Towards the tail
Towards the nose
Towards the dorsal aspect of the body
Towards the ventral aspect of the body
Superior Pontine Sulcus
Inferior Pontine Sulcus
Middle Cerebral Artery
Posterior Cerebral Artery
Superior Cerebellar Artery
The cells form a pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
The cells extend between the pia and the lumen of the neural tube.
The cells lose contact with the pial surface during mitosis.
The cell nuclei move closest to the lumen of the neural tube during the period of DNA replication (S phase).
CAMs are only found within the cell membranes of neurons and glia.
CAMs encourage growing axons to maintain contact and form axon bundles.
CAMs act as both ligand and receptor, forming dimers of like molecules.
CAMs may be calcium dependent or calcium independent.
Nerve Growth Factor
Trophic interactions are mediated by trophic substances called neurotrophins.
Trophic interactions determine the size of neuronal populations during development.
Trophic interactions occur between presynaptic neurons and postsynaptic neurons.
Trophic interactions no longer play a role in neuron survival and function in the adult nervous system.
Schwann cells proliferate and increase production of neurotrophic factors.
Myelin membranes (oligodendrocytes) produce chemorepellants that discourage axonal growth e.g. Nogo
Neuronal cell bodies upregulate expression of genes that support axonal growth.
Axons extend axonal sprouts towards target cells.
The integrity of the visual fields
The status of the retinal vasculature
Open the jaw against resistance
Puff out the cheeks
Close eyes tightly
Protrude the tongue
Trigeminal (V) and facial (VII) nerves.
Hypoglossal (XII) nerve.
Accessory (XI) nerve.
Glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) nerves.