Quiz: Can You Pass The Geology Practice Exam?

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Quiz: Can You Pass The Geology Practice Exam?

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The distribution of natural resources is influenced by the
    • A. 

      All of the above

    • B. 

      Types of rocks

    • C. 

      Age of rocks

    • D. 

      Ways that rocks are formed

  • 2. 
    Geology can help us learn about Earth's past by studying:
    • A. 

      All the above

    • B. 

       why continents and oceans are different

    • C. 

      Why a landscape looks the way it does

    • D. 

      How life in the past was different than today

  • 3. 
    Which of the following Earth layers is the thinnest
    • A. 

      Oceanic crust

    • B. 

      Upper mantle

    • C. 

      Lower mantle

    • D. 

      Outer core

    • E. 

      Inner core

  • 4. 
    Which of the following is not an important difference between continents and oceans?
    • A. 

      Whether it is part of the lithosphere

    • B. 

      Elevation

    • C. 

      Density of the crust

    • D. 

      Thickness of the crust

    • E. 

      Composition of the crust

  • 5. 
    Radioactive decay within the earth produces heat; the other form of heat produced by the earth comes from
    • A. 

      Heat trapped when the Earth was formed

    • B. 

      Solar radiation trapped in the rock on the Earth's surface

    • C. 

      Heat produced by air as it moves across the oceans

  • 6. 
    The age of a fossil, organism, rock, geologic feature or event as defined relative to other geologic features or events is the?
    • A. 

      Relative age

    • B. 

      Absolute age

    • C. 

      Numerical age

    • D. 

      Radiometric age

  • 7. 
    Which of the following is true about rocks and minerals?
    • A. 

      A rock can contain more than one mineral

    • B. 

      A mineral is composed of chemical elements

    • C. 

      A single rock can include more than one mineral

    • D. 

      All the above

  • 8. 
    Rocks are composed of
    • A. 

      Minerals

    • B. 

      Crystals

    • C. 

      Sand

    • D. 

      Glass

  • 9. 
    The mineral halite has cube-shaped crystals because
    • A. 

      There are no planes along which the mineral can break

    • B. 

      Cubes are the most common way two tetrahedron can join

    • C. 

      Of the arrangement of atoms in crystal lattice

    • D. 

      Halite is soluble in water

  • 10. 
    If a mineral lacks planes along which is may cleave, what will occur?
    • A. 

      The mineral will fracture in an irregular pattern

    • B. 

      The mineral will not break

    • C. 

      The mineral will fracture evenly along predictable planes

    • D. 

      The mineral will still cleave but it will only occur along one plane

  • 11. 
    A porphyric igneous texture indicates that
    • A. 

      The rock cooled slowly and then quickly

    • B. 

      There was water in magma

    • C. 

      The rock broke as it flowed

    • D. 

      The rock cooled slowly

    • E. 

      The ash and pumice became compacted

  • 12. 
    Rock that exhibits both coarse and fine-grained textures is called
    • A. 

      Porphyritic

    • B. 

      Pegmatite

    • C. 

      Aphanitic

    • D. 

      Glassy

  • 13. 
    This volcano is broad and low and is composed of basaltic lava flows. What kind of volcano is it?
    • A. 

      A shield volcano

    • B. 

      Composite volcano

    • C. 

      A caldera

    • D. 

      A scoria cone

  • 14. 
    Huge circular depressions from which volcanos erupt are called?
    • A. 

      Calderas

    • B. 

      Fissures

    • C. 

      Cones

    • D. 

      Domes

  • 15. 
    The higher the gas pressure builds in a magma,
    • A. 

      The more explosive an eruption it is likely to produce

    • B. 

      The more likely a volcanic dome is to form

    • C. 

      The longer the lava flows on an eruption will produce

    • D. 

      The less explosive an eruption is likely to produce

  • 16. 
    Shield volcanos are composed primarily of 
    • A. 

      Rhyolite lava flows

    • B. 

      Basalt lava flows

    • C. 

      Andestite lave flows

  • 17. 
    Shield volcanos have low slopes primarily because
    • A. 

      The low viscosity of basaltic magma allow it to flow downhill for long distances

    • B. 

      They never erupt from the same plate twice

    • C. 

      Their abundant ash layers spread out large distances

  • 18. 
    Volcanic mudflows (lahars) are common on composite volcanoes because
    • A. 

      Large amounts of rain and snowmelt mix with loose ash on steep slopes

    • B. 

      Hot mud commonly erupts from their central craters

    • C. 

      Such volcanoes form preferentailly in rainy tropical locations

  • 19. 
    Which of the following activities is not used to monitor volcanos?
    • A. 

