.

    • B.

      It is not essential to have sound interpersonal skills.

    • C.

      Technical skills are necessary, but insufficient alone for success.

    • D.

      Effectiveness is not impacted by human behaviour.

    Correct Answer
    C. Technical skills are necessary, but insufficient alone for success.
    Explanation
    A successful manager understands that technical skills are important but not enough to guarantee success. They recognize that interpersonal skills and the ability to work well with others are equally crucial for achieving success in a managerial role. They understand that human behavior and effective communication play a significant role in achieving goals and maintaining a productive work environment.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following would not be considered an organization?

    • A.

      A Church

    • B.

      A University

    • C.

      A Military Unit

    • D.

      All adults in a given community

    Correct Answer
    D. All adults in a given community
    Explanation
    All adults in a given community would not be considered an organization because an organization typically refers to a structured group of individuals with a common purpose, goals, and formalized structure. While a church, university, and military unit are all examples of organizations with defined structures and objectives, "all adults in a given community" does not meet the criteria of a formalized group with a common purpose and structure. It is a general population rather than a specific organization.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is best defined as a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals?

    • A.

      Party

    • B.

      Unit

    • C.

      Team

    • D.

      Organization

    Correct Answer
    D. Organization
    Explanation
    An organization is best defined as a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Unlike a party, unit, or team, an organization implies a more formal and structured group that operates with a specific purpose in mind. It involves individuals working together in a coordinated manner to achieve shared objectives.

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  • 6. 

    Which of a manager's primary roles requires the manager to define an organization's goals, establish an overall strategy for achieveing these goals and develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities?

    • A.

      Controlling

    • B.

      Planning

    • C.

      Staffing

    • D.

      Coordinating

    Correct Answer
    B. Planning
    Explanation
    Planning is a manager's primary role that involves defining an organization's goals, establishing a strategy to achieve those goals, and developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities. This includes setting objectives, determining the best course of action, and allocating resources effectively. Planning helps managers anticipate future challenges, make informed decisions, and guide the organization towards success. It is a crucial function that sets the direction for the organization and ensures that all activities are aligned towards achieving the desired outcomes.

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  • 7. 

    Determining how tasks are to be grouped is part of which management function?

    • A.

      Planning

    • B.

      Leading

    • C.

      Controlling

    • D.

      Organizing

    Correct Answer
    D. Organizing
    Explanation
    The correct answer is organizing. Organizing is a management function that involves determining how tasks are to be grouped, assigning tasks to individuals or teams, and establishing the structure and hierarchy within an organization. This function ensures that resources are allocated effectively and that work is coordinated to achieve the organization's goals.

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  • 8. 

    Mitzberg concluded that managers perform 10 different, highly interrelated roles. Which of the following is one of the broad categories into which these roles could be grouped?

    • A.

      Intrapersonal

    • B.

      Institutional

    • C.

      Decisional

    • D.

      Affective

    Correct Answer
    C. Decisional
    Explanation
    Mitzberg concluded that managers perform 10 different, highly interrelated roles. One of the broad categories into which these roles could be grouped is decisional. This means that managers are responsible for making decisions and taking actions that affect the organization. They are required to gather information, analyze alternatives, and make choices that will have an impact on the company's future. Decisional roles include roles such as entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.

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  • 9. 

    An OB study would be least likely to be used to focus on which of the following problems?

    • A.

      An increase in absenteeism at a certain company

    • B.

      A fall in productivity in one shift of a manufacturing plant

    • C.

      A decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition

    • D.

      An increase in theft by employees at a retail store

    Correct Answer
    C. A decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition
    Explanation
    An OB study focuses on understanding and improving individual and group behavior within an organization. It primarily deals with issues related to employee behavior, motivation, communication, and leadership. While a decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition may have an impact on employee morale and motivation, it is more closely related to market analysis and competitive strategy rather than individual or group behavior within the organization. Therefore, it is least likely to be the focus of an OB study.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is a reason that the study of organizational behaviour is useful?

    • A.

      Human behaviour does not vary a great deal between individuals and situations.

    • B.

      Human behaviour is not random.

    • C.

      Human behaviour is not consistent.

    • D.

      Human behaviour is rarely predictable.

