Test Your Knowledge On Neuroanatomy Questions

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Neuroanatomy Quizzes & Trivia

Practice quiz about neuroanatomy exam multiple choice section. Take this quiz and test your knowledge on neuroanatomy.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following are all interneurons?

    • A.

      Basket cells, granule cells, golgi cells, stellate cells

    • B.

      Pyramidal cells, granule cells, basket cellas, golgi cells

    • C.

      Pyramidal cells, cortical spinal cells, stellate cells, golgi cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Basket cells, granule cells, golgi cells, stellate cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the first option: Basket cells, granule cells, golgi cells, stellate cells. These are all examples of interneurons, which are a type of neuron that connects other neurons within the central nervous system. They are responsible for processing and integrating information, and they play a crucial role in regulating and coordinating neural activity.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following are both output (projection) neurons?

    • A.

      Golgi cells, Granule cells

    • B.

      Pyramdial cells, Purkinji cells

    • C.

      Molecular cells, Golgi cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Pyramdial cells, Purkinji cells
    Explanation
    Pyramidal cells and Purkinji cells are both output (projection) neurons. Pyramidal cells are found in the cerebral cortex and are known for their pyramid-shaped cell bodies. They are the primary excitatory neurons in the cortex and play a crucial role in various cognitive functions. Purkinji cells, on the other hand, are located in the cerebellar cortex. They receive input from granule cells and are responsible for transmitting information from the cerebellar cortex to other parts of the brain and spinal cord. These two types of neurons are involved in relaying information and transmitting signals to other areas of the nervous system.

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  • 3. 

    In the peripheral nervous system, myelinated fibres...(classification of fibres)

    • A.

      Spiral wrappings of Schwann cell membranes around axons, interupted periodically by nodes of Ranvier.

    • B.

      Are involved in the axonal guiding but they are not known to have any phagocitic funciton

    • C.

      Princicple output neurons of the cerebral cortex which are excitatory and use the transmitter glutamine.

    Correct Answer
    A. Spiral wrappings of Schwann cell membranes around axons, interupted periodically by nodes of Ranvier.
    Explanation
    Myelinated fibers in the peripheral nervous system are characterized by spiral wrappings of Schwann cell membranes around axons, which are periodically interrupted by nodes of Ranvier. This arrangement allows for the rapid conduction of nerve impulses along the axons. The Schwann cell membranes act as insulation, preventing the leakage of electrical signals and ensuring efficient transmission. The nodes of Ranvier are gaps in the myelin sheath where the axon is exposed, allowing for the efficient propagation of the electrical signal from one node to the next.

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  • 4. 

    Schwann cells...(functions)

    • A.

      These cells myelinate axons (help influence conduction), and hold multiple axons together.They contribute to the maintenance of extracellular chemical balance, and are involved in some metabolic processes together with neurons.

    • B.

      Multiply and become phagocytic to dispose of pathogens and neuronal debris. The morphology can change dramatically in reponse to injury.

    • C.

      Line the ventricular system and regulate chemical movement between the CSF and ECF of the CNS

    Correct Answer
    A. These cells myelinate axons (help influence conduction), and hold multiple axons together.They contribute to the maintenance of extracellular chemical balance, and are involved in some metabolic processes together with neurons.
    Explanation
    Schwann cells have multiple functions in the nervous system. They play a crucial role in myelinating axons, which helps to increase the speed and efficiency of nerve impulse conduction. Additionally, they hold multiple axons together, providing structural support. Schwann cells also contribute to the maintenance of extracellular chemical balance in the nervous system and are involved in some metabolic processes along with neurons. Therefore, the given answer accurately describes the functions of Schwann cells.

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  • 5. 

    Protoplasmic astrocytes are found in...

    • A.

      Grey matter tissues

    • B.

      White matter tissues

    • C.

      Membrane of a cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Grey matter tissues
    Explanation
    Protoplasmic astrocytes are a type of astrocyte, a star-shaped glial cell found in the brain and spinal cord. They are primarily located in the grey matter tissues of the central nervous system. Grey matter is responsible for processing information in the brain, and astrocytes play a crucial role in supporting and regulating neuronal activity. Therefore, the presence of protoplasmic astrocytes in grey matter tissues is essential for maintaining the proper functioning of the brain.

