Benchmark Assessment #2: Biochemistry & The Cell

19 Questions | Total Attempts: 287

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Benchmark Assessment #2: Biochemistry & The Cell

Biochemistry & the Cell


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What key factor distinguishes organic compounds from inorganic compounds?
    • A. 

      Organic compounds contain carbon.

    • B. 

      Organic compounds contain hydrogen.

    • C. 

      Organic compounds provide energy for cells.

    • D. 

      Organic compounds are the building blocks of cells.

  • 2. 
    The hydrolysis of which molecule provides energy for muscle contraction?
    • A. 

      ATP

    • B. 

      Glucose

    • C. 

      Lactic acid

    • D. 

      Oxygen

  • 3. 
    Megan examines a liver cell and observes an organelle with many smooth-sided channels. Which activity would identify this organelle as the Golgi apparatus?
    • A. 

      Digestion of macromolecules and old organelles

    • B. 

      Detoxification of poisonous molecules within the cell

    • C. 

      Harvesting of energy from organic molecules to make ATP

    • D. 

      Processing and packaging of cellular materials prior to export

  • 4. 
    Which process generates most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration?
    • A. 

      Electron transport chain

    • B. 

      Fermentation

    • C. 

      Glycolysis

    • D. 

      Krebs cycle

  • 5. 
    Which solution has the greatest concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-)?
    • A. 

      Urine (pH 6.0)

    • B. 

      Rainwater (pH 5.5)

    • C. 

      Tomato juice (pH 2.0)

    • D. 

      Gastric juice (pH 2.0)

  • 6. 
    Which functional group found in amino acids is absent from monosaccharides, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and glycerol?
    • A. 

      -COOH

    • B. 

      -NH2

    • C. 

      -OH

    • D. 

      -PO4

  • 7. 
    Jenna's favorite breakfast food, papaya, contains significant amounts of the enzyme papain (a protease). What substances does papain help digest?
    • A. 

      Carbohydrates

    • B. 

      Fatty acids

    • C. 

      Nucleic acids

    • D. 

      Proteins

  • 8. 
    How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?
    • A. 

      By reducing activation energy

    • B. 

      By reducing energy produced by the reaction

    • C. 

      By increasing activation energy

    • D. 

      By increasing energy produced by the reaction

  • 9. 
    The presence of which structure indicates that cells are NOT photosynthetic bacteria?
    • A. 

      Cell wall

    • B. 

      Chloroplast

    • C. 

      DNA

    • D. 

      Ribosome

  • 10. 
    Naomi adds cyclohexamide to cells grown in a test tube. Within minutes, she identifies short incomplete segments of proteins in the cells. On which organelle does cyclohexamide act?
    • A. 

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B. 

      Golgi apparatus

    • C. 

      Nucleus

    • D. 

      Ribosome

  • 11. 
    A scientist places a cell in a solution, and over time the cell gains mass and swells. What is the most likely explanation for the cell's gain in mass?
    • A. 

      The solution is hypertonic to the cell.

    • B. 

      The solution is hypotonic to the cell.

    • C. 

      The solution and the cell have equal concentrations of solutes.

    • D. 

      The solution and the cell have equal concentrations of water.

  • 12. 
    The diagram shows a cell membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer with a channel protein. Each X represents the same type of molecule inside or outside the cell. Facilitated diffusion moves these molecules across the cell membrane. In what direction do these molecules move and through which structure?
    • A. 

      Into the cell through the channel protein

    • B. 

      Into the cell through the phospholipid bilayer

    • C. 

      Out of the cell through the channel protein

    • D. 

      Out of the cell through the phospholipid bilayer

  • 13. 
    The areobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration REQUIRE which products of glycolysis?
    • A. 

      NADPH and ATP

    • B. 

      Pyruvate and ATP

    • C. 

      Pyruvate and NADH

    • D. 

      ATP , pyruvate, and NADH

  • 14. 
    While investigating yeast respiration, a researcher detects ethanol in the yeast culture. Which molecules does the yeast culture also contain?
    • A. 

      Lactic acid and ATP

    • B. 

      Oxygen and lactic acid

    • C. 

      Carbon dioxide and ATP

    • D. 

      Oxygen and carbon dioxide

  • 15. 
    These diagrams represent different stages of animal cell division. From start to finish, what is the correct order of the stages?
    • A. 

      2, 4, 3, 1

    • B. 

      2, 3, 4, 1

    • C. 

      3, 2, 1, 4

    • D. 

      3, 1, 2, 4

  • 16. 
    When the pH in a stomach increases from 2 to 4, how does the hydrogen ion concentration change?
    • A. 

      It increases by a factor of 2.

    • B. 

      It increases by a factor of 100.

    • C. 

      It decreases by a factor of 2.

    • D. 

      It decreases by a factor of 100.

  • 17. 
    Pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme in the human stomach. Antacids cause the pH of the stomach to increase and protein digestion becomes less efficient. What occurs to reduce the efficiency of protein digestion?
    • A. 

      Antacids break the covalent bonds within pepsin.

    • B. 

      Pepsin dissolves antacids in the gastric juice.

    • C. 

      The active site of pepsin changes shape.

    • D. 

      The concentration of pepsin increases.

  • 18. 
    During aerobic cellular respiration, where do ATP molecules form?
    • A. 

      Cytoplasm only

    • B. 

      Mitochondrial matrix only

    • C. 

      Mitochondrial matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane only

    • D. 

      Cytoplasm, mitochondrial matrix, and outer mitochondrial membrane

  • 19. 
    A science teacher performs an experiment to measure the CO2 uptake of the green algae Chlorella under light conditions. He prepares a suspension of Chlorella and places it in a growth chamber near a lamp. A student disrupts the experiment by turning off the lamp, creating dark conditions. Why is there a negative uptake (release) of CO2 under dark conditions?
    • A. 

      CO2 production requires light.

    • B. 

      Cellular respiration is taking place.

    • C. 

      Chlorella is actively photosynthesizing.

    • D. 

      Glucose production in the dark requires less CO2.

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