S2 Block 1 Endo Phys

25 Questions | Total Attempts: 21

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S2 Block 1 Endo Phys

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following statements best describe the factor(s) regulating insulin secretion?
    • A. 

      Calcium-dependent event.

    • B. 

      Dependent on glucose uptake via GLUT-4.

    • C. 

      Facilitated by changes in the level of glucagon.

    • D. 

      Stimulated during exercise.

    • E. 

      Triggered by glucose concentration above 4 mM.

  • 2. 
    Glucose uptake is facilitated via the membrane-bound glucose transporters (GLUTs). Glucose uptake in hepatocytes is regulated primarily by which of the following GLUTs?
    • A. 

      GLUT-1

    • B. 

      GLUT-2

    • C. 

      GLUT-3

    • D. 

      GLUT-4

    • E. 

      GLUT-5

    • F. 

      GLUT-6

  • 3. 
    Glucagon secretion is inhibited by which of the following biomolecules? (Mark ALL that apply)
    • A. 

      Low concentrations of Insulin.

    • B. 

      Low concentrations of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).

    • C. 

      Low concentrations of Glucose.

    • D. 

      High concentrations of Insulin.

    • E. 

      High concentrations of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1).

    • F. 

      High concentrations of Glucose.

  • 4. 
    Which of the following biomolecules exerts long-loop positive feedback on the hypothalamus?
    • A. 

      Cortisol

    • B. 

      Estradiol

    • C. 

      GH

    • D. 

      Insulin

    • E. 

      Progesterone

    • F. 

      Thyroxine

  • 5. 
    Which of the following pituitary hormones is regulated by a statin and liberin?
    • A. 

      FSH

    • B. 

      GH

    • C. 

      LH

    • D. 

      Prolactin

    • E. 

      TSH

  • 6. 
    Synthetic somatostatin analogues, such as octreotide, exert inhibitory functions on several tissues throughout the body. Octreotide would exert the most beneficial physiological effects in a 25-yearold patient with which of the following problems?
    • A. 

      Acromegaly

    • B. 

      Hyposecretion of glucagon

    • C. 

      Polycystic ovary syndrome

    • D. 

      Type 1 Diabetes

    • E. 

      Type 2 Diabetes

  • 7. 
    Which of the following favorable characteristics promote the use of C-peptide as a marker for determining insulin resistance and/or glucose homeostasis? (Mark ALL that apply)
    • A. 

      Metabolized by the kidney.

    • B. 

      Released in a pulsatile manner.

    • C. 

      Binds with albumin.

    • D. 

      Directly indicates pancreatic α-cell function.

    • E. 

      Long half-life compared with insulin.

  • 8. 
    Reductions in which of the following proteins will cause the greatest decrease in adrenal steroid production? (Mark ALL that apply)
    • A. 

      11-Hydroxylase

    • B. 

      17-Hydroxylase

    • C. 

      21-Hydroxylase

    • D. 

      CYP11

    • E. 

      CYP19

    • F. 

      StAR Protein

  • 9. 
    Which of the following hormones has the longest half-life in serum?
    • A. 

      Aldosterone

    • B. 

      Angiotensin II

    • C. 

      Cortisol

    • D. 

      Epinephrine

    • E. 

      Growth Hormone

    • F. 

      Insulin

    • G. 

      Prostaglandin F2

  • 10. 
    Which of the following best describes the secretion pattern(s) of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in adults?
    • A. 

      Circadian

    • B. 

      Pulsatile

    • C. 

      Episodic

    • D. 

      Circadian and Pulsatile

    • E. 

      Circadian and Episodic

    • F. 

      Pulsatile and Episodic

    • G. 

      Circadian, Pulsatile and Episodic

  • 11. 
    An 18-year old man displays gigantism. Functional MRI indicates the hypothalamus and pituitary gland are of normal size. Which of the following hormones was most likely reduced in this patient when he was a young boy?
    • A. 

      Growth Hormone

    • B. 

      Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

    • C. 

      Insulin

    • D. 

      Insulin-like Growth Factor 1

    • E. 

      Insulin-like Growth Factor 2

    • F. 

      Somatostatin

  • 12. 
    Which of the following biomolecules is the most sensitive and useful for clinically diagnosing thyroid function?
    • A. 

      Thyroid Binding Globulin (TBG)

    • B. 

      Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH)

    • C. 

      Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

    • D. 

      Thyroxine (T4)

    • E. 

      Triiodothyronine (T3)

  • 13. 
    Thyroid hormone stimulates thermogenesis primarily in which of the following tissues?
    • A. 

      Adipose

    • B. 

      Brain

    • C. 

      Cardiac Muscle

    • D. 

      Liver

    • E. 

      Skeletal Muscle

  • 14. 
    A pharmaceutical company develops a new glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. In vivo studies performed in wild-type mice (i.e. normal controls) suggest this compound also binds with additional steroid receptors. Based on the general principals of receptor homology, this compound most likely interacts with which of the following steroid receptors?
    • A. 

      Androgen Receptor

    • B. 

      Estrogen Receptor alpha

    • C. 

