Ndt 101: Neuroanatomy And Physiology Quiz

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Ndt 101: Neuroanatomy And Physiology Quiz - Quiz

Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system. Are you an advanced reader of neuroanatomy and physiology? Take this super complex quiz and know how much you know!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Bundles of intermediate filaments that provide shape and support:

    • A.

      Astrocytes

    • B.

      Neurofibrils

    • C.

      Nissil Bodies

    • D.

      Synaptic End Bulbs

    Correct Answer
    B. Neurofibrils
    Explanation
    Neurofibrils are bundles of intermediate filaments that provide shape and support within cells. They are found in neurons and help maintain the structural integrity of the cell. Neurofibrils are composed of various proteins, including neurofilaments, which are important for the organization and stability of the cytoskeleton. These filaments play a crucial role in supporting the axons and dendrites of neurons, allowing for proper signal transmission and neuronal function. Therefore, neurofibrils are the correct answer as they are directly associated with providing shape and support.

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  • 2. 

    Prominent clusters of rough endoplasmic reticulum which is the site of protein synthesis in neurons:

    • A.

      Neurofibrils

    • B.

      Ribosomes

    • C.

      Dendrites

    • D.

      Nissil Bodies

    Correct Answer
    D. Nissil Bodies
    Explanation
    Nissl bodies are prominent clusters of rough endoplasmic reticulum in neurons. They are responsible for protein synthesis within the cell. The rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes, which are the actual site of protein synthesis. Neurofibrils are responsible for providing structural support to the neuron, while dendrites are the extensions of the neuron that receive signals from other neurons. Therefore, Nissl bodies are the correct answer as they specifically refer to the rough endoplasmic reticulum clusters involved in protein synthesis in neurons.

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  • 3. 

    Long, thin, cylindrical projection that joins the cell body:

    • A.

      Axon

    • B.

      Axon Collateral

    • C.

      Dendrite

    • D.

      Axon Hillock

    Correct Answer
    A. Axon
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Axon." An axon is a long, thin, cylindrical projection that extends from the cell body of a neuron. It is responsible for transmitting electrical impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands. Axons are covered by a fatty substance called myelin, which helps to insulate and speed up the transmission of the electrical signals. Axon collaterals are smaller branches that can emerge from the axon and make connections with other neurons. Dendrites, on the other hand, are short, branch-like projections that receive signals from other neurons. The axon hillock is the region where the axon originates from the cell body.

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  • 4. 

    Multilayered lipid and protein covering around the axon:

    • A.

      Axon Hillock

    • B.

      Nodes of Ranvier

    • C.

      Myelin Sheath

    • D.

      Ependymal

    Correct Answer
    C. Myelin Sheath
    Explanation
    The myelin sheath is a multilayered lipid and protein covering around the axon. It acts as an insulating layer, allowing for faster and more efficient conduction of electrical impulses along the axon. This sheath is formed by specialized cells called oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. The myelin sheath is interrupted at regular intervals by gaps called nodes of Ranvier, which play a crucial role in the propagation of the nerve impulses.

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  • 5. 

    A small conical elevation that originates from the cell body:

    • A.

      Axon Collateral

    • B.

      Axon Hillock

    • C.

      Axon Terminals

    • D.

      Synaptic End Bulbs

    Correct Answer
    B. Axon Hillock
    Explanation
    The axon hillock is a small conical elevation that originates from the cell body of a neuron. It is located at the base of the axon and serves as the site where action potentials are generated. The axon hillock contains a high density of voltage-gated ion channels, which are responsible for the initiation of electrical impulses that propagate along the axon. This structure plays a crucial role in the transmission of information within the nervous system.

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  • 6. 

    Carries information out of the brain and spinal cord:

    • A.

      Afferent

    • B.

      Interneuron

    • C.

      Efferent

    • D.

