Anatomy: Brain, Spinal Cord And Meninges

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Anatomy: Brain, Spinal Cord And Meninges - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which is NOT a target of neural terminals?

    • A.

      Muscles

    • B.

      Organs

    • C.

      Blood

    • D.

      Other Neurons

    Correct Answer
    C. Blood
    Explanation
    Neural terminals are specialized structures at the ends of neurons that transmit signals to other cells. They are responsible for transmitting signals to muscles, organs, and other neurons. However, they do not directly target blood cells or blood vessels. Therefore, blood is not a target of neural terminals.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following transmit nerve impulses?

    • A.

      Dendrites

    • B.

      Axon

    • C.

      Cell Body

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    B. Axon
    Explanation
    The axon is responsible for transmitting nerve impulses. It is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell that carries electrical signals away from the cell body towards other neurons or target cells. Axons are covered by a fatty substance called myelin, which helps to insulate and speed up the transmission of the electrical signals. Therefore, the axon is the correct answer as it is specifically designed for the transmission of nerve impulses.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is a specialized receptor for pain, temperature and pressure?

    • A.

      Dendrites

    • B.

      Axon

    • C.

      Cell Body

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    A. Dendrites
    Explanation
    Dendrites are specialized receptors for pain, temperature, and pressure. They are the branch-like structures that extend from the cell body of a neuron and receive signals from other neurons. Dendrites contain sensory receptors that can detect and transmit information about various stimuli, including pain, temperature, and pressure. These signals are then transmitted to the cell body and further processed by the neuron. Axons, cell bodies, and nuclei are not specialized receptors for these sensations.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following are the structural divisions of the nervous system?

    • A.

      Somatic Nervous System (SNS)

    • B.

      Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

    • C.

      Central Nervous System (CNS)

    • D.

      Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    D. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    Explanation
    The structural divisions of the nervous system are the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord, which are responsible for processing and integrating information. The PNS consists of all the nerves and ganglia outside of the CNS, which transmit signals between the CNS and the rest of the body. The Somatic Nervous System (SNS) and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) are functional divisions of the nervous system, not structural divisions. The SNS controls voluntary movements and sensory perception, while the ANS regulates involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following are functional divisions of the nervous system?

    • A.

      Somatic nervous system

    • B.

      Autonomic nervous system

    • C.

      Central nervous system

    • D.

      Peripheral nervous system

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Somatic nervous system
    B. Autonomic nervous system
    Explanation
    The somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system are both functional divisions of the nervous system. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary movements and sensory perception, while the autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing. The central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which consists of the nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, are structural divisions of the nervous system rather than functional divisions.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following are associated with inputs to the nervous system

    • A.

      Somatosensory

    • B.

      Somatomotor

    • C.

      Visceral

    • D.

      Afferent

    • E.

      Efferent

    • F.

      Sensory

    • G.

      Motor

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Somatosensory
    C. Visceral
    D. Afferent
    F. Sensory
    Explanation
    The inputs to the nervous system can be categorized into somatosensory, visceral, afferent, and sensory. Somatosensory refers to the sensory information from the body's surface and deep tissues. Visceral inputs are related to the sensory information from the internal organs. Afferent refers to the signals that are transmitted from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system. Sensory inputs involve the detection and transmission of sensory information from various sensory receptors. Therefore, the correct answer includes somatosensory, visceral, afferent, and sensory.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following are associated with outputs of the Nervous System:

    • A.

      Somatosensory

    • B.

      Somatomotor

    • C.

      Visceral

    • D.

      Afferent

    • E.

      Efferent

    • F.

      Sensory

    • G.

      Motor

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Somatomotor
    C. Visceral
    E. Efferent
    G. Motor
    Explanation
    The outputs of the Nervous System are responsible for transmitting signals from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands in the body. The terms "Somatomotor," "Visceral," "Efferent," and "Motor" all refer to the motor functions of the nervous system, which involve the movement and control of muscles and glands. These terms are associated with the outputs of the nervous system because they describe the pathways through which signals are transmitted to produce physical responses in the body.

