Cytology: Adrenal Gland, Pituitary Gland

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Cytology: Adrenal Gland, Pituitary Gland - Quiz

On the topic of cells, we focus on the adrenal and pituitary glands. There are different types of hormones that travel to the tissues and organs via the bloodstream. Take the test below and see how much information you have on hormones, their generation, and their functions. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The outer cortex and inner medulla of the adrenal gland are connected by the intra-adrenal duct.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    No connection. 2 separate glands.

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  • 2. 

    ____ and ______ increase in response to stress.

    • A.

      Cortisol, corticisterone

    • B.

      Cortisol, adrenaline

    • C.

      Adrenaline, corticisterone

    • D.

      Fight, flight

    Correct Answer
    A. Cortisol, corticisterone
    Explanation
    Cortisol and corticosterone are hormones that increase in response to stress. These hormones are released by the adrenal glands and play a role in the body's stress response. Cortisol helps regulate various body functions during stress, such as blood sugar levels, immune system response, and metabolism. Corticosterone also plays a role in the stress response and has similar functions to cortisol. Together, these hormones help the body cope with and adapt to stressful situations.

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  • 3. 

    The secretion of glucocorticoids is regulated by _____ from the ______.

    • A.

      ACTH, anterior pituitary gland

    • B.

      ACTH, posterior pituitary gland

    • C.

      TRH, thyroid

    • D.

      PTH, parathyroid

    Correct Answer
    A. ACTH, anterior pituitary gland
    Explanation
    The secretion of glucocorticoids is regulated by ACTH from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH, or adrenocorticotropic hormone, is released by the anterior pituitary gland in response to the hypothalamus releasing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). ACTH then stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release glucocorticoids, such as cortisol. This feedback loop helps to regulate the levels of glucocorticoids in the body, ensuring they are released when needed and suppressed when not necessary.

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  • 4. 

    The adrenal cortex produces ______.

    • A.

      Steroid hormones

    • B.

      Adrenaline

    • C.

      Calcitonin

    • D.

      PTH

    Correct Answer
    A. Steroid hormones
    Explanation
    The adrenal cortex is responsible for producing steroid hormones. These hormones are essential for various bodily functions, such as regulating metabolism, immune response, and stress response. Examples of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex include cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones like estrogen and testosterone. Adrenaline, calcitonin, and PTH are not produced by the adrenal cortex, making steroid hormones the correct answer.

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  • 5. 

    Glucocorticoids _____ blood glucose levels by reducing glucose ____ by the cells.

    • A.

      Increase, uptake

    • B.

      Decrease, secretion

    • C.

      Increase, secretion

    • D.

      Decrease, uptake

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase, uptake
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids increase blood glucose levels by reducing glucose uptake by the cells. This means that glucocorticoids inhibit the cells' ability to take in and utilize glucose, leading to an increase in the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream.

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  • 6. 

    _________ is the conversion of amino acids to ____ from the adipose tissue.

    • A.

      Glucogenesis, gluose

    • B.

      Protein synthesis, proteins

    • C.

      Gluocogenesis, cholesterol

    • D.

      Adipogenesis, fat

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucogenesis, gluose
    Explanation
    Glucogenesis is the process of converting amino acids into glucose in the liver or kidneys. Glucose is a type of sugar that serves as a primary source of energy for the body. The adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue, does not directly convert amino acids into glucose. Therefore, the correct answer is Glucogenesis, glucose.

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  • 7. 

    By increasing blood glucose levels, glucocorticoids increase _______. 

    • A.

      Glucogenesis

    • B.

      The fight or flight response

    • C.

      Cortisol secretion

    • D.

      Adrenaline secretion

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucogenesis
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids are hormones that increase blood glucose levels by promoting the process of glucogenesis. Glucogenesis is the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids and fatty acids. Therefore, the correct answer is glucogenesis.

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  • 8. 

    When in large quantities, _____ depress the ______, which delays healing and repair. 

    • A.

      Glucocorticoids, inflammatory reaction

    • B.

      Glucocorticoids, immune response

    • C.

      Corticosteroids, inflammatory reaction

    • D.

