Living organisms are relatively simple
Biological structures play a role in the organism´s existence
The living state is characterized by the flow of energy trough the organism
Living organism are highly organized
Living organism are actively engaged in energy transformation
Movement of muscles.
None, they are all energy-requiring activities.
Hydrogen, calcium, oxygen and sodium
hydrogen, oxygen, iron and carbon
Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen
Oxygen, carbon, iron and nitrogen
Oxygen, silicon, calcium and nitrogen
It can form up to five bonds by sharing its electrons.
It forms only single bonds.
It provides low bond energy.
It forms stable covalent bonds by electron pair sharing.
It does not usually bond to other carbons, allowing a more diverse combination of elements.
Nitrate and dinitrogen.
None, all are major precursors.
metabolites, building blocks, macromolecules, supramolecular complexes
Macromolecules, building blocks, metabolites, supramolecular complexes
building blocks, macromolecules, supramolecular complexes, metabolites
Metabolites, macromolecules, building blocks, supramolecular complexes
Metabolites, building blocks, supramolecular complexes, macromolecules
Van der Waals forces
Only in prokaryotic cells, membrane bound, have a dedicated set of tasks.
Only in eukaryotic cells, membrane bound, have a dedicated set of tasks.
Only in eukaryotic cells, seldom membrane bound, have a dedicated set of tasks.
Only in prokaryotic cells, membrane bound, multi-functional.
In both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, membrane bound, have a dedicated set of tasks.
Define boundaries of cellular components.
Spontaneous assemblies resulting from hydrophobic interactions.
Identical protein and lipid composition in the major organelles.
None, all are true.
Ionic, hydrogen bond, van der Waals
van der Waals, hydrogen bond, ionic
Van der Waals, ionic, hydrogen bond
Hydrogen bond, van der Waals, ionic
Cannot be determined since ionic interactions and hydrogen bonds often vary in strength
Van der Waals forces
They are all the result of electron sharing.
Hydrogen bonds, ionic bond and hydrophobic interactions all carry a degree of specificity while van der Waals interactions are induced.
All noncovalent bonds are formed between oppositely charged polar functions.
Van der Waals interactions are not affected by structural complementarity, while hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and hydrophobic interaction are affected by structural complementarity.
Hydrogen, van der Waals, and hydrophobic interactions do not form linear bonds.
The donor is a hydrogen atom bonded to a carbon.
The more linear the bond, the stronger the interaction.
The acceptor must be similar in electronegativity to hydrogen.
It is a type of covalent bond.
A hydrogen bond is weaker than van der Waals forces.
Include ionic interactions between negatively charged carboxyl groups and positively charged amino groups.
Average about 2 kJ/mol in aqueous solutions.
Typically are directional like hydrogen bonds.
Require a precise fit like van der Waals interactions.
Include ionic, induced dipole and permanent dipole interactions.
Hydrophobic interactions result from the strong tendency of water to exclude nonpolar groups or molecules.
Hydrophobic interactions result because water molecules prefer the stronger interactions that they share with one another, compared to their interactions with nonpolar molecules.
Hydrophobic interactions result from hydrogen bonds between water and the hydrophobic molecules.
The preferential interactions between water molecules "exclude" hydrophobic substances from aqueous solution and drive the tendency of nonpolar molecules to cluster together.
Hydrophobic interactions result in nonpolar regions of biological molecules being buried in the molecule's interior to exclude them from the aqueous milieu.
Interaction of a protein with a metabolite.
The association of a strand of DNA with its complementary strand.
the ability for a sperm cell to bind to an egg.
The binding of a hormone to its receptor.
All of the above
Weak chemical forces mediate it.
. It produces strong irreversible interactions.
It is the interaction of a biological macromolecule and its ligand.
It is the basis of many biological functions.
It is the means of recognition in bimolecular interactions.
Covalent bonds are a common interaction used in molecular recognition.
Molecular recognition takes place only between protein molecules.
For molecular recognition to occur, complementarity of the molecules is required.
Hydrogen bonds are not effective mediators of molecular recognition due to their low strength.
None of the above are correct.
Dramatic increase in temperature.
Change in ionic strength.
Addition of strong acid or base.
None, all will denature biological macromolecules.
Metabolism only occurs inside of organelles.
Metabolism is rarely organized into pathways.
Metabolism always results in a production of ATP.
Metabolism has two components: anabolism and catabolism.
Enzymes help to catalyze virtually every metabolic reaction.
Enzymes mediate the rates of cellular reaction in proportion to cellular requirements.
Enzymes are sensitive to temperature, pH, and concentration changes.
An increased activity of an enzyme increases the amount of energy produced.
Enzymes are used as a catalyst to increase reaction rates many orders of magnitude.
Some have flagella.
They have a simple plasma or cell membrane.
They posses a distinct nuclear area, but no nucleus.
They have ribosomes, but no mitochondria.
All are true.