      Sensory

    Correct Answer
    C. Efferent
    Explanation
    Efferent neurons carry information out of the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands in the body. These neurons are responsible for transmitting signals from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system, allowing for motor responses and the control of bodily functions. Unlike afferent neurons, which carry information towards the brain and spinal cord, efferent neurons carry information away from these structures. Therefore, the correct answer is efferent.

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  • 7. 

    Lines ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord:

    • A.

      Astrocytes

    • B.

      Satellite cells

    • C.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • D.

      Ependymal

    Correct Answer
    D. Ependymal
    Explanation
    Ependymal cells are specialized glial cells that line the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. They play a crucial role in the production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which helps to protect and nourish the brain and spinal cord. Additionally, ependymal cells also have cilia on their surface, which aid in the movement of CSF. Therefore, ependymal cells are the correct answer as they are specifically responsible for lining the ventricles and central canal.

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  • 8. 

    Participates in the regeneration of axons and helps produce the myelin sheath:

    • A.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • B.

      Astrocytes

    • C.

      Schwann cells

    • D.

      Satellite cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Schwann cells
    Explanation
    Schwann cells are a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system. They play a crucial role in the regeneration of axons and the production of the myelin sheath. When an axon is damaged, Schwann cells form a pathway for new axonal growth and provide structural support. Additionally, they produce the myelin sheath, a fatty substance that wraps around the axon, increasing the speed and efficiency of nerve impulse transmission. Therefore, Schwann cells are essential for the repair and maintenance of the peripheral nervous system.

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  • 9. 

    Forms supporting network around CNS neurons and helps produce myelin sheath:

    • A.

      Schwann cells

    • B.

      Astrocytes

    • C.

      Microglia

    • D.

      Oligodendrocytes

    Correct Answer
    D. Oligodendrocytes
    Explanation
    Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cells found in the central nervous system (CNS) that play a crucial role in producing the myelin sheath, which is a protective covering around neurons. Unlike Schwann cells, which are found in the peripheral nervous system, oligodendrocytes are responsible for supporting multiple neurons at once, forming myelin sheaths around several axons. Astrocytes and microglia have different functions in the CNS and are not directly involved in producing myelin sheaths. Therefore, oligodendrocytes are the correct answer as they specifically support the network around CNS neurons and help produce the myelin sheath.

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  • 10. 

    The depolarizing phase of a nerve impulse is characterized by the inflow of K+ causing a potential to change from -55mV to +30mV.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The depolarizing phase of a nerve impulse is characterized by the inflow of Na+ ions, not K+ ions. During depolarization, the potential changes from -55mV to +30mV due to the influx of Na+ ions, which causes the inside of the cell to become more positive. Therefore, the statement that the depolarizing phase is characterized by the inflow of K+ ions and a potential change from -55mV to +30mV is incorrect.

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  • 11. 

    The resting membrane potential is the term used to describe the voltage difference across the membrane with average value of:

    • A.

      -80mv

    • B.

      -90mv

    • C.

      -70mv

    • D.

      -55mv

    Correct Answer
    C. -70mv
    Explanation
    The resting membrane potential refers to the electrical charge difference across the cell membrane when the cell is at rest. It is typically around -70mv, which means that the inside of the cell is negatively charged compared to the outside. This electrical gradient is maintained by the selective movement of ions across the membrane through ion channels and pumps.

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  • 12. 

    The refractory period characterized by a period of time during which a section action potential can be initiated:

    • A.

      Absolute refractory period

    • B.

      Repolarizing phase

    • C.

      Relative refractory period

    • D.

      Depolarizing phase

    Correct Answer
    C. Relative refractory period
    Explanation
    The relative refractory period is a phase during which a section action potential can be initiated, but it requires a stronger-than-normal stimulus. This period occurs after the absolute refractory period, where no action potential can be initiated. During the relative refractory period, the cell is in the process of repolarizing but has not yet reached its resting membrane potential. As a result, it is more difficult to initiate another action potential, but not impossible with a strong stimulus.

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  • 13. 