      All of these are used to monitor volcano

    • B. 

      Measuring tilting on he flanks of a volcano 

    • C. 

      Measuring changes in heat flow from satellites

    • D. 

      Measuring seismic activity with seismic instruments

    • E. 

      Measuring sulfur dioxide gas emissions

  • 20. 
    How can we tell that the Himalaya has been uplifted
    • A. 

      All of the above

    • B. 

      Deep rocks are exposed at the surface and yield young isotopic ages

    • C. 

      Uplift can be measured with a gps

    • D. 

      The top of Mount Everest contains a limestone with marine fossils

  • 21. 
    Regional Elevations on land are primarily controlled by
    • A. 

      The thickness of continental crust

    • B. 

      The temperature of the crust

    • C. 

      Whether the area is over a hot sport

    • D. 

      Whether the crust is old or was formed more recently

  • 22. 
    The principle that regional elevations adjust to the types and thicknesses of rocks at depth is known as:
    • A. 

      Isostasy

    • B. 

      Superposition

    • C. 

      Elastic rebound

    • D. 

      Equanimity

  • 23. 
    Which of the following are tectonic settings in which regional mountain belts form?
    • A. 

      All of the above

    • B. 

      Mantle upwellings

    • C. 

      Continental collisions

    • D. 

      Subduction zones

  • 24. 
    What is the main reason why the oldest rocks can vary from one part of a continent to another
    • A. 

      Part of the continent have been added by the accretion of tectonic terranes

    • B. 

      Large parts of the continent are subducted deep within the mantle

    • C. 

      Older rocks have been uplifted and eroded away

    • D. 

      Older rocks are commonly remelted over huge regions

  • 25. 
    Why does the Tibetan Plateau have a high elevation?
    • A. 

      Continental collision

    • B. 

      Continental rifting

    • C. 

      Seafloor spreading

    • D. 

      Transform faulting

    • E. 

      Hot spot activity

  • 26. 
    How did the Red Sea, shown between Arabia and Africa in this figure, form?
    • A. 

      Continental rifting following by seafloor spreading

    • B. 

      A continental collision

    • C. 

      Subduction of Africa beneath Arabia

    • D. 

      Subduction of Arabia beneath Africa

  • 27. 
    Which data were used to develop the hypothesis of continental drift?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      The distribution of glacial deposits and directions of glacial scratch marks

    • C. 

      The distribution of fossils

    • D. 

      The shape of the continents

  • 28. 
    Mid-Ocean ridges form where two ocean plates?
    • A. 

      Diverge

    • B. 

      Collide

    • C. 

      Subduct

    • D. 

      Slide past one another

  • 29. 
    The process of one plate sliding beneath another plate is called
    • A. 

      Subduction

    • B. 

      Transformation

    • C. 

      Convergence

    • D. 

      Divergence

  • 30. 
    Approximately how fast do tectonic plates move?
    • A. 

      Centimeters per year

    • B. 

      Meters per year

    • C. 

      Kilometers per year

    • D. 

      Hundreds of kilometers per year

  • 31. 
    The Earth's magnetic field is generated by:
    • A. 

      Movement of iron and electrical currents within Earth's outer core

    • B. 

      Convection currents in the asthenosphere

    • C. 

      Salty water moving through the deep parts of the crust

    • D. 

      Aligned magnetic minerals within Earth's inner core

  • 32. 
    How do we determine the location of a recent earthquake?
    • A. 

      Use the different in time it takes for seismic waves to reach three or more stations

    • B. 

      All of the above

    • C. 

      Use gps measurements of how the land move

    • D. 

      Measure the amplitude of surface waves in a single station

  • 33. 
    The amplitude of a seismic wave on a seismograph is used to calculate?
    • A. 

      The magnitide

    • B. 

      The richer scale

    • C. 

      The depth of the focus

    • D. 

      The amount of shaking 

  • 34. 
    Shaking during an earthquake can
    • A. 

      All of the above

    • B. 

      Trigger landslides

    • C. 

      Generate a tsunami

    • D. 

      Cause rigid buildings to collapse

  • 35. 
    Which of the following are high-risk factors for earthquakes with high death tolls and high damages?
    • A. 

      High population densities

    • B. 

      Substandard construction practices or poor regulation

    • C. 

      Building on solid rock

    • D. 

      Building on loose sediment

    • E. 

      Building on a water front

  • 36. 
    Why does the US have such varying risks of seismic activity?
    • A. 

      These are all reasons the US has varying risks of seismic activity

    • B. 

      Volcanic activity can cause seismic risk in some areas

    • C. 

      Some regions in the continetal interior have active fault systems

    • D. 