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  • 6. 

    Cells of the CNS with the greatest role in immune function are the...

    • A.

      Microglia

    • B.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • C.

      Ependymal cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Microglia
    Explanation
    Microglia are a type of immune cell found in the central nervous system (CNS). They play a crucial role in immune function within the CNS by monitoring and protecting the brain and spinal cord from infections and inflammation. Microglia act as the first line of defense against pathogens and are responsible for phagocytosis, releasing inflammatory molecules, and promoting tissue repair. Unlike other cells in the CNS, microglia are derived from the immune system and have the ability to migrate to sites of injury or infection. Therefore, microglia have the greatest role in immune function within the CNS.

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  • 7. 

    CSF is secreted by...

    • A.

      Choroid plexus within the ventricles

    • B.

      Granule cells within the molecular layer

    • C.

      Folia within the ventricles

    Correct Answer
    A. Choroid plexus within the ventricles
    Explanation
    The choroid plexus within the ventricles secretes CSF. The choroid plexus is a network of blood vessels located within the ventricles of the brain. It produces cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. CSF helps to cushion the brain against injury, remove waste products from the brain, and provide nutrients to the brain cells.

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  • 8. 

    Neocortical layer V projects predominantly to...

    • A.

      Subcortical regions

    • B.

      Intercortical regions

    • C.

      Endocortical regions

    Correct Answer
    A. Subcortical regions
    Explanation
    Neocortical layer V is known to primarily project to subcortical regions. This means that the neurons in this layer send their axons to areas located beneath the cortex, such as the thalamus, basal ganglia, and brainstem. These projections play a crucial role in various functions, including motor control, sensory processing, and regulation of arousal and attention.

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  • 9. 

    The precentral gyrus (features/functions)

    • A.

      Located on the lateral surface of the frontal lobe. It contains the primary motor area

    • B.

      Located on the medial surface of the frontal lobe. It contains the somatosensory area

    • C.

      Located on the lateral surface of the frontal lobe. It contains the somatosensory area

    Correct Answer
    A. Located on the lateral surface of the frontal lobe. It contains the primary motor area
    Explanation
    The correct answer is located on the lateral surface of the frontal lobe. It contains the primary motor area. This is because the precentral gyrus, also known as the primary motor cortex, is indeed located on the lateral surface of the frontal lobe. It is responsible for initiating voluntary motor movements and controlling the muscles of the body.

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  • 10. 

    The Brodmann number assigned to...(one of the primary sensory cortical areas is...

    • A.

      3, 1, 2 (The lateral postcentral gyrus)

    • B.

      4 (precentral gyrus)

    • C.

      17 (postcentral gyrus)

    Correct Answer
    A. 3, 1, 2 (The lateral postcentral gyrus)
    Explanation
    The Brodmann number assigned to the lateral postcentral gyrus is 3, 1, and 2. Brodmann numbers are a system used to divide the cerebral cortex into different areas based on their cytoarchitecture. The lateral postcentral gyrus is part of the primary sensory cortex and is responsible for processing somatosensory information, such as touch, pressure, and temperature, from the opposite side of the body.

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  • 11. 

    The lenticular nucleus of the basal ganglia consists of...

    • A.

      Putamen and globus pallidus

    • B.

      Grey matter and globus pallidus

    • C.

      Putamen and grey matter

    Correct Answer
    A. Putamen and globus pallidus
    Explanation
    The lenticular nucleus of the basal ganglia consists of the putamen and globus pallidus. The putamen is a large structure located in the lateral part of the lenticular nucleus, while the globus pallidus is located medially. These two structures play important roles in motor control and are involved in the regulation of movement.

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  • 12. 

    The white matter tract seperating the putamen & caudate is the...

    • A.

      Striatel cells bridging

    • B.

      Internal capsule white matter tract

    • C.

      Myelineated cells bridging

    Correct Answer
    B. Internal capsule white matter tract
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the internal capsule white matter tract. The internal capsule is a bundle of nerve fibers that runs between the thalamus and the cerebral cortex, and it separates the putamen and caudate nucleus, which are both part of the basal ganglia. The white matter in the internal capsule contains myelinated axons, which allows for efficient transmission of signals between different regions of the brain. Therefore, the internal capsule white matter tract is responsible for separating the putamen and caudate.