    A region where communication occurs between two neurons, or between a neuron and a target cell or skeletal muscle:

    • A.

      Post-synaptic neuron

    • B.

      Interneuron

    • C.

      Synapse

    • D.

      Cleft

    Correct Answer
    C. Synapse
    Explanation
    A synapse is a region where communication occurs between two neurons, or between a neuron and a target cell or skeletal muscle. It is the junction between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron. At the synapse, electrical impulses are converted into chemical signals called neurotransmitters, which are released by the presynaptic neuron and received by the postsynaptic neuron or target cell. This allows for the transmission of information and signals between neurons, enabling the functioning of the nervous system.

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  • 14. 

    Light, spongy bone that forms the superior portions of the nasal septum:

    • A.

      Frontal bone

    • B.

      Occipital bone

    • C.

      Parietal bone

    • D.

      Ethmoid bone

    Correct Answer
    D. Ethmoid bone
    Explanation
    The ethmoid bone is a light and spongy bone that forms the superior portions of the nasal septum. It is located between the nasal cavity and the orbit of the eye. The ethmoid bone is responsible for separating the nasal cavity into two halves and providing support to the nasal passages. It also contains small air cells that help to lighten the skull and contribute to the sense of smell.

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  • 15. 

    Forms inferior sides of the cranium & part of the cranial floor:

    • A.

      Parietal bone

    • B.

      Frontal bone

    • C.

      Temporal bone

    • D.

      Occipital bone

    Correct Answer
    C. Temporal bone
    Explanation
    The temporal bone forms the inferior sides of the cranium and is also a part of the cranial floor. It is located on the sides and base of the skull and contributes to the structure and protection of the brain. The temporal bone houses important structures such as the middle and inner ear, as well as the temporomandibular joint. It also provides attachment points for various muscles involved in chewing and facial expression.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of a vertebral column?

    • A.

      Supports the head

    • B.

      Encloses and protects the spinal cord

    • C.

      Forms the skeleton of the head of the body

    • D.

      Serves as a point of attachment for the ribs

    Correct Answer
    C. Forms the skeleton of the head of the body
    Explanation
    The vertebral column is not responsible for forming the skeleton of the head of the body. This is the function of the skull, which is a separate structure. The vertebral column primarily supports the head, encloses and protects the spinal cord, and serves as a point of attachment for the ribs.

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  • 17. 

    Space that lies between the vertebral arch and body that contains the spinal cord:

    • A.

      Intervertebral Disc

    • B.

      Spinous Process

    • C.

      Vertebral Column

    • D.

      Vertebral Foramen

    Correct Answer
    D. Vertebral Foramen
    Explanation
    The vertebral foramen is the correct answer because it is the space that lies between the vertebral arch and body, and it contains the spinal cord. The vertebral foramen is a hollow space that runs through the entire length of the vertebral column, allowing the spinal cord to pass through and be protected by the surrounding vertebrae. The intervertebral disc is a cushioning structure between adjacent vertebrae, the spinous process is a bony projection on the posterior side of a vertebra, and the vertebral column refers to the entire structure made up of individual vertebrae.

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  • 18. 

    The adult vertebral column contains how many bones?

    • A.

      22

    • B.

      25

    • C.

      26

    • D.

      27

    Correct Answer
    C. 26
    Explanation
    The adult vertebral column contains 26 bones. The vertebral column, also known as the spine or backbone, is made up of individual bones called vertebrae. In an adult, there are typically 26 vertebrae, which are divided into different regions: 7 cervical vertebrae in the neck, 12 thoracic vertebrae in the chest, 5 lumbar vertebrae in the lower back, the sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and the coccyx (4 fused vertebrae). These vertebrae provide support, flexibility, and protection for the spinal cord.

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  • 19. 

    In the vertebra the functions of the curves include:

    • A.

      Increase strength

    • B.

      Help to maintain balance in the upright position

    • C.

      Help to maintain balance

    • D.