      Some areas are near plate boundaries, while others are not

  • 37. 
    Which of the following is most likely to occur at shallow crustal levels?
    • A. 

      Brittle deformation

    • B. 

      Ductile behavior

    • C. 

      Growth of new minerals

    • D. 

      Metamorphism

  • 38. 
    What are the three main types of stress?
    • A. 

      Compression, Tension and Shear

    • B. 

      Confining stress, deformation and folding

    • C. 

      Convergence, divergence and transform faulting

    • D. 

      Positive, negative and neutral

  • 39. 
    What type of stress is the cause of most folding
    • A. 

      Compression

    • B. 

      Tension

    • C. 

      Confining pressure

    • D. 

      Fluid pressure

  • 40. 
    When do rocks along a fault have the highest amount of stress and sored elastic strain?
    • A. 

      Right before an earthquake

    • B. 

      Right after an earthquake

    • C. 

      Several weeks or months after a earthquake

    • D. 

      None

  • 41. 
    Most of the exposed surface of the Earth is covered with
    • A. 

      Sediment and sedimentary rocks

    • B. 

      Sediment and igneous rocks

    • C. 

      Sediment and metamorphic rocks

    • D. 

      Mainly igneous rocks with some soil

  • 42. 
    The two main processes by which sediment is produced are
    • A. 

      Physical and chemical weathering

    • B. 

      Subduction and melting

    • C. 

      Transportation and deposition

  • 43. 
    Lithification can be defined as
    • A. 

      Loose sediment hardens into sedimentary rock

    • B. 

      Loose sediment breaks off of sedimentary rocks

    • C. 

      Sediment settles from the water column

    • D. 

      None

  • 44. 
    Fluvial refers to
    • A. 

      The processes and sediment of stream and rivers

    • B. 

      The movement of fluids underground

    • C. 

      The hydrological cycle

    • D. 

      None

  • 45. 
    If you were designing a rock that resisted weathering, which of the following characteristics would it have? 
    • A. 

      Closely spaced fractures

    • B. 

      A soluble chemical composition

    • C. 

      A quartz-rich rock

    • D. 

      A rock composed of abundant loose pieces 

  • 46. 
    If a rock is poorly sorted, this means the rock contains
    • A. 

      Some parts that are reddish a wide range in the size of clasts

    • B. 

      Some angular and some rounded clasts

    • C. 

      Mostly sand

    • D. 

      A great variety of rock types as clasts

  • 47. 
    Identify the factor that strongly influences the size, shape, and sorting of sedimentary clasts.
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Agents of transport

    • C. 

      Strength of current

    • D. 

      Sediment supply

    • E. 

      Steepness of slope

  • 48. 
    What is the main reason why the oceans are salty
    • A. 

      Weathering of rocks releases chemical elements that make the oceans salty

    • B. 

      Salt deposits that formed early in earth history become dissolved by modern oceans

    • C. 

      The early oceans were salty from dirt and debris on incoming comets

    • D. 

      Blowing salt crystals become incorporated into clouds and falls with the rainfall

  • 49. 
    Which of the following are true about factors that influence weathering?
    • A. 

      Soil and other weathering products tend to accumulate more on gentle slopes than on steep slopes

    • B. 

      Weather a slope faces toward or away from the sun is not important factor influencing weathering.

    • C. 

      Time is not a critical factor in weathering because physical and chemical processes have not changed much through time. 

    • D. 

      Chemical weathering occurs fastest in cold or dry climates

  • 50. 
    What is the angle of repose?
    • A. 

      The steepest angle at which loose material remains stable

    • B. 

      The angle at which rainfall strikes an unstable slope

    • C. 

      The angle of fractures on hills where fractures dip parallel to the slope

    • D. 

      The angle of bedding on hills where layers dip parallel to the slope

  • 51. 
    Which of the following is NOT a common trigger for a slope failure?
    • A. 

      All of these are common triggers for slope failure

    • B. 

      Volcanic eruption

    • C. 

      Adding water to slope

    • D. 

      Shaking during a earthquake

  • 52. 
    What is the origin of smooth throughs cutting across the landscape in the Great Lakes area?
    • A. 

      Glaciers carved the smooth troughs

    • B. 

      All of these

    • C. 

      A huge flood coming from lowa flowed toward the great lakes

    • D. 

      The areas were covered by soft marine sediments

  • 53. 
    Till is:
    • A. 

      Neither sorted nor stratified 

    • B. 

      Sorted and stratified

    • C. 

      Stratified but not sorted

    • D. 

      Sorted but not sorted

  • 54. 
    What happens when a glacier encounters the sea or lake?
    • A. 