    Correct Answer
    B. Human behaviour is not random.
    Explanation
    The study of organizational behavior is useful because human behavior is not random. Understanding human behavior allows organizations to predict and influence employee actions, leading to more effective management and decision-making. By studying patterns and trends in behavior, organizations can implement strategies to improve employee satisfaction, productivity, and overall organizational performance. This knowledge helps create a positive work environment and fosters healthy relationships among employees, resulting in higher levels of employee engagement and retention.

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  • 11. 

    A manager wishes to know how members of her team will react to layoffs in other departments. Which of the following is least useful in predicting her team's behaviour?

    • A.

      Knowing what are the organizational goals of her team

    • B.

      Knowing what is important to each member of the team

    • C.

      Knowing how the team perceives layoffs

    • D.

      Knowing how the team has reacted to similar situations in the past

    Correct Answer
    A. Knowing what are the organizational goals of her team
    Explanation
    Knowing what are the organizational goals of her team is the least useful in predicting her team's behavior because the question is specifically asking about their reaction to layoffs in other departments. While understanding the organizational goals is important for overall team performance and motivation, it may not directly correlate with how they will react to layoffs in other departments. The other options, such as knowing what is important to each member, how the team perceives layoffs, and how they have reacted to similar situations in the past, provide more relevant insights into their potential behavior in this specific scenario.

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  • 12. 

    Organizational behaviour is constructed from all of the following disciplines except __________.

    • A.

      Physics

    • B.

      Psychology

    • C.

      Anthropology

    Correct Answer
    A. Physics
    Explanation
    Organizational behavior is a field of study that focuses on understanding and managing human behavior within organizations. It draws on various disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, and management. Physics, on the other hand, is not directly related to the study of human behavior in organizations. While physics may have some indirect applications in areas like ergonomics and workplace design, it is not a primary discipline that contributes to the understanding of organizational behavior.

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  • 13. 

    How is the science of organizational behaviour different from sciences such as physics and chemistry?

    • A.

      OB accepts intuitive explanations of phenomena it studies.

    • B.

      Much of the data used in OB is collected by scientists working in different, but related, fields.

    • C.

      OB does not seek unifying underlying principles for the phenomena it studies.

    • D.

      Most people have preconceived notions about the phenomena studied by OB.

    Correct Answer
    C. OB does not seek unifying underlying principles for the phenomena it studies.
    Explanation
    Organizational behavior (OB) diverges from physics and chemistry by not aiming for unified principles. While physics and chemistry seek universal laws, OB focuses on understanding complex human interactions within organizations. It draws from diverse fields and data sources but often deals with dynamic, context-specific phenomena, making universal principles less attainable. Therefore, OB embraces varied perspectives and approaches to comprehend the intricacies of organizational dynamics.

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  • 14. 

    Psychology' major contributions to the field of organizational behaviour have been primarily at what level of analysis.

    • A.

      The level of the group

    • B.

      The level of the individual

    • C.

      The level of the organization

    • D.

      The level of the culture

    Correct Answer
    B. The level of the individual
    Explanation
    Psychology's major contributions to the field of organizational behavior have been primarily focused on understanding and analyzing individual behavior within organizations. This includes studying individual attitudes, motivation, personality traits, and decision-making processes, among other factors. By examining the level of the individual, psychologists aim to gain insights into how individuals' behavior and psychological processes impact organizational outcomes such as job satisfaction, performance, and leadership effectiveness. Understanding individual behavior is crucial for developing strategies to enhance employee well-being, productivity, and overall organizational success.

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  • 15. 

    The study of group processes in the organizational behaviour has largely been derived from what field of study?

    • A.

      Psychology

    • B.

      Sociology

    • C.

      Anthropology

    • D.

      Social Studies

    Correct Answer
    B. Sociology
    Explanation
    The study of group processes in organizational behavior has largely been derived from the field of sociology. Sociology focuses on the study of human social behavior, including how individuals interact within groups and organizations. It examines various aspects such as group dynamics, social structures, and social interactions, which are crucial in understanding group processes within organizations. By drawing from sociological theories and concepts, researchers and practitioners in organizational behavior gain insights into how groups function, communicate, and influence individual and collective behavior in the workplace.

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  • 16. 

    In order to predict human behaviour with any degree of accuracy, what sort of variables must be taken into account?

    • A.

      Global

    • B.

      General

    • C.

      Dependent

    • D.

      Contingency

    Correct Answer
    D. Contingency
    Explanation
    Contingency variables must be taken into account in order to predict human behavior with accuracy. Contingency variables refer to the various factors and circumstances that can influence or impact human behavior, such as situational factors, individual differences, and external events. By considering these contingency variables, one can better understand and anticipate how individuals may behave in different situations, making predictions more accurate and reliable.