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  • 13. 

    Parkinsons disease is characterised by...

    • A.

      Hypokinetic disorder involving the basal ganglia; it is a progressive neurological disorder characterised by the death of dopamingeric neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. Sx ridged, slow and reduced movements

    • B.

      Hypokinetic disorder involving the basal ganglia; it is a progressive neurological disorder characterised by the death of dopamingeric neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. Sx ridged, slow and reduced movements

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypokinetic disorder involving the basal ganglia; it is a progressive neurological disorder characterised by the death of dopamingeric neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. Sx ridged, slow and reduced movements
    Explanation
    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a hypokinetic disorder involving the basal ganglia. It is a progressive neurological disorder caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. This leads to symptoms such as rigidity, slow movements, and reduced mobility.

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  • 14. 

    Changes in the substantia nigra that are frequently associated with parkinsons disease include...

    • A.

      Death of dopamingeric neurons in the pars compacta (motor control) of the substantia nigra.

    • B.

      Death of dopamingeric neurons in the pars compacta (motor control) of the substantia nigra.

    Correct Answer
    A. Death of dopamingeric neurons in the pars compacta (motor control) of the substantia nigra.
    Explanation
    The changes in the substantia nigra that are frequently associated with Parkinson's disease include the death of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta, which is responsible for motor control. This loss of dopaminergic neurons leads to a decrease in dopamine levels in the brain, resulting in the motor symptoms characteristic of Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia.

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  • 15. 

    Climbing fibres entering the cerebellum arise from the...

    • A.

      Contralateral inferior olivary nucleus

    • B.

      Glia of the peripheral nervous system

    • C.

      Contralateral superior nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. Contralateral inferior olivary nucleus
    Explanation
    The climbing fibres entering the cerebellum arise from the contralateral inferior olivary nucleus. The inferior olivary nucleus is located in the medulla oblongata and is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the spinal cord and brainstem to the cerebellum. The climbing fibres receive input from various sources, including the spinal cord, and play a crucial role in motor control and coordination. They form synapses with Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, allowing for the integration of sensory and motor information in the cerebellum.

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  • 16. 

    The epithalamus includes the...

    • A.

      The pineal gland, habenular nuclei and posterior commisure

    • B.

      The habencular nuclei, anterior commisure and pituatory gland

    • C.

      The posterior commisure, pineal gland and inferior commisure

    Correct Answer
    A. The pineal gland, habenular nuclei and posterior commisure
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the pineal gland, habenular nuclei, and posterior commissure. The epithalamus is a region of the diencephalon that includes these structures. The pineal gland is responsible for producing melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles. The habenular nuclei are involved in the regulation of emotional and reward-related behaviors. The posterior commissure is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right sides of the brain. Together, these structures play important roles in various physiological and behavioral processes.

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  • 17. 

    The centromedial nucleus of the thalamus is located

    • A.

      Medial to VPL/VPM (ventral posteriomedial/ventral postereolateral)

    • B.

      Lateral to VPL/VPM (ventral posteriomedial/ventral posterolateral)

    • C.

      Inferior to VPL/VPM (ventral/posteriomedial/ventral posterolateral)

    Correct Answer
    A. Medial to VPL/VPM (ventral posteriomedial/ventral postereolateral)
    Explanation
    The centromedial nucleus of the thalamus is located medial to VPL/VPM (ventral posteriomedial/ventral postereolateral). This means that it is situated closer to the midline of the brain compared to VPL/VPM.

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  • 18. 

    The mammillothalamic tract connects

    • A.

      The mamillary body and the anterior thalamus

    • B.

      The mamillary body and the posterior thalamus

    • C.

      Thr mamillary body and the superior thalamus

    Correct Answer
    A. The mamillary body and the anterior thalamus
    Explanation
    The mammillothalamic tract is a neural pathway that connects the mamillary body, located in the hypothalamus, to the anterior thalamus. This tract is involved in the relay of information between these two structures, playing a role in memory and learning processes. The connection between the mamillary body and the anterior thalamus is important for the integration of emotional and memory-related information.

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  • 19. 

    The thalamic nuclei most commonly associated with the somatosensory function are

    • A.

      Ventral posterior nucleus (VPL/VPM)

    • B.

      Ventral superior nucleus (VPL/VPS)

    • C.