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  • 8. 

    Where is Brocas Area Located?

    • A.

      Frontal Lobe

    • B.

      Parietal Lobe

    • C.

      Temporal Lobe

    • D.

      Occipital Lobe

    Correct Answer
    A. Frontal Lobe
    Explanation
    Broca's area is a region in the frontal lobe of the brain. It is specifically located in the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe, in the posterior part of the frontal gyrus. This area is responsible for language production and speech comprehension. Damage to Broca's area can result in a condition called Broca's aphasia, where individuals have difficulty speaking fluently but can still understand language. Therefore, the correct answer is the frontal lobe.

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  • 9. 

    Where is the Primary Motor Cortex located?

    • A.

      Frontal Lobe

    • B.

      Parietal Lobe

    • C.

      Temporal Lobe

    • D.

      Occipital Lobe

    Correct Answer
    A. Frontal Lobe
    Explanation
    The primary motor cortex is located in the frontal lobe of the brain. This region is responsible for the initiation and control of voluntary movements in the body. It receives information from other areas of the brain and sends signals to the muscles, allowing us to perform various motor tasks. The frontal lobe is involved in higher cognitive functions such as decision-making, problem-solving, and planning, making it an essential part of the brain for motor control and coordination.

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  • 10. 

    Where is the Sensory Cortex located?

    • A.

      Frontal Lobe

    • B.

      Parietal Lobe

    • C.

      Temporal Lobe

    • D.

      Occipital Lobe

    Correct Answer
    B. Parietal Lobe
    Explanation
    The sensory cortex is located in the parietal lobe. This area of the brain is responsible for processing sensory information such as touch, temperature, and pain. It receives input from various sensory organs and helps in the interpretation and perception of different sensations. The parietal lobe is also involved in spatial awareness, attention, and body awareness.

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  • 11. 

    Where is Wernicke’s Area located?

    • A.

      Frontal Lobe

    • B.

      Parietal Lobe

    • C.

      Temporal Lobe

    • D.

      Occipital Lobe

    Correct Answer
    C. Temporal Lobe
    Explanation
    Wernicke's Area is located in the Temporal Lobe. This area of the brain is responsible for language comprehension and understanding. It plays a crucial role in processing and interpreting spoken and written language. Damage to Wernicke's Area can result in language difficulties such as difficulty understanding speech and producing coherent speech.

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  • 12. 

    Where is the visual cortex?

    • A.

      Frontal Lobe

    • B.

      Parietal Lobe

    • C.

      Temporal Lobe

    • D.

      Occipital Lobe

    Correct Answer
    D. Occipital Lobe
    Explanation
    The visual cortex is located in the Occipital Lobe of the brain. This region is responsible for processing visual information received from the eyes. It plays a crucial role in tasks such as recognizing shapes, colors, and motion, as well as interpreting visual stimuli. The Occipital Lobe is situated at the back of the brain, near the base of the skull, and is specifically dedicated to visual processing.

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  • 13. 

    What does the Central Sulcus separate

    • A.

      Frontal & Parietal Lobe

    • B.

      Parietal & Temporal Lobe

    • C.

      Temporal & Occipital Lobe

    • D.

      Occipital & Parietal Lobe

    Correct Answer
    A. Frontal & Parietal Lobe
    Explanation
    The Central Sulcus is a prominent fold in the brain that separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. It is one of the major landmarks in the cerebral cortex and plays a crucial role in the organization of motor and sensory functions. The frontal lobe is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as decision-making and problem-solving, while the parietal lobe is involved in processing sensory information and spatial awareness. Therefore, the correct answer is that the Central Sulcus separates the frontal and parietal lobes.

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  • 14. 

    Stroke patients with damage to Broca’s area can speak but can’t understand

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False. Stroke patients with damage to Broca's area typically have difficulty speaking, but their ability to understand language remains intact. Broca's area, located in the frontal lobe of the brain, is responsible for the production of speech. Damage to this area can result in a condition known as Broca's aphasia, characterized by halting and non-fluent speech. However, comprehension of language is typically unaffected in these patients.