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  • 17. 

    Given the climate of "temporariness" in modern organizations, employees must _______.

    • A.

      Continually update their knowledge and skills

    • B.

      Be prepared to stay in the same position for longer periods of time

    • C.

      Make closer connections to their peers

    • D.

      Foster friendship within the work environment

    Correct Answer
    A. Continually update their knowledge and skills
    Explanation
    In modern organizations, there is a climate of "temporariness" where things are constantly changing. To adapt to this environment, employees must continually update their knowledge and skills. This is because new technologies, methods, and practices are constantly emerging, and employees need to stay up-to-date in order to remain effective and competitive. By continuously learning and improving their skills, employees can better navigate the changing landscape of their organization and contribute to its success.

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  • 18. 

    Group behaviour, power, and conflict are central areas of study for _________.

    • A.

      Archaeologists

    • B.

      Sociologist

    • C.

      Anthropologists

    • D.

      Social Psychologists

    Correct Answer
    D. Social Psychologists
    Explanation
    Group behaviour, power, and conflict are central areas of study for social psychologists. Social psychologists examine how individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the presence of others and the social context. They explore topics such as conformity, obedience, group dynamics, leadership, and intergroup conflict. By understanding these processes, social psychologists aim to gain insights into human behavior and improve social interactions.

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  • 19. 

    At its root, productivity involves concern for both ________.

    • A.

      Dependance and Independence

    • B.

      Motivation and Distraction

    • C.

      Absenteeism and Motivation

    • D.

      Effectiveness and Efficiency

    Correct Answer
    D. Effectiveness and Efficiency
    Explanation
    Productivity is the measure of how effectively and efficiently tasks are completed. Effectiveness refers to achieving the desired outcome or goal, while efficiency refers to accomplishing the task with minimal resources, time, or effort. Therefore, concern for both effectiveness and efficiency is crucial for productivity, as it ensures that tasks are not only completed successfully but also in the most optimal and resourceful manner.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is an example of being an efficient company?

    • A.

      Operating at the lowest possible cost while yielding a higher output.

    • B.

      Creating the highest customer satisfaction ratings.

    • C.

      Meeting production schedules

    • D.

      Obtaining the highest market share

    Correct Answer
    A. Operating at the lowest possible cost while yielding a higher output.
    Explanation
    Operating at the lowest possible cost while yielding a higher output is an example of being an efficient company because it demonstrates the ability to minimize expenses while maximizing productivity. By reducing costs and increasing output, the company can achieve higher profitability and maintain a competitive advantage in the market. This efficiency allows the company to utilize its resources effectively and efficiently, ultimately leading to improved financial performance and sustainability.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following statements is true about the term "ability", as the term is used in organizational behaviour?

    • A.

      Motivation

    • B.

      Capacity

    • C.

      Experience

    • D.

      Intellect

    Correct Answer
    B. Capacity
    Explanation
    Capacity refers to the capability or potential of an individual to perform certain tasks or handle a specific workload. In the context of organizational behavior, capacity relates to an individual's ability to handle the demands and responsibilities of a job or role effectively. It encompasses factors such as skills, knowledge, and resources required to perform tasks successfully. Capacity is essential for individuals to meet job requirements and contribute to the overall success of the organization.

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  • 22. 

    Research has found tests that measure specific dimensions of intelligence are strong predictors of which of the following?

    • A.

      Job Satisfaction

    • B.

      Turnover

    • C.

      Job Performance

    • D.

      Ability to work with others

    Correct Answer
    C. Job Performance
    Explanation
    Research has found that tests that measure specific dimensions of intelligence are strong predictors of job performance. This means that individuals who perform well on these tests are more likely to excel in their job tasks and responsibilities. These tests assess cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, critical thinking, and decision-making, which are crucial for success in various job roles. Therefore, employers can use these tests as a reliable tool to evaluate and select candidates who are likely to perform well in their jobs.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following statements is true about the term "ability", as it is used in the field of organizational behaviour?

    • A.

      It refers to an individual's willingness to perform various tasks.

    • B.

      It is a current assessment of what an individual can do.

    • C.

      It refers exclusively to intellectual skills.

    • D.

      It refers exclusively to physical skills.