      Hypothalamic nucleus (VPM/VPS)

    Correct Answer
    A. Ventral posterior nucleus (VPL/VPM)
    Explanation
    The thalamic nuclei most commonly associated with the somatosensory function are the Ventral posterior nucleus (VPL/VPM). These nuclei receive sensory information from the body and relay it to the primary somatosensory cortex. The VPL nucleus specifically receives information from the body, while the VPM nucleus receives information from the face and head. Together, they play a crucial role in processing and transmitting sensory information related to touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception. The other options mentioned, Ventral superior nucleus (VPL/VPS) and Hypothalamic nucleus (VPM/VPS), are not primarily associated with somatosensory function.

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  • 20. 

    Auditory function is associated with which thalamic nucleus

    • A.

      Medial geniculate nucleus

    • B.

      Lateral genciulate nucleus

    • C.

      Superior geniculate nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. Medial geniculate nucleus
    Explanation
    The medial geniculate nucleus is associated with auditory function. It is a part of the thalamus and receives auditory information from the inferior colliculus. It then relays this information to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe. The lateral geniculate nucleus, on the other hand, is associated with visual function, receiving information from the optic tract and relaying it to the visual cortex. The superior geniculate nucleus is also associated with visual function, specifically processing visual information related to the perception of motion.

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  • 21. 

    The hypothalamic nucleus that serves as the circadian rhythm clock is the

    • A.

      The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus

    • B.

      The dorsolateral hypothalamic nucleus

    • C.

      The antimedial hypothalamic membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus
    Explanation
    The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is responsible for regulating the circadian rhythm. It receives input from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is considered the master clock of the body. The SCN receives information about light and darkness from the retina and sends signals to the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus to synchronize the body's internal clock. This nucleus plays a crucial role in maintaining the sleep-wake cycle and coordinating various physiological processes throughout the day.

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  • 22. 

    The cerebellum is seperated from the occipital lobe by what structure/s?

    • A.

      Tentorium cerebelli/preoccipital notch

    • B.

      Tentorim cerebelli/postoccipital notch

    • C.

      Preoccipital notch/angular gyrus

    Correct Answer
    A. Tentorium cerebelli/preoccipital notch
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Tentorium cerebelli/preoccipital notch. The cerebellum is separated from the occipital lobe by the tentorium cerebelli, which is a fold of dura mater. The preoccipital notch is a specific area within the tentorium cerebelli where the cerebellum is separated from the occipital lobe.

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  • 23. 

    Control of limb and trunk movement is associated with which cerebellar region?

    • A.

      Spino-cerebellum (Ant. and Post. Lobe)

    • B.

      The posterior cerebellar lobe

    • C.

      The Anterior cerebellar lobe

    Correct Answer
    A. Spino-cerebellum (Ant. and Post. Lobe)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Spino-cerebellum (Ant. and Post. Lobe). The spino-cerebellum is responsible for controlling limb and trunk movement. It receives input from the spinal cord and helps to coordinate and fine-tune movements of the limbs and trunk. The anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum are specifically involved in this control.

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  • 24. 

    Increased pressure with the posterior cranial fossa is likely to result in herniation of...

    • A.

      The cerebellar tonsils

    • B.

      The cerebrum

    • C.

      The brain stem

    Correct Answer
    A. The cerebellar tonsils
    Explanation
    Increased pressure with the posterior cranial fossa can lead to herniation of the cerebellar tonsils. The posterior cranial fossa is a space at the back of the skull that houses the cerebellum. When there is an increase in pressure within this space, such as in cases of brain swelling or hydrocephalus, the cerebellar tonsils can be pushed downward through the foramen magnum (the opening at the base of the skull). This can compress the brainstem and cause various neurological symptoms, potentially leading to serious complications if not treated promptly.

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  • 25. 

    The cerebellar peduncle with the clear majority of its fibres bringing information into the cerebellum is the...

    • A.

      Middle cerebellar peduncle

    • B.

      Superior cerebellar peduncle

    • C.