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  • 15. 

    Stroke patients with damage to Werncke’s area can speak but can’t understand

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Patients with damage to Wernicke's area, which is located in the left hemisphere of the brain, often experience receptive aphasia. This means that they have difficulty understanding language, both spoken and written. Despite this, they are still able to produce speech, although it may be fluent and nonsensical. This condition, known as Wernicke's aphasia, is characterized by poor comprehension and impaired ability to select and produce meaningful words. Therefore, the statement "Stroke patients with damage to Wernicke's area can speak but can't understand" is true.

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  • 16. 

    A bundle of axons held together by a connective sheath is outside the CNS is:

    • A.

      Nerve

    • B.

      Tract

    • C.

      Ganglion

    • D.

      Grey matter

    Correct Answer
    A. Nerve
    Explanation
    A bundle of axons held together by a connective sheath outside the CNS is referred to as a nerve. Nerves are responsible for transmitting signals between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body. They can be found throughout the body, connecting various organs, muscles, and tissues to the brain and spinal cord. Nerves play a crucial role in sensory perception, motor control, and overall communication within the body.

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  • 17. 

    A collection of nerve cell bodies outside of CNS is:

    • A.

      Nerve

    • B.

      Tract

    • C.

      Ganglion

    • D.

      White Matter

    Correct Answer
    C. Ganglion
    Explanation
    A ganglion is a collection of nerve cell bodies that are located outside of the central nervous system (CNS). Ganglia are typically found in clusters along the nerves and play a crucial role in relaying sensory and motor information between the CNS and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Unlike nerves, which are bundles of axons, ganglia consist of cell bodies and are responsible for processing and integrating signals before transmitting them to the CNS. Therefore, a ganglion is the correct answer as it accurately describes a collection of nerve cell bodies outside of the CNS.

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  • 18. 

    How many spinal nerves are there?

    • A.

      30

    • B.

      31

    • C.

      32

    • D.

      33

    Correct Answer
    B. 31
    Explanation
    There are 31 spinal nerves in the human body. The spinal nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system and are responsible for transmitting signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, with each pair emerging from the spinal cord at different levels. These nerves innervate various parts of the body, including muscles, skin, and organs, allowing for sensory and motor functions.

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  • 19. 

    How many cranial nerves are there?

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      11

    • C.

      12

    • D.

      13

    Correct Answer
    C. 12
    Explanation
    There are 12 cranial nerves in the human body. These nerves emerge directly from the brain and are responsible for various functions such as sensory perception, motor control, and autonomic functions of the head and neck. Each cranial nerve has a specific role and innervates different regions of the head and neck, including the face, eyes, ears, tongue, and throat.

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  • 20. 

    What was Wilder Penfield famous for?

    • A.

      Mapping the sensory and motor cortex’s

    • B.

      Mapping the visual cortex

    • C.

      Discovering Broca’s area

    • D.

      Discovering Wernicke’s area

    Correct Answer
    A. Mapping the sensory and motor cortex’s
    Explanation
    Wilder Penfield was famous for mapping the sensory and motor cortex's. This means that he conducted research and experiments to understand and identify the specific areas of the brain responsible for sensory perception and motor control. Through his work, Penfield was able to create detailed maps of these areas, which provided valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and its connection to various bodily functions.

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  • 21. 

    What is a special feature of sensory neurons?

    • A.

      Short preganglionic; Long postganglionic

    • B.

      Long preganglionic; Short postganglionic

    • C.

      Preganglionic and postganglionic cells are the same size

    • D.

      First synapse is in the spinal cord not PNS

    Correct Answer
    D. First synapse is in the spinal cord not PNS
    Explanation
    Sensory neurons have a special feature where the first synapse, or the connection between two neurons, occurs in the spinal cord instead of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). This means that the sensory information from the sensory receptors is first processed and relayed to other neurons in the spinal cord before being transmitted to the brain for further processing and interpretation. This allows for quick reflex actions to occur without the need for the brain's involvement.

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  • 22. 