      Absorbs shock during walking

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increase strength
    B. Help to maintain balance in the upright position
    C. Help to maintain balance
    D. Absorbs shock during walking
    Explanation
    The curves in the vertebrae serve multiple functions. Firstly, they help to increase strength by distributing the weight and forces evenly along the spine. Secondly, they assist in maintaining balance, both in the upright position and in general. The curves help to align the head, neck, and pelvis, which contributes to overall balance. Lastly, the curves also play a role in absorbing shock during activities like walking, reducing the impact on the spine and protecting it from potential damage.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following in descending order lists the correct sequence and number of vertebrae for each section? 

    • A.

      Thoracic (12), Cervical (7), Lumbar (5), Sacrum (5), Coccyx (4)

    • B.

      Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacrum (5), Coccyx (4)

    • C.

      Cervical (6), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacrum (4), Coccyx (5)

    • D.

      Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacrum (5), Coccyx (5)

    Correct Answer
    B. Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacrum (5), Coccyx (4)
    Explanation
    The correct sequence and number of vertebrae for each section in descending order is as follows: Cervical (7), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacrum (5), Coccyx (4). This means that the cervical section has 7 vertebrae, the thoracic section has 12 vertebrae, the lumbar section has 5 vertebrae, the sacrum section has 5 vertebrae, and the coccyx section has 4 vertebrae.

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  • 21. 

    Cranial meninges are continuous with spinal meninges.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The cranial meninges refer to the protective membranes that surround the brain, while the spinal meninges surround the spinal cord. These two sets of meninges are continuous with each other, meaning that they are connected and form a continuous structure. This allows for the protection and support of both the brain and spinal cord, as well as the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. Therefore, the statement that cranial meninges are continuous with spinal meninges is true.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is in correct order from superficial to deep? 

    • A.

      Arachnoid, Epidural, Subdural, Dura, Subarachnoid, Pia

    • B.

      Epidural, Dura, Arachnoid, Subdural, Subarachnoid, Pia

    • C.

      Epidural, Dura, Subdural, Arachnoid, Subarachnoid, Pia

    • D.

      Arachnoid, Subdural, Epidural, Pia, Subarachnoid, Pia

    Correct Answer
    C. Epidural, Dura, Subdural, Arachnoid, Subarachnoid, Pia
    Explanation
    The correct order from superficial to deep is Epidural, Dura, Subdural, Arachnoid, Subarachnoid, Pia.

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  • 23. 

    Amino acids cannot cross the blood brain barrier. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Amino acids can indeed cross the blood-brain barrier. The blood-brain barrier is a protective barrier that separates the blood from the brain to prevent harmful substances from entering the brain. However, certain amino acids, such as essential amino acids, can cross this barrier through specific transport systems. These amino acids are necessary for the synthesis of neurotransmitters and play a crucial role in brain function. Therefore, the statement that amino acids cannot cross the blood-brain barrier is false.

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  • 24. 

    Cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed and reproduced approximately _ times per day.

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    B. 3
    Explanation
    Cerebrospinal fluid is constantly being produced and absorbed in the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for cushioning and protecting these vital organs. The correct answer of 3 suggests that cerebrospinal fluid is absorbed and reproduced approximately three times per day. This constant circulation helps maintain a stable environment for the brain and spinal cord, ensuring their proper functioning.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following are present in cerebrospinal fluid? 

    • A.

      Lipids

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Urea

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Proteins
    C. Glucose
    D. Urea
    Explanation
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for protecting and cushioning the central nervous system. Proteins, glucose, and urea are all present in CSF. Proteins in CSF play a crucial role in maintaining the fluid's composition and function. Glucose is an important energy source for the brain and is transported to the central nervous system through CSF. Urea, a waste product of protein metabolism, is excreted through CSF. Lipids, however, are not typically found in significant amounts in CSF.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following is the correct sequence of cerebrospinal fluid flow? 

    • A.