      Inferior cerebellar peduncle

    Correct Answer
    A. Middle cerebellar peduncle
    Explanation
    The middle cerebellar peduncle is the correct answer because it is the main pathway through which information is brought into the cerebellum. It contains the majority of the fibers that transmit sensory and motor information from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum. The superior cerebellar peduncle primarily carries efferent fibers from the cerebellum to other parts of the brain, while the inferior cerebellar peduncle mainly carries afferent fibers from the spinal cord and brainstem to the cerebellum.

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  • 26. 

    The fastigial nucleus recieves input predominantly from the...

    • A.

      Purkinji cells of the vermis

    • B.

      Schwann cells of the vermins

    • C.

      Astrocyte cells of the membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. Purkinji cells of the vermis
    Explanation
    The fastigial nucleus receives input predominantly from the Purkinji cells of the vermis. The Purkinji cells are a type of neuron located in the cerebellar cortex, specifically in the vermis region. These cells are responsible for receiving input from various sources and transmitting it to the deep cerebellar nuclei, including the fastigial nucleus. Therefore, the correct answer is Purkinji cells of the vermis.

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  • 27. 

    Maintenance of balance, and control of head and eye movements is associated with which cerebellar are or zone?

    • A.

      Vestibulocerebellum - floculonodular lobe and uvula

    • B.

      Antirorcerebellum - floculonodular lobe and uvula

    • C.

      Cerebrocerebellum - floculonodular lobe and uvula

    Correct Answer
    A. Vestibulocerebellum - floculonodular lobe and uvula
    Explanation
    The maintenance of balance and control of head and eye movements is associated with the vestibulocerebellum, specifically the floculonodular lobe and uvula. This region of the cerebellum receives input from the vestibular system, which is responsible for detecting changes in head position and movement. The vestibulocerebellum then helps coordinate and adjust muscle activity to maintain balance and stabilize gaze.

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  • 28. 

    Graded membrane potentials (features/characteristics)

    • A.

      First, it allows a cell to function as a battery, providing power to operate a variety of "molecular devices" embedded in the membrane. Second, in electrically excitable cells such as neurons, it is used for transmitting signals between different parts of a cell.

    • B.

      First, it allows a cell to function as a battery, providing power to operate a variety of "molecular devices" embedded in the membrane. Second, in electrically excitable cells such as neurons, it is used for transmitting signals between different parts of a cell.

    Correct Answer
    A. First, it allows a cell to function as a battery, providing power to operate a variety of "molecular devices" embedded in the membrane. Second, in electrically excitable cells such as neurons, it is used for transmitting signals between different parts of a cell.
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains the two main features or characteristics of graded membrane potentials. Firstly, it states that graded membrane potentials allow a cell to function as a battery, providing power to operate various "molecular devices" embedded in the membrane. This suggests that graded membrane potentials are involved in energy production and utilization within the cell. Secondly, it mentions that graded membrane potentials are used for transmitting signals between different parts of a cell, specifically in electrically excitable cells like neurons. This implies that graded membrane potentials play a crucial role in cellular communication and signal transmission.

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  • 29. 

    The axon hillock (features/characteristics)

    • A.

      The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon. Both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are summed in the axon hillock

    • B.

      The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon. Both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are summed in the axon hillock

    Correct Answer
    A. The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon. Both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are summed in the axon hillock
    Explanation
    The axon hillock is a specialized part of the neuron's cell body that connects to the axon. It is responsible for summing both inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). This summation of potentials determines whether or not an action potential will be generated and propagated down the axon. The axon hillock acts as a crucial integration site for incoming signals from other neurons, allowing the neuron to make decisions about whether to transmit information to other cells.

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  • 30. 

    The neurotransmitter of the neuromuscular junction is...

    • A.

      Acetylcholine (ACH)

    • B.

      Neurotransmitter (GABA)

    • C.

      Cortices (LHL)

    Correct Answer
    A. Acetylcholine (ACH)
    Explanation
    Acetylcholine (ACH) is the correct answer because it is the neurotransmitter responsible for transmitting signals from the motor neurons to the muscle fibers at the neuromuscular junction. It binds to the receptors on the muscle fibers, causing them to contract and initiate muscle movement. GABA is a neurotransmitter that primarily inhibits neuronal activity in the brain, and cortices refer to the outer layer of the brain.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following statements best describes the Golgi tendon organ (GTO)?

    • A.

      It detects changes in muscle tension or force during contraction.

    • B.

      It detects changes in muscle temperature.