    Which region has nerves emerging superior to their vertebrae of the same number as the nerve?Cranial

    • A.

      Cranial

    • B.

      Cervical

    • C.

      Thoracic

    • D.

      Lumbar

    Correct Answer
    B. Cervical
    Explanation
    The region that has nerves emerging superior to their vertebrae of the same number as the nerve is the cervical region. The cervical nerves exit the spinal cord above their corresponding vertebrae, meaning that the first cervical nerve exits above the first cervical vertebra, the second cervical nerve exits above the second cervical vertebra, and so on. This arrangement allows for the nerves to innervate specific areas of the body and maintain proper functioning.

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  • 23. 

    Which region has more nerves than vertebrae?

    • A.

      Cervical

    • B.

      Thoracic

    • C.

      Lumbar

    • D.

      Sacreal

    Correct Answer
    A. Cervical
    Explanation
    The cervical region has more nerves than vertebrae because it consists of 7 vertebrae but has 8 pairs of spinal nerves. This is because the first cervical nerve exits above the first cervical vertebra (C1), while the rest of the nerves exit below their corresponding vertebrae. Therefore, there is an extra nerve in the cervical region compared to the number of vertebrae present.

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  • 24. 

    A Herniation in L4/L5 will affect which Nerve?

    • A.

      L3

    • B.

      L4

    • C.

      L5

    • D.

      L6

    Correct Answer
    C. L5
    Explanation
    A herniation in the L4/L5 region of the spine can cause compression or irritation of the L5 nerve root. This can lead to symptoms such as pain, numbness, or weakness in the lower back, buttocks, and down the back of the leg. The L5 nerve innervates muscles that control movement and sensation in the foot and lower leg, so a herniation at this level can result in difficulty walking, foot drop, or altered sensation in the affected leg.

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  • 25. 

    Which direction do herniated discs normally occur?

    • A.

      Anteriolateral

    • B.

      Posterolateral

    • C.

      Anteriomedial

    • D.

      Posteromedial

    Correct Answer
    B. Posterolateral
    Explanation
    Herniated discs normally occur in the posterolateral direction. This means that the disc protrudes or bulges towards the back and to the side of the spinal column. This is the most common direction for herniated discs to happen.

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  • 26. 

    Dorsal Horns are:

    • A.

      Sensory

    • B.

      Motor

    • C.

      Mixed

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensory
    Explanation
    Dorsal horns are sensory in nature. They are regions in the spinal cord where sensory nerve fibers enter and transmit sensory information from the body to the brain. These horns receive signals related to touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception. They play a crucial role in processing and relaying sensory information, allowing us to perceive and respond to various stimuli.

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  • 27. 

    Ventral Horns are:

    • A.

      Sensory

    • B.

      Motor

    • C.

      Mixed

    Correct Answer
    B. Motor
    Explanation
    Ventral horns are part of the spinal cord and are responsible for motor functions. They contain motor neurons that send signals from the central nervous system to muscles, allowing for voluntary movement. Sensory functions, on the other hand, are carried out by dorsal horns, which receive sensory information from the peripheral nervous system. Since ventral horns are specifically associated with motor functions, the correct answer is "Motor."

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  • 28. 

    Dorsal Root Ganglion are:

    • A.

      Sensory

    • B.

      Motor

    • C.

      Mixed

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sensory because dorsal root ganglia are clusters of nerve cell bodies located along the spinal cord. They contain sensory neurons that transmit sensory information from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system. These sensory neurons are responsible for carrying signals related to touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception from the body to the spinal cord and brain for processing.

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  • 29. 

    Dorsal Roots are:

    • A.

      Sensory

    • B.

      Motor

    • C.

      Mixed

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensory
    Explanation
    Dorsal roots are sensory because they contain sensory nerve fibers that carry information from the body's periphery towards the central nervous system. These sensory fibers transmit sensations such as touch, temperature, and pain from the body to the brain for processing and interpretation. Motor functions, on the other hand, are primarily controlled by the ventral roots, which contain motor nerve fibers that carry signals from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands, allowing for movement and other motor responses. Therefore, the correct answer is sensory.