      Angry clients, vet tech's morale

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucocorticoids, inflammatory reaction
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids are a type of corticosteroids that can suppress the inflammatory reaction in the body. When present in large quantities, they can inhibit the immune response, leading to a delay in healing and repair. Therefore, the correct answer is "Glucocorticoids, inflammatory reaction."

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  • 9. 

    Select all the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex.

    • A.

      Glucocorticoids

    • B.

      Mineralcorticoids

    • C.

      Adrenal Sex Hormones

    • D.

      Epinephrine

    • E.

      Norepinephrine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Glucocorticoids
    B. Mineralcorticoids
    C. Adrenal Sex Hormones
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and adrenal sex hormones are all steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, are involved in regulating metabolism and immune responses. Mineralocorticoids, such as aldosterone, are responsible for maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance in the body. Adrenal sex hormones, including androgens and estrogens, play a role in sexual development and function. Epinephrine and norepinephrine, on the other hand, are not steroid hormones but rather catecholamines produced by the adrenal medulla.

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  • 10. 

    Adrenal sex hormones disappear in neutered animals.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    They are secreted in small quantities and may show some sexual behavior in neutered animals.

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  • 11. 

    Aldosterone acts on the ________ of the kidney where it regulates ______ of the plasma and ECF by excretion of H+ ions.

    • A.

      Distal convoluted tubule, acid base balance

    • B.

      Loop of Henle,acid base balance

    • C.

      Proximal convoluted tubule, glucose levels

    • D.

      Glomerulus, calcium levels

    Correct Answer
    A. Distal convoluted tubule, acid base balance
    Explanation
    Aldosterone acts on the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney where it regulates the acid base balance of the plasma and extracellular fluid (ECF) by excretion of H+ ions. The distal convoluted tubule is responsible for fine-tuning the reabsorption and secretion of substances in the urine, including hydrogen ions. By excreting H+ ions, aldosterone helps to maintain the balance of acids and bases in the body, ensuring proper pH levels in the plasma and ECF.

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  • 12. 

    Apart from balancing acid base of the plasma, Aldosterone also controls ______.

    • A.

      The excretion of Na+ and K+

    • B.

      The absorption of Na+ and K+

    • C.

      The absorption of H+ ions

    • D.

      The excretion of proteins

    Correct Answer
    A. The excretion of Na+ and K+
    Explanation
    Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that plays a crucial role in regulating electrolyte balance in the body. It acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium ions (Na+) and the excretion of potassium ions (K+). This helps to maintain proper levels of these ions in the body and is important for maintaining blood pressure and fluid balance. Therefore, the correct answer is "The excretion of Na+ and K+."

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  • 13. 

    The hormones produced by the Adrenal Medulla are...

    • A.

      Adrenaline and noradrenaline

    • B.

      Adrenaline and cortisol

    • C.

      Cortisol and corticisterone

    • D.

      Adrenaline and glucocorticoids

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrenaline and noradrenaline
    Explanation
    The correct answer is adrenaline and noradrenaline. The adrenal medulla is responsible for producing and releasing these two hormones, which are also known as catecholamines. Adrenaline and noradrenaline play important roles in the body's response to stress and are involved in increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and energy levels. They are part of the fight-or-flight response and help prepare the body for physical activity or emergency situations.

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  • 14. 

    The fancy name of adrenaline is _____.

    • A.

      Epinephrine

    • B.

      Norepinephrine

    • C.

      Aldosterone

    • D.

      Señora Maria Juanita Isabella De La Compostella

    Correct Answer
    A. Epinephrine
    Explanation
    Epinephrine is the correct answer because it is the medical term for adrenaline. Adrenaline is a hormone and neurotransmitter that is released in response to stress or danger, preparing the body for a "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine is commonly used in medical settings to treat severe allergic reactions, asthma attacks, and cardiac arrest.

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  • 15. 

    The fancy name for noradrenaline is .....

    • A.

      Norepinephrine

    • B.

      Epinephrine

    • C.

      Noraldosterone

    • D.