      Arachnoid Villi -> Choroid plexus -> Foramina of Monro -> Aqueduct of Sylvius -> Foramen of Magendie, Foramen of Luschka -> Arachnoid Villi 

    • B.

      Choroid plexus -> Foramen of Magendie, Foramen of Luschka -> Aqueduct of Sylvius -> Foramina of Monro -> Arachnoid Villi

    • C.

      Foramina of Monro -> Foramen of Magendie, Foramen of Luschka -> Aqueduct of Sylvius -> Arachnoid Villi -> Choroid plexus

    • D.

      Choroid plexus -> Foramina of Monro -> Aqueduct of Sylvius -> Foramen of Magendie, Foramen of Luschka -> Arachnoid Villi

    Correct Answer
    D. Choroid plexus -> Foramina of Monro -> Aqueduct of Sylvius -> Foramen of Magendie, Foramen of Luschka -> Arachnoid Villi
    Explanation
    The correct sequence of cerebrospinal fluid flow starts with the production of cerebrospinal fluid by the choroid plexus. The fluid then flows through the foramina of Monro, which connect the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. From there, it passes through the aqueduct of Sylvius, which connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle. Finally, the fluid exits the fourth ventricle through the foramen of Magendie and foramen of Luschka, and is reabsorbed by the arachnoid villi.

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  • 27. 

    Match the numbers with the correct arteries of the Circle of Willis:

    • A.

      1. Basilar Artery, 2. Vertebral Artery, 3. Anterior Cerebral Artery, 4. Anterior Communicating Artery 5. Posterior Communicating Artery 6. Posterior Cerebral Artery, 7. Middle Cerebral artery

    • B.

      1. Vertebral Artery, 2. Basilar Artery, 3. Posterior Cerebral Artery, 4. Posterior Communicating Artery, 5. Middle Cerebral Artery, 6. Anterior Communicating Artery, 7. Anterior Cerebral Artery

    • C.

      1. Posterior Cerebral Artery, 2. Basilar Artery, 3. Vertebral Artery, 4. Posterior Communicating Artery, 5. Middle Cerebral Artery, 6. Anterior Communicating Artery, Anterior Cerebral Artery, 7. Middle Cerebral Artery

    • D.

      1. Basilar Artery, 2. Vertebral Artery, 3. Anterior Cerebral Artery, 4. Anterior Communicating Artery, 5. Middle Cerebral Artery, 6. Posterior Communicating Artery, 7. Posterior Cerebral Artery

    Correct Answer
    B. 1. Vertebral Artery, 2. Basilar Artery, 3. Posterior Cerebral Artery, 4. Posterior Communicating Artery, 5. Middle Cerebral Artery, 6. Anterior Communicating Artery, 7. Anterior Cerebral Artery
    Explanation
    The correct answer matches the numbers with the correct arteries of the Circle of Willis. According to the answer, the vertebral artery is matched with number 1, the basilar artery is matched with number 2, the posterior cerebral artery is matched with number 3, the posterior communicating artery is matched with number 4, the middle cerebral artery is matched with number 5, the anterior communicating artery is matched with number 6, and the anterior cerebral artery is matched with number 7.

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  • 28. 

    Supplies occipital and inferior parietal and temporal lobes:

    • A.

      Middle Cerebral Artery

    • B.

      Posterior Cerebral Artery

    • C.

      Anterior Cerebral Artery

    • D.

      Internal Carotid Artery

    Correct Answer
    B. Posterior Cerebral Artery
    Explanation
    The Posterior Cerebral Artery supplies the occipital and inferior parietal and temporal lobes of the brain. This artery is responsible for providing blood flow to these specific regions, which are involved in visual processing, sensory perception, and language comprehension.

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  • 29. 

    Supplies most of the temporal lobes and bulk of the lateral surface of hemispheres

    • A.

      Posterior Cerebral Artery

    • B.

      Middle Cerebral Artery

    • C.

      Internal Carotid Artery

    • D.