    Correct Answer
    A. It detects changes in muscle tension or force during contraction.
    Explanation
    The Golgi tendon organ (GTO) is a proprioceptive sensory receptor located within the tendons of skeletal muscle. Its primary function is to detect changes in muscle tension or force during contraction, providing feedback to regulate muscle activity and prevent excessive force generation.

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  • 32. 

    Nocieception is a function of which fibres?

    • A.

      Afferent and efferent fibres - fast pain fibres

    • B.

      Efferent and cerebral fibres

    • C.

      Afferent and cerebral fibres

    Correct Answer
    A. Afferent and efferent fibres - fast pain fibres
    Explanation
    Nociception is the perception of pain. It is a function that involves both afferent and efferent fibers. Afferent fibers transmit sensory information from the body to the central nervous system, while efferent fibers transmit motor commands from the central nervous system to the muscles and organs. In the context of nociception, fast pain fibers are specifically involved in the transmission of sharp, localized pain signals. Therefore, the correct answer is "Afferent and efferent fibers - fast pain fibers."

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  • 33. 

    Pain and temperature information is predominantly carried by what pathway?

    • A.

      Ascending sensory pathway

    • B.

      Decending sensory pathway

    • C.

      Spino-thalamic pathway

    Correct Answer
    C. Spino-thalamic pathway
    Explanation
    The spinothalamic pathway is responsible for carrying pain and temperature information from the body to the brain. This pathway consists of a chain of neurons that transmit these sensory signals from the spinal cord to the thalamus, which then relays the information to the appropriate areas of the brain for processing and perception. Unlike the ascending sensory pathway, which carries other types of sensory information such as touch and proprioception, the spinothalamic pathway specifically focuses on pain and temperature sensations.

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  • 34. 

    A simple stretch reflex involves which fibres

    • A.

      Extrafusal and intrafusal

    • B.

      A single sensory fibre and a single motor fibre

    Correct Answer
    A. Extrafusal and intrafusal
    Explanation
    A simple stretch reflex involves both extrafusal and intrafusal fibers. Extrafusal fibers are responsible for generating force and producing movement in skeletal muscles, while intrafusal fibers are specialized muscle fibers found within muscle spindles, which are sensory receptors that detect changes in muscle length. The interaction between these two types of fibers is crucial for the stretch reflex, where a sudden stretch in a muscle activates the intrafusal fibers, which in turn activate the extrafusal fibers to contract and resist the stretch.

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  • 35. 

    Cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located where?

    • A.

      Grey matter of the thoracic and upper lumber segments of the spinal cord

    • B.

      White matter of the thoracic lower lumber segments of the spinal cord

    • C.

      Grey matter of the thoracic lower lumber segements of the spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    A. Grey matter of the thoracic and upper lumber segments of the spinal cord
    Explanation
    The cell bodies of preganglionic sympathetic neurons are located in the grey matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord. This is where the preganglionic neurons originate and send their axons out to synapse with postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic ganglia. From there, the postganglionic neurons innervate various target organs and tissues in the body to mediate sympathetic responses.

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  • 36. 

    The majority of cerebrovascular accidents (stroke) are due to

    • A.

      Reduced perfusion, often subsequent to thrombus or embolism

    • B.

      Hemorages subsequent to reduced perfusion

    • C.

      Increased perfusion, subesequent to thrombus or embolism

    Correct Answer
    A. Reduced perfusion, often subsequent to thrombus or embolism
    Explanation
    The correct answer is reduced perfusion, often subsequent to thrombus or embolism. Cerebrovascular accidents, or strokes, occur when there is a disruption in blood flow to the brain. This can be caused by a thrombus (blood clot) or an embolism (a clot that travels from another part of the body). These blockages reduce the perfusion, or blood supply, to the brain, leading to a stroke. Hemorrhages, on the other hand, occur when there is excessive bleeding in the brain, which is not the main cause of the majority of strokes. Increased perfusion, as mentioned in the third option, is also not a common cause of strokes.

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  • 37. 

    The muscle splindle

    • A.

      Muscle spindles are sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle, which primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle.

    • B.

      Muscle spindles are sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle, which primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle.

