Rupture and plastic deformation occur when stresses exceed the elastic limit of a material.
Rocks undergo plastic deformation less readily as temperatures and pressures increase.
Elastic deformation is accomplished through internal flow of material.
When rocks are subjected to stress for long time periods, very small, plastic deformations accumulate to produce large, permanent, elastic deformations.
Horizontally directed; compressive stresses
Vertically directed; extensional or stretching stresses
Horizontally directed; extensional stresses
Vertically directed; compressional stresses
Horizontal distance is shortened perpendicular to fold axes.
The crust is thinned.
The crust is stretched and elongated.
Horizontal distance perpendicular to fold axes is lengthened.
The limbs dip or are inclined towards the fold axis.
Some may be asymmetric and some may have plunging axes.
The deeper strata are buckled upward along the fold axis.
After erosion, the younger strata are exposed along the axial region of the fold.
Outcrops of the oldest strata in the center of the basin
Strata oriented in roughly circular, outcrop patterns
Strata dipping outward away from the center of the basin
Older strata at the edges of a basin dip away from a central, horizontal, fold axis
Grabens develop on the footwall block
The crust is shortened and thickened
Horizontal, tensional stresses drive the deformation
The hanging wall block slips downward along the thrust fault
Steep, near vertical, dip-slip, fault scarps
Deformed, broken, and pulverized bedrock
Laterally offset stream channels
A hanging wall block that has moved up between two reverse faults
A footwall block that has moved up between two normal faults
A hanging wall block that has moved down between two normal faults
A footwall block that has moved down between two reverse faults
Strike-slip faulting and hanging wall block uplifts
Reverse faults and large displacement, thrust faulting
Tensional stresses and normal-fault movements
Normal faulting and horizontal compression
Marine limestone formations in the central Appalachian region
Mesozoic, sedimentary rock formations in Utah, Colorado, and neighboring states
Prominent, lower Paleozoic strata in the British Isles and northern France
Quartz-rich, granite batholiths in the Sierra Nevada range, California
The hanging wall block below an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
The footwall block below an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
The hanging wall block above an inclined fault plane moves downward relative to the other block
The footwall block above an inclined fault plane moves upward relative to the other block
The hanging wall block has moved up relative to the footwall block along an inclined fault
The block above the fault plane has moved backwards with respect to the other block
One block has moved downward and the other moved horizontally along a vertical fault
Both blocks have moved horizontally in opposite directions along an inclined fault
Closely spaced, parallel faults along which the blocks have moved in opposite directions
Structures formed where normal and reverse faults intersect
The hinge lines connecting two limbs of an anticline or syncline
Roughly parallel fractures separating blocks that show no displacement
Horsts and grabens
A strike-slip fault that forms the boundary between tectonic plates
A dip-slip fault connecting an anticline with a syncline
A reverse fault that steepens into a thrust fault
The rift bounding faults on a mid-ocean ridge
Sierra Nevada frontal fault
San Andreas strike-slip fault
San Luis Obispo thrust fault
San Francisco normal fault
High confining pressures
A steeply inclined, oblique-slip fault
A low-angle, reverse fault
A vertical, normal fault
A near vertical, strike-slip fault
An uplifted block bounded by two normal faults
A downdropped block bounded by two reverse faults
An uplifted block bounded by two reverse faults
A downdropped block bounded by two normal faults
An eroded syncline with older, sedimentary strata in the axial region and younger, metamorphic rocks around the margins
A basin filled with folded, sedimentary rocks and thick coal beds
A large graben deeply eroded by Pleistocene glaciers
An elongate dome cored by Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks
Mainly thrust faulting as Africa collides with Arabia
Mainly anticlinal and synclinal folding as Africa collides with Madagascar
Mainly normal faulting as East Africa begins to fragment
Mainly transform faulting along zones connecting the rift with the Red Sea
A fold in which the strata dip away from the axis
A fold with only one limb
A fold in which the strata dip toward the axis
A fold characterized by recumbent limbs