    Correct Answer
    B. It is a current assessment of what an individual can do.
    Explanation
    The term "ability" in the field of organizational behavior refers to a current assessment of what an individual can do. This means that it is a measure of an individual's skills, knowledge, and capabilities at a given point in time. It takes into account both intellectual and physical skills, as well as other factors such as experience and training. This assessment helps organizations determine the suitability of individuals for different tasks and roles within the organization.

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  • 24. 

    Recent evidence suggests that intelligence can be better understood by breaking it down into four sub-parts. Which one of the following is not one of those subparts?

    • A.

      Cognitive

    • B.

      Social

    • C.

      Emotional

    • D.

      Physical

    Correct Answer
    D. Physical
    Explanation
    The question asks for the sub-part that is not included in the recent evidence's breakdown of intelligence. The options provided are Cognitive, Social, Emotional, and Physical. The correct answer is Physical, as it is not one of the sub-parts identified in the evidence.

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  • 25. 

    Which type of intelligence encompasses the aptitudes that have long been tapped by traditional intelligence tests?

    • A.

      Cognitive Intelligence

    • B.

      Social Intelligence

    • C.

      Emotional Intelligence

    • D.

      Cultural Intelligence

    Correct Answer
    A. Cognitive Intelligence
    Explanation
    Cognitive intelligence refers to the mental abilities and skills that are measured by traditional intelligence tests. These tests typically assess logical reasoning, problem-solving, memory, and other cognitive abilities. Therefore, cognitive intelligence encompasses the aptitudes that are evaluated in these tests. Social intelligence, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence, on the other hand, focus on different aspects of human behavior and interaction, and are not directly related to the abilities assessed in traditional intelligence tests.

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  • 26. 

    A company is looking for a manager to liaise between its home office in the United States, its manufacturing plants in Poland and Germany, and its suppliers in the Middle East and South Asia. A good candidate would likely score highly in what subpart of intelligence?

    • A.

      Cognitive

    • B.

      Social

    • C.

      Emotional

    • D.

      Cultural

    Correct Answer
    D. Cultural
    Explanation
    A good candidate for this position would likely score highly in the subpart of intelligence related to cultural intelligence. This is because the role requires the manager to work with individuals from different countries and regions, each with their own unique cultural norms, values, and communication styles. Having a high level of cultural intelligence would enable the candidate to effectively navigate and understand these cultural differences, build relationships, and communicate effectively with individuals from diverse backgrounds.

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  • 27. 

    What will be the largest demographic change in the U.S. workforce in the next decade?

    • A.

      Increasing Ethnic Diversity

    • B.

      A fall in Married Workers

    • C.

      Increasing Age of Workers

    • D.

      Decreasing Tenure

    Correct Answer
    C. Increasing Age of Workers
    Explanation
    The largest demographic change in the U.S. workforce in the next decade is expected to be the increasing age of workers. This means that a significant portion of the workforce will be reaching retirement age, resulting in a higher percentage of older workers. This demographic shift will have implications for retirement planning, healthcare needs, and potential labor shortages in certain industries.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is not a biographical character?

    • A.

      Political Affiliation

    • B.

      Age

    • C.

      Sex

    • D.

      Tenure

    Correct Answer
    A. Political Affiliation
    Explanation
    Political affiliation is not a biographical character because it does not pertain to personal characteristics or attributes of an individual. Biographical characters typically include factors such as age, sex, and tenure, which are related to an individual's personal background and experiences. However, political affiliation refers to a person's association with a particular political party or ideology, which is not inherently tied to their personal biography.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following statements concerning tenure is not true?

    • A.

      Recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productive.

    • B.

      Tenure does not appear to be a good predictor of employee productivity.

    • C.

      Tenure is a potent variable in explaining turnover

    • D.

      Tenure and satisfaction are positively related.

    Correct Answer
    A. Recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productive.
    Explanation
    This statement is not true. While tenure may have a positive relationship with factors such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment, recent evidence does not consistently demonstrate a positive relationship between tenure (or seniority) and job productivity. In fact, some studies suggest that there may be a negative correlation between tenure and productivity, as longer-tenured employees may become complacent or less motivated over time. Therefore, this statement is not accurate in the context of current research findings.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the higher absentee rate of women in the workplace?

    • A.

      Women tend to have more illnesses that keep them from work than do men.

    • B.

      Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family.

    • C.

      Women tend to be less satisfied with their jobs than men.

    • D.