      Estrogen Receptor beta

    • D. 

      Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    • E. 

      Progesterone Receptor

  • 15. 
    Which of the following biomolecules binds to a nuclear receptor and directly regulates gene transcription?
    • A. 

      Angiotensin II

    • B. 

      Calcitriol

    • C. 

      Growth Hormone

    • D. 

      Insulin

    • E. 

      Insulin-like Growth Factor 1

  • 16. 
    Which of the following hormones is synthesized in the hypothalamus and secreted from the pituitary?
    • A. 

      Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

    • B. 

      Antidiuretic Hormone

    • C. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    • D. 

      Growth Hormone

    • E. 

      Prolactin

  • 17. 
    A 65-year-old woman, recovering from a bacterial infection after visiting the island of Guadeloupe, suddenly develops severe nausea and vomiting. The woman is rushed to the emergency room. The patient is confused and cannot answer basic questions – she does not remember her age. Blood pressure is 90/55 and the patient is severely dehydrated. This woman is diagnosed with which of the following disorders?
    • A. 

      Adrenal crisis

    • B. 

      Adrenal Disease

    • C. 

      Adrenal Syndrome

    • D. 

      Primary adrenal insufficiency

    • E. 

      Secondary adrenal insufficiency

    • F. 

      Tertiary adrenal insufficiency

  • 18. 
    A 65-year-old woman, recovering from a bacterial infection after visiting the island of Guadeloupe, suddenly develops severe nausea and vomiting. The woman is rushed to the emergency room. The patient is confused and cannot answer basic questions – she does not remember her age. Blood pressure is 90/55 and the patient is severely dehydrated. Which of the following hormones is most likely decreased in this patient and the cause of her symptoms and signs?
    • A. 

      Angiotensin

    • B. 

      Aldosterone

    • C. 

      Cortisol

    • D. 

      Corticosterone

    • E. 

      Renin

  • 19. 
    A 22-year-old man presents with acute onset of severe aldosterone deficiency. The patient’s cortisol levels are normal. Which of the following biomolecules is most likely reduced in this patient?
    • A. 

      Adrenocorticotropic hormone

    • B. 

      Angiotensinogen

    • C. 

      Angiotensin I

    • D. 

      Angiotensin II

    • E. 

      Renin

  • 20. 
    A 46-year-old woman complains of weight gain. History reveals sudden onset of hot flashes and amenorrhea for 11 months. Physical exam reveals engorged and tender breasts; otherwise unremarkable. Which of the following biomolecules is most likely elevated in this patient?
    • A. 

      Cortisol

    • B. 

      Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    • C. 

      Growth Hormone

    • D. 

      Prolactin

    • E. 

      Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

  • 21. 
    A 46-year-old woman complains of weight gain. History reveals sudden onset of hot flashes and amenorrhea for 11 months. Physical exam reveals engorged and tender breasts; otherwise unremarkable. Reduced levels of which of the following hormones is the most likely cause of this patient’s symptoms and signs?
    • A. 

      Cortisol

    • B. 

      Dopamine

    • C. 

      Oxytocin

    • D. 

      Somatostatin

    • E. 

      Thyroid Releasing Hormone

  • 22. 
    A 46-year-old woman complains of weight gain. History reveals sudden onset of hot flashes and amenorrhea for 11 months. Physical exam reveals engorged and tender breasts; otherwise unremarkable. This patient is most likely diagnosed with which of the following disorder(s)?
    • A. 

      Acromegaly

    • B. 

      Addison’s Disease

    • C. 

      Cushing’s Disease

    • D. 

      Hyperprolactinemia

    • E. 

      Hyperthyroidism

    • F. 

      Hypothyroidism

  • 23. 
    A 41-year-old man is on safari in African plains when he gets separated from his safari guides and becomes lost. The man has a 2 L bottle of clean water and no available food sources. After 8 hrs without food the man feels hungry. Which of the following hormones is most likely elevated and stimulates this man’s appetite and urge to eat?
    • A. 

      Cortisol

    • B. 

      Ghrelin

    • C. 

      Growth Hormone

    • D. 

      Leptin

    • E. 

      Neuropeptide Y

  • 24. 
    A 41-year-old man is on safari in African plains when he gets separated from his safari guides and becomes lost. The man has a 2 L bottle of clean water and no available food sources. The man does not find food and goes 5 days without eating. Which of the following hormones is most likely elevated and stimulating glycogenolysis of this man’s liver glycogen stores?
    • A. 

      Cortisol

    • B. 

      Epinephrine

    • C. 

      Glucagon

    • D. 

      Glucagon-like peptide 1

    • E. 

      Insulin

  • 25. 
    A 41-year-old man is on safari in African plains when he gets separated from his safari guides and becomes lost. The man has a 2 L bottle of clean water and no available food sources. The man remains lost and begins to feel fatigued and very weak. He is able to find water but has found no food – he has been starving for 14 days. Which of the following biomolecules is most likely reduced in this man?
    • A. 

      Cortisol

    • B. 

      Ghrelin

    • C. 

      Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

    • D. 

      Leptin

    • E. 

      Neuropeptide Y

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