      Large blocks of ice collapse off the front of the glacier and become icebergs

    • B. 

      Rocks released from melted icebergs float on the water surface

    • C. 

      All of these

    • D. 

      The ice is more dense than water and so scrapes along the bottom

  • 55. 
    What is permafrost
    • A. 

      The upper part of the ground that remains frozen throughout the year

    • B. 

      Ice and snow that are permanently in motion

    • C. 

      Ice and snow that exist throughout the entire year

    • D. 

      Curly crystal of frost that form early in the morning

  • 56. 
    Which of the following is not a type of evidence left behind by glaciers
    • A. 

      V Shaped valleys

    • B. 

      Changes in the isotopic composition of marine shells

    • C. 

      Scratched stones in fine-grained sediment

    • D. 

      All of them

  • 57. 
    The present-day tilt of Earth Axis of rotation is 23.5. What would be the result of less tilt, as shown here?
    • A. 

      High latitudes would receive less direct sunlight during the summer, causing cooler temperatures

    • B. 

      A decrease in glaciers

    • C. 

      More hours of sunlight on the equator, resulting in warmer global temputures

    • D. 

      All of them

  • 58. 
    A delta forms when
    • A. 

      A river slows and deposits sediment as it enters a lake or sea

    • B. 

      Windblown dust slides down steep hillsides and into a lake

    • C. 

      A steep mountain front collapses sending sediment out into the sea

    • D. 

      Ocean waves, especially during storms, pile up sediment along the coast

  • 59. 
    What happens to the erosive power of a stream as velocity increases?
    • A. 

      Erosion increases

    • B. 

      Erosion Decreases

    • C. 

      Erosion in not related to velocity

    • D. 

      None

  • 60. 
    What typically happens when tributaries join the main river
    • A. 

      Channel size increases

    • B. 

      Water velocity increases

    • C. 

      The amount of discharge increases

    • D. 

      Total sediment load increases

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 61. 
    Which of the following typically decreases downstream in a river? 
    • A. 

      Maximum sediment grain size

    • B. 

      Channel size

    • C. 

      Discharge

    • D. 

      Flow velocity

  • 62. 
    This stream is currently flowing down the surface of a relatively steep slope.  What could cause this stream to begin carving into the landscape, deepening the river channel?
    • A. 

      If the base level is lowered, such as a drop in sea level

    • B. 

      If the land is uplifted relative to the sea

    • C. 

      If a change in climate weathers and weakens the rocks

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 63. 
    What's is a point bar?
    • A. 

      A sandbar deposited along the inside of stream meanders due to lower velocity

    • B. 

      A new, shorter channel across the narrow neck of a meander

    • C. 

      A crescent-shaped meander cutoff

    • D. 

      A flowing network of interconnected rivulets around numerous bars

  • 64. 
    What is a floodplain?
    • A. 

      A broad strip of land built up by sedimentation on either side of the stream channel. Covered with water during a flood.

    • B. 

      A body of sediment deposited at the mouth of a stream when the stream's velocity decreases.

    • C. 

      A ridge of sediment, usually sand or gravel, deposited in the middle or along the banks of stream

    • D. 

      Step-like landforms found above a stream

  • 65. 
    Where is most of Earth's freshwater?
    • A. 

      Ice caps, glaciers, and groundwater

    • B. 

      Groundwater and rivers

    • C. 

      Lakes and swamps

    • D. 

      Rivers and streams

    • E. 

      Oceans

  • 66. 
    Which of the following materials probably has the highest porosity?
    • A. 

      Sediment composed only of rounded cobbles that rest directly on one another

    • B. 

      Poorly sorted sediment

    • C. 

      A mixture of sand silt and clay

    • D. 

      A coarse- grained granite

  • 67. 
    Which of these is true about the nature of the water table?
    • A. 

      It is the boundary between the saturated zone and unsaturated zone 

    • B. 

      Below the water table, water fills pore spaces and can flow

    • C. 

      Infiltrating water generally passes through the water table to become ground water

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 68. 
    A large body of permeable, saturated material through which groundwater can flow well enough to yield sufficient water to wells and springs is a(n):
    • A. 

      Aquifer

    • B. 

      Aquitard

    • C. 

      Groundwater divide

    • D. 

      Hydraulic gradient

  • 69. 
    Assume that the sediment below this stream has high porosity and permeability, and the white line represents the water table. How would this stream interact with groundwater?
    • A. 

      Groundwater would flow into the stream, adding water

    • B. 

      The stream would lose water

    • C. 

      The groundwater and stream water would not interact

    • D. 

      The groundwater and stream water would not interact the stream will only contain water if it is raining at the time