      Women generally have jobs for which temporary replacement can be hired

    Correct Answer
    B. Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family.
    Explanation
    Traditionally, women have had the responsibility of caring for home and family. This explanation suggests that women may have a higher absentee rate in the workplace because they are more likely to take time off to fulfill their caregiving duties at home. This could include taking care of children, elderly parents, or managing household responsibilities. This responsibility can often require women to take time off work or have more flexible schedules, leading to a higher absentee rate compared to men.

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  • 31. 

    Studies indicate that which of the following tends to decrease with increased tenure?

    • A.

      Job Satisfaction

    • B.

      Productivity

    • C.

      Absenteeism

    • D.

      Raises and Promotion

    Correct Answer
    C. Absenteeism
    Explanation
    Studies indicate that absenteeism tends to decrease with increased tenure. This means that employees who have been with an organization for a longer period of time are less likely to be absent from work. This can be attributed to various factors such as job security, familiarity with the work environment, stronger work relationships, and a sense of loyalty towards the organization. As employees become more settled in their roles and develop a deeper understanding of their responsibilities, they are more likely to prioritize attendance and commitment to their work.

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  • 32. 

    All of the following are true about learning except that it _________.

    • A.

      Involves change.

    • B.

      Can have a very short duration.

    • C.

      Requires a change in behaviour.

    • D.

      Affects Aptitude.

    Correct Answer
    B. Can have a very short duration.
    Explanation
    Learning involves change and requires a change in behavior. It also affects aptitude, as learning can enhance one's abilities and skills. However, learning typically does not have a very short duration, as it often requires time and practice to acquire and retain new knowledge or skills.

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  • 33. 

    Classical conditioning would view which of the following as most likely to be a conditioned response?

    • A.

      Winching when you stub your toe.

    • B.

      Driving on the right side of the road.

    • C.

      Flinching when startled by a loud noise.

    • D.

      Looking for shelter when the sky turns grey.

    Correct Answer
    D. Looking for shelter when the sky turns grey.
    Explanation
    Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus, leading to a learned response. In this scenario, looking for shelter when the sky turns grey is most likely to be a conditioned response. This is because the sky turning grey is a neutral stimulus that becomes associated with the meaningful stimulus of rain or bad weather, which triggers the learned response of seeking shelter. The other options do not involve a clear association between a neutral stimulus and a meaningful stimulus.

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  • 34. 

    In Pavlov's experiment, the bell was a _________.

    • A.

      Unconditioned Stimulus

    • B.

      Unconditioned Response

    • C.

      Conditioned Stimulus

    • D.

      Conditioned Response

    Correct Answer
    C. Conditioned Stimulus
    Explanation
    In Pavlov's experiment, the bell was a conditioned stimulus. This means that initially, the bell had no natural association with the response it eventually elicited. However, through repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (such as food), the bell became associated with the response (such as salivation) and eventually started to elicit the response on its own. The bell became a conditioned stimulus because it acquired the ability to trigger a conditioned response (salivation) through this process of association.

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  • 35. 

    According to operant conditioning, when a behaviour is not reinforced, what happens to the probability of that behavior occurring again?

    • A.

      It increases.

    • B.

      It declines.

    • C.

      It remains the unchanged.

    • D.

      It becomes zero.

    Correct Answer
    B. It declines.
    Explanation
    According to operant conditioning, when a behavior is not reinforced, the probability of that behavior occurring again declines. This is because reinforcement strengthens the association between a behavior and its consequences, making it more likely to be repeated. When a behavior is not reinforced, it loses its reinforcing value and becomes less likely to occur in the future.

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  • 36. 

    What do we call the view that we can learn both through observation and direct experience?

    • A.

      Situational Learning Theory

    • B.

      Classical Learning

    • C.

      Social Learning Theory

    • D.

      Hands-onLearning Experience

    Correct Answer
    C. Social Learning Theory
    Explanation
    Social Learning Theory is the correct answer because it encompasses the idea that learning can occur through both observation and direct experience. This theory, proposed by Albert Bandura, suggests that individuals can learn by observing others and imitating their behaviors, as well as through their own direct experiences and interactions with the environment. It emphasizes the role of social interactions and modeling in the learning process.

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  • 37. 

    Social Learning Theory is an extension of

    • A.

      Classical Conditioning

    • B.

      Operant Conditioning

    • C.

      Shaping

    • D.