      Countessa Prunella Cordelia Popplewell the Third

    Correct Answer
    A. Norepinephrine
    Explanation
    Noradrenaline is the same as norepinephrine. Noradrenaline is a neurotransmitter and hormone that is involved in the body's stress response and regulation of blood pressure. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or danger. Therefore, the correct answer is norepinephrine.

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  • 16. 

    Adrenaline and noradrenaline prepare the body for ____.

    • A.

      The fight or flight response

    • B.

      The survivor of the fittest response

    • C.

      Shower time madness

    • D.

      The red carpet

    Correct Answer
    A. The fight or flight response
    Explanation
    You know this is a bonus question.

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  • 17. 

    The fight or flight response is regulated by ______.

    • A.

      The sympathetic nervous system

    • B.

      The parasympathetic nervous system

    • C.

      The adrenal cortex

    • D.

      Sir Nigel Johnson, Knight of the Flight Table

    Correct Answer
    A. The sympathetic nervous system
    Explanation
    Their motto is "Together, knight or flight!"

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  • 18. 

    What does the fight or flight response trigger in the body? (Select all that apply)

    • A.

      Increase blood glucose levels (Glycogenolysis)

    • B.

      Increase HR and RR + respiratory depth

    • C.

      Vasodilation in skeletal muscles

    • D.

      Decrease GI and bladder activity

    • E.

      Pupils dilate

    • F.

      Hypertension

    • G.

      You develop pogo stick syndrome and suddenly hop out of the way

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increase blood glucose levels (Glycogenolysis)
    B. Increase HR and RR + respiratory depth
    C. Vasodilation in skeletal muscles
    D. Decrease GI and bladder activity
    Explanation
    The fight or flight response triggers several physiological changes in the body. It increases blood glucose levels through glycogenolysis, providing energy for the muscles. It also increases heart rate and respiratory rate, as well as the depth of respiration, to supply more oxygen to the muscles. Vasodilation occurs in skeletal muscles, increasing blood flow to these areas. The response also decreases gastrointestinal and bladder activity to conserve energy. Pupils dilate to enhance visual awareness. Hypertension may occur as a result of increased blood flow and vasoconstriction. The statement about developing pogo stick syndrome and suddenly hopping out of the way is not relevant to the fight or flight response.

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  • 19. 

    Cushing syndrome happens when the body is exposed to prolonged and high levels of _____, or when body produces too much cortisol for medical reasons.

    • A.

      Cortisol

    • B.

      Adrenaline

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      Chemo

    Correct Answer
    A. Cortisol
    Explanation
    Cushing syndrome occurs when the body is exposed to prolonged and excessive levels of cortisol or when the body produces an excessive amount of cortisol for medical reasons. Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that helps regulate various bodily functions, such as metabolism and immune response. When cortisol levels are consistently high, it can lead to symptoms such as weight gain, high blood pressure, and muscle weakness, which are characteristic of Cushing syndrome.

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  • 20. 

    Select the causes of Hyperadrenocorticism

    • A.

      Pituitary tumor

    • B.

      Pituitary hyperplasia

    • C.

      Adrenal tumor

    • D.

      Adrenal hyperplasia

    • E.

      Rebellious cortex

    • F.

      Cortex and medulla want a divorce

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pituitary tumor
    B. Pituitary hyperplasia
    C. Adrenal tumor
    D. Adrenal hyperplasia
    Explanation
    Hyperadrenocorticism, also known as Cushing's syndrome, is a condition characterized by excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal glands. The causes of hyperadrenocorticism include pituitary tumors, which can lead to overproduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and subsequently stimulate the adrenal glands to produce excess cortisol. Pituitary hyperplasia, an enlargement of the pituitary gland, can also result in increased ACTH production and cortisol release. Adrenal tumors, such as adrenal adenomas or carcinomas, can directly produce excessive cortisol. Adrenal hyperplasia, an overgrowth of adrenal tissue, can also lead to increased cortisol production. The options "Rebellious cortex" and "Cortex and medulla want a divorce" are not valid causes of hyperadrenocorticism.

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  • 21. 

    Select the breeds that are prone to Cushing syndrome.

    • A.

      Miniature poodle

    • B.

      Dachshund

    • C.

      Boxer

    • D.

      Boston Terrier

    • E.

      Beagle

    • F.