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  • 30. 

    Ventral Roots are:

    • A.

      Sensory

    • B.

      Motor

    • C.

      Mixed

    Correct Answer
    B. Motor
    Explanation
    Ventral roots are motor in nature. They are responsible for carrying motor signals from the spinal cord to the muscles and glands of the body. These signals control voluntary movements and the functioning of various organs. Sensory signals, on the other hand, are carried by the dorsal roots, which are separate from the ventral roots. Mixed nerves contain both sensory and motor fibers, but in the case of ventral roots, they primarily consist of motor fibers, making the correct answer "Motor".

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  • 31. 

    Dorsal Primary Rami are:

    • A.

      Sensory

    • B.

      Motor

    • C.

      Mixed

    Correct Answer
    C. Mixed
    Explanation
    Dorsal Primary Rami are mixed because they contain both sensory and motor fibers. These rami are branches of the spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord and split into ventral and dorsal rami. The dorsal primary rami innervate the muscles and skin of the back, and they carry both sensory information from the skin and muscles back to the spinal cord and motor signals from the spinal cord to the muscles. Therefore, they are considered mixed nerves.

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  • 32. 

    Ventral Primary Rami are:

    • A.

      Sensory

    • B.

      Motor

    • C.

      Mixed

    Correct Answer
    C. Mixed
    Explanation
    The ventral primary rami are mixed nerves because they contain both sensory and motor fibers. Sensory fibers transmit information from the body's sensory receptors to the central nervous system, allowing us to perceive and interpret sensations. Motor fibers, on the other hand, carry signals from the central nervous system to the muscles, enabling voluntary and involuntary movements. The ventral primary rami serve as a crucial communication pathway between the body and the central nervous system, allowing for both sensory perception and motor control.

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  • 33. 

    C5 dermatome affects:

    • A.

      Medial hand sensation

    • B.

      Shoulder sensation

    • C.

      Lateral hand sensation

    • D.

      Pain

    Correct Answer
    B. Shoulder sensation
    Explanation
    The C5 dermatome refers to the area of skin innervated by the fifth cervical nerve. This nerve supplies sensation to the shoulder region. Therefore, the correct answer is shoulder sensation.

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  • 34. 

    C6 dermatome affects:

    • A.

      Medial hand sensation

    • B.

      Shoulder sensation

    • C.

      Lateral hand sensation

    • D.

      Pain

    Correct Answer
    D. Pain
    Explanation
    The C6 dermatome affects pain. Dermatomes are specific areas of skin that are innervated by a single spinal nerve. The C6 dermatome refers to the area of skin that is supplied by the C6 spinal nerve. When this dermatome is affected, it can result in pain sensations in the corresponding area of the body. This indicates that the C6 dermatome is responsible for transmitting pain signals from that specific region.

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  • 35. 

    C7 dermatome affects:

    • A.

      Medial hand sensation

    • B.

      Shoulder sensation

    • C.

      Lateral hand sensation

    • D.

      Pain

    Correct Answer
    C. Lateral hand sensation
    Explanation
    The C7 dermatome affects the sensation in the lateral hand. Dermatomes are specific areas of skin that are innervated by a single spinal nerve. In this case, the C7 spinal nerve supplies sensory information to the lateral aspect of the hand. This means that if there is any damage or dysfunction in the C7 dermatome, it can result in altered sensation or numbness in the lateral hand.

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  • 36. 

    C8 dermatome affects:

    • A.

      Medial hand sensation

    • B.

      Shoulder sensation

    • C.

      Lateral hand sensation

    • D.

      Pain

    Correct Answer
    A. Medial hand sensation
    Explanation
    The C8 dermatome refers to the area of skin innervated by the C8 spinal nerve. This dermatome includes the medial part of the hand, which means that it is responsible for providing sensation to the inner side of the hand. The other options, such as shoulder sensation, lateral hand sensation, and pain, are not specifically associated with the C8 dermatome. Therefore, the correct answer is medial hand sensation.