      Anterior Cerebral Artery

    Correct Answer
    B. Middle Cerebral Artery
    Explanation
    The middle cerebral artery supplies most of the temporal lobes and bulk of the lateral surface of the hemispheres. This artery is one of the main branches of the internal carotid artery and is responsible for providing blood to important areas of the brain involved in language, motor function, and sensory perception. It is the largest branch of the internal carotid artery and is highly susceptible to blockages or occlusions, which can lead to significant neurological deficits.

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  • 30. 

    Supplies frontal regions of the brain:

    • A.

      Middle Cerebral Artery

    • B.

      Anterior Cerebral Artery

    • C.

      Internal Carotid Artery

    • D.

      Posterior Cerebral Artery

    Correct Answer
    C. Internal Carotid Artery
    Explanation
    The internal carotid artery supplies the frontal regions of the brain. It is one of the major blood vessels that provide oxygen and nutrients to the brain. The frontal regions of the brain are responsible for various cognitive functions such as decision-making, problem-solving, and personality traits. Therefore, the internal carotid artery plays a crucial role in maintaining the proper functioning of these regions by supplying them with the necessary blood supply.

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  • 31. 

    Supplies blood to the medial surface of the hemispheres:

    • A.

      Internal Carotid Artery

    • B.

      Anterior Cerebral Artery

    • C.

      Posterior Cerebral Artery

    • D.

      Middle Cerebral Artery

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior Cerebral Artery
    Explanation
    The anterior cerebral artery supplies blood to the medial surface of the hemispheres. This artery is responsible for providing blood to the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain. It branches off from the internal carotid artery and travels along the midline of the brain, supplying blood to the areas it passes through. The other arteries listed, such as the internal carotid artery, posterior cerebral artery, and middle cerebral artery, have different functions and do not specifically supply blood to the medial surface of the hemispheres.

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  • 32. 

    The brain weighs approximately how many pounds?

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      6

    Correct Answer
    A. 3
    Explanation
    The brain weighs approximately 3 pounds. This is the average weight of the adult human brain. The brain is a vital organ that controls various functions in the body and is composed of neurons, glial cells, and other structures. Its weight can vary slightly depending on factors such as age, gender, and overall health.

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  • 33. 

    Nuclei are collections of like minded axons in the CNS that are traveling in the same direction.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because nuclei are not collections of axons. Nuclei are actually collections of cell bodies (neurons) in the central nervous system (CNS) that have similar functions and are grouped together. Axons, on the other hand, are long projections of neurons that transmit signals to other neurons or cells. Therefore, nuclei are not collections of axons, but rather collections of cell bodies.

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  • 34. 

    Grey matter is a large collection of cell bodies present on the outside surface of the brain and inside surface of the spinal cord. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Grey matter is indeed a large collection of cell bodies found on the outer surface of the brain and the inner surface of the spinal cord. It is responsible for processing information in the brain and coordinating motor functions. This type of tissue appears grey due to the lack of myelin, which is a fatty substance that gives white matter its color. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following are associated with left brain functions? 

    • A.

      Reasoning

    • B.

      Emotional content of language

    • C.

      Spoken and written language

    • D.

      Space and pattern perception

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Reasoning
    C. Spoken and written language
    Explanation
    The left brain is associated with logical and analytical thinking, which includes reasoning. It is also responsible for processing spoken and written language, as it controls language production and comprehension. Therefore, reasoning and spoken/written language are functions that are primarily associated with the left brain.

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  • 36. 

    Which the of the following is associated with right brain functions? 

    • A.

      Numerical and scientific skills

    • B.

      Identifying and discriminating odors

    • C.

      Space and pattern perception

    • D.

      Ability use and understand sign language

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Identifying and discriminating odors
    C. Space and pattern perception
    Explanation
    The right brain is typically associated with creativity and holistic thinking. Identifying and discriminating odors requires a sense of creativity and the ability to perceive and differentiate various smells. Similarly, space and pattern perception involves the ability to think holistically and recognize patterns in the environment. These functions are often attributed to the right brain hemisphere.