      Golden retriever

    • G.

      Husky

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Miniature poodle
    B. Dachshund
    C. Boxer
    D. Boston Terrier
    E. Beagle
    Explanation
    Usually around 7-12 years of age.

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  • 22. 

    85% of dogs with Cushing syndrome have a pituitary dependent disease,

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Sad but true.

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  • 23. 

    ____ of Cushing Syndrome cases are due to adrenal tumors and are most commonly seen in ______. Females are three times more likely to be affected.

    • A.

      15%, large breed dogs

    • B.

      20%, large breed dogs

    • C.

      15%, cats

    • D.

      20%, small breed dogs

    Correct Answer
    A. 15%, large breed dogs
    Explanation
    It's rare in cats. Usually of pituitary origin.

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  • 24. 

    Select the clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism.

    • A.

      PU/PD/Polyphagia

    • B.

      Heat intolerance/lethargy

    • C.

      Abdominal enlargement/obesity

    • D.

      Panting

    • E.

      Muscle weakness

    • F.

      Recurrent UTIs

    • G.

      Alopecia, pjlebactisias, comodones

    • H.

      Bruising, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, calcinosis cutis

    • I.

      MAKE IT STOP

    • J.

      Seborrhea, secondary demodecosis

    • K.

      Felines: Severe thinning of the skin

    • L.

      No. Just no.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. PU/PD/Polyphagia
    B. Heat intolerance/lethargy
    C. Abdominal enlargement/obesity
    D. Panting
    E. Muscle weakness
    F. Recurrent UTIs
    G. Alopecia, pjlebactisias, comodones
    H. Bruising, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, calcinosis cutis
    J. Seborrhea, secondary demodecosis
    K. Felines: Severe thinning of the skin
    Explanation
    This answer includes all the clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism, which include PU/PD/Polyphagia, heat intolerance/lethargy, abdominal enlargement/obesity, panting, muscle weakness, recurrent UTIs, alopecia, pjlebactisias, comodones, bruising, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, calcinosis cutis, seborrhea, secondary demodecosis, and severe thinning of the skin in felines.

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  • 25. 

    Select the results you'll observe from chemistries of a hyperadrenocorticism patient.

    • A.

      Increased ALKphos and ALT

    • B.

      Hypercholesterolemia

    • C.

      Hyperglycemia

    • D.

      Decreased BUN, T4 and T3

    • E.

      Hypoglycemia

    • F.

      Hypocholesterolemia

    • G.

      Decreased ALKphos and ALT

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increased ALKphos and ALT
    B. Hypercholesterolemia
    C. Hyperglycemia
    D. Decreased BUN, T4 and T3
  • 26. 

    The hemogram of Hyperadrenocorticism patients will show....

    • A.

      Increased nRBC, stress leukogram, basophilia

    • B.

      Increased nRBC, stress leukogram, neutropenia

    • C.

      Stress leukogram, basophilia

    • D.

      A bloody mess

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased nRBC, stress leukogram, basophilia
    Explanation
    Patients with Hyperadrenocorticism, also known as Cushing's disease, often exhibit an increased number of nucleated red blood cells (nRBCs) in their hemogram. This is due to the excessive production of cortisol, a hormone that can cause the bone marrow to release immature red blood cells. Additionally, these patients may also present a stress leukogram, which refers to an increase in white blood cell count and a shift in the types of white blood cells present. Lastly, basophilia, an increase in the number of basophils, may also be observed in the hemogram of Hyperadrenocorticism patients.

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  • 27. 

    Patients with hyperadrenocorticism may show insulin resistance resulting in diabetes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cuz Cushing wasn't enough.

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  • 28. 

    A urinalysis for patients with Cushing syndrome will reveal....

    • A.

      UTI w/o pyuria, proteinuria, decreased USG

    • B.

      UTI with pyuria, proteinuria, increased USG

    • C.

      UTI with pyuria, proteinuria, decreased USG

    • D.

      UTI with pyuria, proteinuria, increased USB

    Correct Answer
    A. UTI w/o pyuria, proteinuria, decreased USG
    Explanation
    What is USB?! Urine Specific Bravity....... *Looks down and walks away*

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