      Pavlovian Theory

    Correct Answer
    B. Operant Conditioning
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Operant Conditioning. Social Learning Theory is an extension of Operant Conditioning because it emphasizes the role of observation and imitation in learning. According to this theory, individuals learn by observing the behavior of others and the consequences that follow. This type of learning is based on the principles of operant conditioning, which suggests that behavior is influenced by its consequences. Therefore, the correct answer is Operant Conditioning.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following statements about positive and negative reinforcement is not true?

    • A.

      They both result in learning

    • B.

      They both strengthen a response and increase the probability of repetition.

    • C.

      They tend to weaken behaviour and decrease its subsequent frequency.

    • D.

      They are effective shaping tools

    Correct Answer
    C. They tend to weaken behaviour and decrease its subsequent frequency.
    Explanation
    Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement both result in learning by strengthening a response and increasing the probability of repetition. They are effective shaping tools as they can be used to encourage desired behaviors. However, it is not true that they tend to weaken behavior and decrease its subsequent frequency. In fact, reinforcement is used to encourage and strengthen behavior, not weaken it.

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  • 39. 

    An employee is frequently late for work. Every time he is not tardy the manager compliments him for being on time. What form of reinforcement is the manager using?

    • A.

      Continuous schedule

    • B.

      Negative

    • C.

      Intermittent Schedule

    • D.

      Repetitious

    Correct Answer
    A. Continuous schedule
    Explanation
    The manager is using a continuous schedule of reinforcement. In this type of reinforcement, the behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. In this case, the employee is complimented every time he is not late for work, which serves as a positive reinforcement to encourage him to continue being on time. This consistent reinforcement increases the likelihood that the employee will continue to be punctual in the future.

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  • 40. 

    In general, ______ reinforcement schedules tend to lead to higher performance than ______ reinforcement schedules.

    • A.

      Variable; Fixed

    • B.

      Fixed; Intermittent

    • C.

      Fixed; Variable

    • D.

      Variable; Ratio

    Correct Answer
    A. Variable; Fixed
    Explanation
    Variable reinforcement schedules tend to lead to higher performance than fixed reinforcement schedules. This is because variable reinforcement schedules provide rewards or reinforcements at unpredictable intervals, which can create a stronger and more persistent behavior. In contrast, fixed reinforcement schedules provide rewards at consistent intervals, which may lead to a decrease in motivation and performance over time. Variable reinforcement schedules are more effective in maintaining desired behaviors and preventing extinction.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude?

    • A.

      Attitudes indicate how one will react to a given event.

    • B.

      Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measure's one's actions.

    • C.

      Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of some person, object or event

    • D.

      Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone.

    Correct Answer
    D. Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone.
    Explanation
    Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone. This definition suggests that attitudes are subjective judgments or opinions that individuals hold about a particular person, object, or event. Attitudes are not simply emotional reactions or yardsticks for measuring actions, but rather they reflect one's beliefs and evaluations. This definition captures the essence of attitudes as cognitive evaluations that influence how individuals perceive and react to various situations.

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  • 42. 

    The ______ component of an attitude is the emotional feeling component of that attitude.

    • A.

      Affective

    • B.

      Cognitive

    • C.

      Behavioural

    • D.

      Evaluative

    Correct Answer
    A. Affective
    Explanation
    The affective component of an attitude refers to the emotional feelings associated with that attitude. It involves the individual's emotional response or reaction towards a particular object, person, or situation. This component influences how an individual feels about something and can shape their overall attitude and behavior towards it.

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  • 43. 

    The belief that "violence is wrong" is a evaluative statement. Such an opinion constitutes the ______ component of an attitude.

    • A.

      Cognitive

    • B.

      Affective

    • C.

      Reflective

    • D.

      Behavioural

    Correct Answer
    A. Cognitive
    Explanation
    The belief that "violence is wrong" is a cognitive component of an attitude because it involves a mental judgment or belief about the moral or ethical nature of violence. This component relates to our thoughts, beliefs, and knowledge about a particular topic or issue.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following is an example of an attitude?

    • A.

      Satisfaction with a job well done.

    • B.

      The observation that most dogs have four legs.

    • C.

      The opinion that it is never acceptable to steal.

    • D.

      Anger at being unfairly accused of a wrongdoing.

    Correct Answer
    D. Anger at being unfairly accused of a wrongdoing.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Anger at being unfairly accused of a wrongdoing." This is an example of an attitude because it reflects a person's emotional response towards a specific situation or event. Attitudes are typically formed based on beliefs, values, and personal experiences, and they can influence an individual's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In this case, the attitude of anger is a response to the perceived injustice of being wrongly accused, highlighting a negative emotional reaction towards the situation.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following is explained by self-perception theory?