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  • 37. 

    The spinal cord contains how many pairs of nerves?

    • A.

      29

    • B.

      28

    • C.

      30

    • D.

      31

    Correct Answer
    D. 31
    Explanation
    The spinal cord contains 31 pairs of nerves. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves that originate from the spinal cord and exit through the spaces between the vertebrae. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain and for transmitting motor signals from the brain to the muscles. Each pair of nerves is connected to a specific region of the body, allowing for communication between the brain and various parts of the body.

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  • 38. 

    The ascending tracts of the spinal cord are composed primarily of motor nerves.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The ascending tracts of the spinal cord are actually composed primarily of sensory nerves, not motor nerves. These tracts carry sensory information from the body to the brain, allowing us to perceive sensations such as touch, pain, and temperature. Motor nerves, on the other hand, are part of the descending tracts of the spinal cord, which carry signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement.

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  • 39. 

    Which part of the brain stem is involved in signaling of voluntary movements and breathing?

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Medulla Oblongata

    • C.

      Midbrain

    • D.

      Thalamus

    Correct Answer
    A. Pons
    Explanation
    The pons is the part of the brain stem that is involved in signaling voluntary movements and breathing. It contains important pathways that connect the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum, allowing for the coordination of movement. Additionally, the pons contains respiratory centers that regulate breathing, helping to control the rate and depth of respiration. Therefore, the pons is responsible for both voluntary movements and the automatic process of breathing.

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  • 40. 

    Which part of the brain stem regulates heart rate and the rhythm of breathing? 

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Medulla Oblongata

    • C.

      Midbrain

    • D.

      Thalamus

    Correct Answer
    B. Medulla Oblongata
    Explanation
    The medulla oblongata is the correct answer because it is responsible for regulating vital functions such as heart rate and breathing rhythm. It contains several nuclei that control autonomic functions, including the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The medulla oblongata receives input from various sensory receptors and sends signals to the heart and lungs to adjust their activity accordingly. This region of the brainstem plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and ensuring the proper functioning of these essential bodily processes.

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  • 41. 

    Which part of the brain stem serves as the reflex center for visual activities and is a part of the auditory pathway? 

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Medulla Oblongata

    • C.

      Midbrain

    • D.

      Thalamus

    Correct Answer
    C. Midbrain
    Explanation
    The midbrain is the correct answer because it serves as the reflex center for visual activities and is also a part of the auditory pathway. The midbrain contains structures such as the superior colliculus, which is involved in visual processing and orienting the eyes towards visual stimuli, and the inferior colliculus, which is involved in auditory processing. Therefore, the midbrain plays a crucial role in both visual and auditory functions.

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  • 42. 

    The Substantia Nigra is associated with the release of what neurotransmitters and is associated with which disease? 

    • A.

      Serotonin, Parkinson's disease

    • B.

      Serotonin, Alzheimer's disease 

    • C.

      Dopamine, Parkinson's disease

    • D.

      Dopamine, Alzheimer's disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Dopamine, Parkinson's disease
    Explanation
    The Substantia Nigra is associated with the release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the Substantia Nigra. The decrease in dopamine levels leads to the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease, such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following are functions of the reticular formation?

    • A.

      Sensory and motor function

    • B.

      Regulates balance

    • C.

      Regulates muscle tone

    • D.

      Control of body temperature

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sensory and motor function
    C. Regulates muscle tone
    Explanation
    The reticular formation is a network of neurons located in the brainstem that plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions. It is involved in both sensory and motor functions, acting as a filter for incoming sensory information and helping to coordinate motor responses. Additionally, the reticular formation is responsible for regulating muscle tone, which is important for maintaining posture and movement. Therefore, the correct answer includes sensory and motor function as well as regulation of muscle tone.

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  • 44. 

    Which portion of the brain stem does the middle cerebellar peduncles connect to? 

    • A.

      Medulla Oblongata

    • B.