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  • 37. 

    S1 dermatome affects:

    • A.

      Thigh sensation

    • B.

      Leg sensation

    • C.

      Sensation of lateral foot

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensation of lateral foot
    Explanation
    The S1 dermatome affects the sensation of the lateral foot. The dermatomes are specific areas of skin that are innervated by a single spinal nerve. In this case, the S1 dermatome corresponds to the sensory innervation of the lateral foot. This means that any sensory information from the lateral foot, such as touch, temperature, or pain, is transmitted through the S1 spinal nerve and perceived by the brain.

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  • 38. 

    L5 dermatome affects:

    • A.

      Thigh sensation

    • B.

      Leg sensation

    • C.

      Sensation of lateral foot

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensation of lateral foot
    Explanation
    The L5 dermatome refers to the area of skin that is innervated by the L5 spinal nerve. This nerve supplies sensation to specific regions of the body. In this case, the L5 dermatome affects the sensation of the lateral foot. This means that any sensory information from the lateral foot, such as touch or temperature, is transmitted to the brain through the L5 spinal nerve. The other options, thigh sensation and leg sensation, are innervated by different spinal nerves and are not directly related to the L5 dermatome.

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  • 39. 

    L4 dermatome affects

    • A.

      Thigh sensation

    • B.

      Leg sensation

    • C.

      Sensation of lateral foot

    Correct Answer
    B. Leg sensation
    Explanation
    The L4 dermatome refers to the area of skin that is innervated by the L4 spinal nerve. This nerve supplies sensation to the leg, including the front and inner parts of the thigh, as well as the inner lower leg and the inner side of the foot. Therefore, the correct answer is "Leg sensation" because the L4 dermatome affects the sensation in the leg.

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  • 40. 

    L3 dermatome affects:

    • A.

      Thigh sensation

    • B.

      Leg sensation

    • C.

      Sensation of lateral foot

    Correct Answer
    A. Thigh sensation
    Explanation
    The L3 dermatome affects thigh sensation. The dermatomes are specific areas of skin that are innervated by specific spinal nerves. In this case, the L3 dermatome refers to the area of skin that is supplied by the L3 spinal nerve. This nerve provides sensory information from the thigh region, including sensations such as touch, temperature, and pain. Therefore, if the L3 dermatome is affected, it can lead to alterations in thigh sensation.

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  • 41. 

    What is the function of the Dorsal Root Ganglion?

    • A.

      Help transmit nerve impulses

    • B.

      An area for other neurons to connect to the CNS

    • C.

      Keep the peripheral nerve alive

    • D.

      Provide impulses to intrinsic back muscles

    Correct Answer
    C. Keep the peripheral nerve alive
    Explanation
    The Dorsal Root Ganglion is responsible for keeping the peripheral nerve alive. It contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons that transmit nerve impulses from the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system (CNS). These sensory neurons receive information from various parts of the body and send it to the CNS for processing. By maintaining the health and function of the peripheral nerve, the Dorsal Root Ganglion ensures the continuous transmission of nerve impulses and the proper functioning of the sensory system.

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  • 42. 

    Which is the denticulate ligament an extension of?

    • A.

      Dura matter

    • B.

      Arachnoid matter

    • C.

      Pia matter

    • D.

      The spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    C. Pia matter
    Explanation
    The denticulate ligament is an extension of the Pia matter. The Pia matter is the innermost layer of the meninges, which are the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord. The denticulate ligament is a band of connective tissue that extends from the Pia matter and attaches to the arachnoid mater, another layer of the meninges. This ligament helps to stabilize and support the spinal cord within the spinal column.

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  • 43. 

    Which is NOT found in the brain (skull)?

    • A.

      Diploic Veins

    • B.

      Baston’s Veins

    • C.

      Emissary Veins

    • D.

      Dura matter

    • E.

      Arachnoid matter

    • F.