    Correct Answer
    A. Muscle spindles are sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle, which primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle.
    Explanation
    Muscle spindles are sensory receptors located within the muscle. They are responsible for detecting changes in the length of the muscle. These receptors provide feedback to the central nervous system about the position and movement of our body parts. When the muscle lengthens or shortens, the muscle spindles are activated and send signals to the brain, allowing us to have a sense of body position and movement.

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  • 38. 

    The sympathetic-effector junction (sympathetic ending at target organ) uses which neurotransmitter?

    • A.

      Noradrenaline

    • B.

      Acetlcholine

    • C.

      Adrenaline

    Correct Answer
    A. Noradrenaline
    Explanation
    The sympathetic-effector junction uses noradrenaline as the neurotransmitter. Noradrenaline is released by sympathetic nerve endings and acts on target organs to activate the sympathetic response. It binds to adrenergic receptors on the target organ, leading to various physiological effects such as increased heart rate, dilation of blood vessels, and mobilization of energy stores. Acetylcholine, on the other hand, is the neurotransmitter used at the parasympathetic-effector junction. Adrenaline is also a catecholamine neurotransmitter but is primarily released by the adrenal glands into the bloodstream as a hormone, rather than being used as a neurotransmitter at the sympathetic-effector junction.

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  • 39. 

    The layer of connective tissue continuous with dura at the exit of a spinal nerve is...

    • A.

      Arachnoid

    • B.

      Dura

    • C.

      Putamen

    Correct Answer
    A. Arachnoid
    Explanation
    The layer of connective tissue continuous with dura at the exit of a spinal nerve is the arachnoid. The arachnoid is one of the three layers of the meninges, which are the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord. It is located between the dura mater and the pia mater. The arachnoid forms a loose, delicate membrane that surrounds the spinal nerves as they exit the spinal cord, providing support and protection.

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  • 40. 

    The fibres with the fastest conduction velocity are...

    • A.

      Group A/Alpha fibres

    • B.

      Group B/Beta fibres

    • C.

      GroupC/Beta fibres

    Correct Answer
    A. Group A/Alpha fibres
    Explanation
    The fibres with the fastest conduction velocity are Group A/Alpha fibres. This is because Group A/Alpha fibres are myelinated, meaning they have a protective covering called myelin sheath that allows for faster conduction of electrical signals. In contrast, Group B/Beta fibres and Group C/C-fibres are unmyelinated or have thinner myelin sheaths, resulting in slower conduction velocities. Therefore, Group A/Alpha fibres have the fastest conduction velocity among the given options.

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  • 41. 

    The nerve fibre with the largest axon diameter is...

    • A.

      Fibres I

    • B.

      Fibres II

    • C.

      Fibres III

    Correct Answer
    A. Fibres I
    Explanation
    Fibres I have the largest axon diameter compared to Fibres II and Fibres III. This means that the nerve fibres in category I have a thicker axon, which allows for faster conduction of electrical signals. The larger diameter reduces resistance to the flow of ions, resulting in faster transmission of nerve impulses.

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  • 42. 

    Increased internodal distance within a myelin sheath results in what changes in neurotransmission?

    • A.

      There would not be a change in conduction, but an increase in Schwann cells

    • B.

      There would be a decrease in Schwann cells after a change in conduction

    • C.

      No increases in Schwann cells after a change in conduction occurs

    Correct Answer
    A. There would not be a change in conduction, but an increase in Schwann cells
    Explanation
    When the internodal distance within a myelin sheath increases, it means that the gaps between the myelin segments become larger. This does not affect the conduction of the nerve impulse because the myelin sheath still provides insulation and speeds up the transmission of the signal. However, an increase in internodal distance may lead to an increase in the number of Schwann cells. Schwann cells are responsible for producing the myelin sheath, so an increase in their number would be necessary to maintain the integrity of the myelin sheath despite the larger gaps between segments.

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  • 43. 

    Anxiety can often have what effect on reflex activity?

    • A.

      Increased gama discharge hence increase in reflex response

    • B.

      Decrease gama discharge hence a decrease in reflex response

    • C.

      Increased gama discharge hence an decrease in reflex response

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased gama discharge hence increase in reflex response
    Explanation
    Anxiety can often increase gamma discharge, which in turn leads to an increase in reflex response. This means that when a person is anxious, their reflexes may become more sensitive and reactive.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 08, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 19, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    B_minus
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