      Midbrain

    • C.

      Pons

    • D.

      Thalamus

    Correct Answer
    C. Pons
    Explanation
    The middle cerebellar peduncles connect to the pons. The pons is a structure located in the brainstem that plays a crucial role in relaying signals between the cerebellum and the rest of the brain. It serves as a bridge connecting the cerebellum to other parts of the central nervous system. Therefore, it is logical to conclude that the middle cerebellar peduncles, which are important pathways for communication between the cerebellum and the brainstem, connect to the pons.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following parts of the brain controls many body activities and is one of the major regulators of homeostasis?

    • A.

      Epithalamus

    • B.

      Subthalamus

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Cerebellum

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that controls many body activities and is one of the major regulators of homeostasis. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's internal balance by regulating body temperature, hunger and thirst, sleep-wake cycles, and hormone production. It also controls the autonomic nervous system and is involved in various physiological processes, such as controlling blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing.

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  • 46. 

    Which part of the brain contains the red nucleus and substantia nigra?

    • A.

      Hypothalamus

    • B.

      Epithalamus

    • C.

      Subthalamus

    • D.

      Cerebrum

    Correct Answer
    C. Subthalamus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Subthalamus. The red nucleus and substantia nigra are both located in the subthalamus region of the brain. The red nucleus is involved in motor coordination and the substantia nigra is responsible for producing dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in movement control. The hypothalamus is involved in regulating various bodily functions, the epithalamus is involved in sleep and wakefulness, and the cerebrum is responsible for higher cognitive functions.

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  • 47. 

    What type of tracts comprise the white matter of the corpus callosum?

    • A.

      Association tracts

    • B.

      Commissural tracts

    • C.

      Projection tracts

    • D.

      Transverse tracts

    Correct Answer
    B. Commissural tracts
    Explanation
    Commissural tracts are the type of tracts that comprise the white matter of the corpus callosum. These tracts connect corresponding areas of the two cerebral hemispheres and allow for communication and coordination between them. They enable the transfer of information, such as sensory and motor signals, between the left and right sides of the brain.

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  • 48. 

    A patient present with an inability to recognize body parts and difficulty with mathematics. What lobe is most likely impaired?

    • A.

      Frontal Lobe

    • B.

      Occipital Lobe

    • C.

      Parietal Lobe

    • D.

      Temporal Lobe

    Correct Answer
    C. Parietal Lobe
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms of difficulty with mathematics and inability to recognize body parts suggest a deficit in spatial awareness and sensory integration, which are functions associated with the parietal lobe. The parietal lobe is responsible for processing sensory information, including touch, spatial awareness, and mathematical abilities. Therefore, it is most likely impaired in this case.

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  • 49. 

    A patient presents with lack of impulse control and memory issues. What lobe is most likely impaired? 

    • A.

      Parietal lobe

    • B.

      Frontal lobe

    • C.

      Occipital lobe

    • D.

      Temporal lobe

    Correct Answer
    B. Frontal lobe
    Explanation
    The frontal lobe is most likely impaired in this patient. This is because the frontal lobe is responsible for executive functions, including impulse control and memory. Impairment in this area can result in difficulties in controlling impulses and memory problems. The parietal lobe is mainly involved in sensory processing, the occipital lobe is responsible for visual processing, and the temporal lobe is involved in auditory processing and memory.

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  • 50. 

    The amygdala is responsible for where memories are stored in the brain.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The amygdala is a small, almond-shaped structure located deep within the brain's temporal lobe. It is known to play a crucial role in the processing and storage of emotional memories. Numerous studies have shown that damage to the amygdala can lead to impairments in emotional memory formation. Additionally, research has demonstrated that the amygdala is involved in the consolidation of both positive and negative emotional memories. Therefore, it can be concluded that the amygdala is indeed responsible for where memories, particularly emotional ones, are stored in the brain.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jan 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 06, 2021
    Quiz Created by
    Catherine Halcomb
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