      Pia matter

    Correct Answer
    B. Baston’s Veins
    Explanation
    Baston's Veins are not found in the brain (skull). The brain is surrounded by three protective layers called meninges, which include the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater. Additionally, the brain contains various veins, including diploic veins and emissary veins, which help with the drainage of blood. However, there is no mention or evidence of the existence of Baston's Veins in the brain.

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  • 44. 

    Where does Cerebrospinal fluid circulate?

    • A.

      Epidural space

    • B.

      Subdural space

    • C.

      Subarachnoid space

    • D.

      Subpial Space

    Correct Answer
    C. Subarachnoid space
    Explanation
    Cerebrospinal fluid circulates in the subarachnoid space. This space is located between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, which are two of the three layers of the meninges that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord. The subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid, which acts as a cushion for the brain and spinal cord, providing them with nutrients and removing waste products. It also helps to protect the central nervous system from injury by absorbing shock.

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  • 45. 

    How much CSF is made each day?

    • A.

      250 ml

    • B.

      500 ml

    • C.

      750 ml

    • D.

      1000 ml

    Correct Answer
    B. 500 ml
    Explanation
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It is produced in the ventricles of the brain. On average, the human body produces around 500 ml of CSF each day. This fluid helps protect the brain and spinal cord by acting as a cushion and providing nutrients to these organs.

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  • 46. 

    Where is CSF made?

    • A.

      Choroid plexus

    • B.

      Arachnoid granulations

    • C.

      Cranial plexus

    • D.

      Dura granulations

    Correct Answer
    A. Choroid plexus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Choroid plexus." The choroid plexus is a network of blood vessels located in the ventricles of the brain. It is responsible for producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is a clear fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. CSF is essential for cushioning the brain, removing waste products, and providing nutrients to the central nervous system. Therefore, CSF is made in the choroid plexus.

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  • 47. 

    Where is CSF reabsorbed into venous drainage?

    • A.

      Choroid plexus

    • B.

      Arachnoid granulations

    • C.

      Cranial plexus

    • D.

      Dura granulations

    Correct Answer
    B. Arachnoid granulations
    Explanation
    Arachnoid granulations are responsible for the reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the venous drainage system. These granulations protrude into the venous sinuses of the brain, allowing CSF to be transferred from the subarachnoid space into the bloodstream. This process helps to maintain the balance of CSF in the brain and spinal cord. Choroid plexus produces CSF, but it is not involved in its reabsorption. Cranial plexus and dura granulations are not anatomical structures associated with CSF reabsorption.

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  • 48. 

    Where does venous drainage of the brain occur?

    • A.

      Vetebral venous plexus

    • B.

      Baston’s Vein

    • C.

      Internal Jugular Vein

    • D.

      External Jugular Vein

    Correct Answer
    C. Internal Jugular Vein
    Explanation
    The internal jugular vein is the correct answer because it is responsible for draining the majority of the blood from the brain. It receives blood from the cerebral veins and other smaller veins in the brain, and then carries it back to the heart. The vertebral venous plexus is also involved in venous drainage of the brain, but it is not the primary pathway. Baston's Vein and the external jugular vein are not involved in venous drainage of the brain.

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  • 49. 

    What is located in the extra-dural fat?

    • A.

      Cranial synapses

    • B.

      Baston’s Vein

    • C.

      Choroid plexus

    • D.

      Internal Jugular Vein

    Correct Answer
    B. Baston’s Vein
  • 50. 

    Why is it clinically important that there are no valves in the spinal cord?

    • A.

      Important for paralyzed patients

    • B.

      Horner’s syndrome is caused from a blockage in the veins

    • C.

      Mestasisies can spread into the spinal cord

    • D.

      Without a pressure gradient Venous return is known to pool in the sacral region of the spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    C. Mestasisies can spread into the spinal cord
    Explanation
    Metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another. If there were valves in the spinal cord, it would create barriers that could potentially prevent the spread of cancer cells into the spinal cord. However, since there are no valves in the spinal cord, cancer cells can easily metastasize and spread into this important structure. This is clinically important because spinal cord metastasis can lead to neurological symptoms and complications, requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 03, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Askanes
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