    • A.

      "I think it's wrong to steal, so I never have taken as much as a paper clip from my office"

    • B.

      "I may have cut a few corners when I wrote that new contract, but it was more important to get it on time than worry about a few typos."

    • C.

      "I am deeply religious person, so I do not want to work on any of the holy days my faith holds dear"

    • D.

      None of them

    Correct Answer
    D. None of them
    Explanation
    None of the provided statements directly align with self-perception theory, which posits that individuals infer their attitudes or preferences based on observing their own behavior. The first statement reflects a moral belief influencing behavior, rather than the individual inferring their attitude from their actions. Similarly, the second statement involves rationalizing behavior due to external factors, such as time constraints, rather than self-perception of attitudes. The third statement reflects adherence to religious beliefs, but it does not directly relate to self-perception theory, as the decision is based on religious conviction rather than inferred attitudes from observed behavior. Therefore, "none of them" is the correct option.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is not true concerning diversity programs?

    • A.

      They almost always include a self-evaluation phase.

    • B.

      They seek to change attitudes in response to shifts in perspective on diversity issues

    • C.

      Participants often take part in group discussions with representatives from diverse groups.

    • D.

      They avoid making participants openly confront the stereotypes that they hold.

    Correct Answer
    D. They avoid making participants openly confront the stereotypes that they hold.
    Explanation
    Diversity programs aim to address and challenge stereotypes and biases that participants may hold. They encourage participants to openly confront and examine their own stereotypes in order to promote understanding and acceptance of diverse groups. Therefore, the statement that diversity programs avoid making participants openly confront their stereotypes is not true.

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  • 47. 

    The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is ___________.

    • A.

      Job satisfaction

    • B.

      Job involvement

    • C.

      Job stability

    • D.

      Organizational commitment

    Correct Answer
    B. Job involvement
    Explanation
    Job involvement refers to the degree to which a person identifies with their job, actively participates in it, and considers their performance as important to their self-worth. It reflects the level of engagement and dedication an individual has towards their work. Job involvement goes beyond mere job satisfaction and encompasses a deeper sense of connection and investment in one's job role and responsibilities. It indicates the extent to which an individual feels connected to their work and is actively engaged in it.

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  • 48. 

    _________ refers to an individual's general attitude towards his or her job.

    • A.

      Job Satisfaction

    • B.

      Job Involvement

    • C.

      Job Stability

    • D.

      Organizational Commitment

    Correct Answer
    A. Job Satisfaction
    Explanation
    Job satisfaction refers to an individual's general attitude towards his or her job. It represents the level of contentment and fulfillment an employee experiences in their work. Job satisfaction is influenced by various factors such as the nature of the job, work environment, relationships with colleagues and supervisors, and opportunities for growth and advancement. It is an important aspect of employee well-being and can impact their motivation, productivity, and overall job performance.

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  • 49. 

    Of the following the best predictor of turnover is __________.

    • A.

      Job Satisfaction

    • B.

      Job Involvement

    • C.

      Organizational Commitment

    • D.

      Cognitive Dissonance

    Correct Answer
    C. Organizational Commitment
    Explanation
    Organizational commitment refers to an individual's emotional attachment and loyalty towards their organization. It reflects their willingness to stay with the organization and put in extra effort to achieve its goals. High levels of organizational commitment are often associated with lower turnover rates as employees are more likely to be satisfied with their job and have a stronger sense of belonging. Therefore, organizational commitment is considered the best predictor of turnover as it indicates the likelihood of employees staying or leaving the organization.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following is not generally true?

    • A.

      Satisfied workers are productive workers.

    • B.

      Productive workers are satisfied workers.

    • C.

      Satisfaction is the major determinate of a worker's OCB.

    • D.

      Satisfaction comes down to fairness of outcomes, treatments or procedures.

    Correct Answer
    A. Satisfied workers are productive workers.
    Explanation
    The given statement "Satisfied workers are productive workers" is not generally true. While job satisfaction can contribute to productivity, it is not the only factor. Other factors such as skills, motivation, work environment, and organizational support also play a significant role in determining productivity. Therefore, it is possible for workers to be satisfied but not necessarily productive, or vice versa.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 30, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 20, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Stfnwall
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