Benchmark Assessment #2: Biochemistry & The Cell

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Benchmark Assessment #2: Biochemistry & The Cell - Quiz

Biochemistry & the Cell


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What key factor distinguishes organic compounds from inorganic compounds?

    • A.

      Organic compounds contain carbon.

    • B.

      Organic compounds contain hydrogen.

    • C.

      Organic compounds provide energy for cells.

    • D.

      Organic compounds are the building blocks of cells.

    Correct Answer
    A. Organic compounds contain carbon.
    Explanation
    The key factor that distinguishes organic compounds from inorganic compounds is the presence of carbon. Organic compounds are defined as compounds that contain carbon, while inorganic compounds do not necessarily contain carbon. Carbon is unique in its ability to form covalent bonds with other elements, allowing for the formation of complex and diverse organic molecules. This characteristic of carbon is what gives organic compounds their distinct properties and enables them to play crucial roles in biological processes.

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  • 2. 

    The hydrolysis of which molecule provides energy for muscle contraction?

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Lactic acid

    • D.

      Oxygen

    Correct Answer
    B. Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is the correct answer because during muscle contraction, glucose is broken down through a process called glycolysis to produce ATP, which is the main source of energy for muscle contraction. This process releases energy that is used for the contraction and relaxation of muscle fibers. ATP is then used by the muscle cells to power the movement and contraction of muscles.

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  • 3. 

    Megan examines a liver cell and observes an organelle with many smooth-sided channels. Which activity would identify this organelle as the Golgi apparatus?

    • A.

      Digestion of macromolecules and old organelles

    • B.

      Detoxification of poisonous molecules within the cell

    • C.

      Harvesting of energy from organic molecules to make ATP

    • D.

      Processing and packaging of cellular materials prior to export

    Correct Answer
    D. Processing and packaging of cellular materials prior to export
    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is responsible for processing and packaging cellular materials before they are exported. It contains smooth-sided channels called cisternae, which are involved in modifying and sorting proteins and lipids. This organelle does not play a role in digestion, detoxification, or energy harvesting, making the processing and packaging of cellular materials the most appropriate activity for identifying it as the Golgi apparatus.

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  • 4. 

    Which process generates most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration?

    • A.

      Electron transport chain

    • B.

      Fermentation

    • C.

      Glycolysis

    • D.

      Krebs cycle

    Correct Answer
    A. Electron transport chain
    Explanation
    The electron transport chain generates most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration. This process occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane and involves the transfer of electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors, creating a proton gradient. This gradient is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. The electron transport chain is the final stage of cellular respiration and is responsible for the majority of ATP production in aerobic organisms.

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  • 5. 

    Which solution has the greatest concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-)?

    • A.

      Urine (pH 6.0)

    • B.

      Rainwater (pH 5.5)

    • C.

      Tomato juice (pH 2.0)

    • D.

      Gastric juice (pH 2.0)

    Correct Answer
    A. Urine (pH 6.0)
    Explanation
    Urine has the greatest concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) because it has a higher pH value of 6.0 compared to the other solutions. pH is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution, and a higher pH indicates a lower concentration of H+ ions. Since hydroxide ions (OH-) and hydrogen ions (H+) are inversely related, a higher pH means a higher concentration of hydroxide ions. Therefore, urine with a pH of 6.0 has the greatest concentration of hydroxide ions among the given solutions.

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  • 6. 

    Which functional group found in amino acids is absent from monosaccharides, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and glycerol?

    • A.

      -COOH

    • B.

      -NH2

    • C.

      -OH

    • D.

      -PO4

    Correct Answer
    B. -NH2
    Explanation
    Amino acids contain an amino group (-NH2) in their structure, which is absent in monosaccharides, polysaccharides, fatty acids, and glycerol. The presence of the amino group is what distinguishes amino acids from other molecules mentioned.

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  • 7. 

    Jenna's favorite breakfast food, papaya, contains significant amounts of the enzyme papain (a protease). What substances does papain help digest?

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Fatty acids

    • C.

      Nucleic acids

    • D.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. Proteins
    Explanation
    Papain is an enzyme found in papaya that belongs to the protease family. Proteases are enzymes that help break down proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids. Therefore, papain helps in the digestion of proteins. It does not help digest carbohydrates, fatty acids, or nucleic acids.

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  • 8. 

    How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions?

    • A.

      By reducing activation energy

    • B.

      By reducing energy produced by the reaction

    • C.

      By increasing activation energy

    • D.

      By increasing energy produced by the reaction

    Correct Answer
    A. By reducing activation energy
    Explanation
    Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by reducing activation energy. Activation energy is the energy required to start a reaction, and enzymes lower this energy barrier, allowing the reaction to occur more easily and quickly. Enzymes achieve this by binding to reactant molecules and bringing them closer together, facilitating the formation of new bonds and increasing the likelihood of a successful reaction. By reducing the activation energy, enzymes increase the rate of the reaction without being consumed in the process.

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  • 9. 

    The presence of which structure indicates that cells are NOT photosynthetic bacteria?

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      DNA

    • D.

      Ribosome

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloroplast
    Explanation
    The presence of chloroplast indicates that cells are photosynthetic bacteria. Photosynthetic bacteria have the ability to convert sunlight into energy through the process of photosynthesis, which occurs in the chloroplasts. Therefore, if chloroplast is present, it suggests that the cells are photosynthetic bacteria.

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  • 10. 

    Naomi adds cyclohexamide to cells grown in a test tube. Within minutes, she identifies short incomplete segments of proteins in the cells. On which organelle does cyclohexamide act?

    • A.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Golgi apparatus

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Ribosome

    Correct Answer
    D. Ribosome
    Explanation
    Cyclohexamide is an antibiotic that specifically inhibits protein synthesis. It works by binding to the ribosomes, the cellular organelles responsible for protein synthesis. By inhibiting the ribosomes, cyclohexamide prevents the completion of protein synthesis, resulting in the formation of short incomplete segments of proteins. Therefore, the correct answer is Ribosome.

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  • 11. 

    A scientist places a cell in a solution, and over time the cell gains mass and swells. What is the most likely explanation for the cell's gain in mass?

    • A.

      The solution is hypertonic to the cell.

    • B.

      The solution is hypotonic to the cell.

    • C.

      The solution and the cell have equal concentrations of solutes.

    • D.

      The solution and the cell have equal concentrations of water.

    Correct Answer
    B. The solution is hypotonic to the cell.
    Explanation
    The most likely explanation for the cell's gain in mass is that the solution is hypotonic to the cell. In a hypotonic solution, there is a lower concentration of solutes outside the cell compared to inside the cell. As a result, water moves into the cell through osmosis, causing it to swell and gain mass.

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  • 12. 

    The diagram shows a cell membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer with a channel protein. Each X represents the same type of molecule inside or outside the cell. Facilitated diffusion moves these molecules across the cell membrane. In what direction do these molecules move and through which structure?

    • A.

      Into the cell through the channel protein

    • B.

      Into the cell through the phospholipid bilayer

    • C.

      Out of the cell through the channel protein

    • D.

      Out of the cell through the phospholipid bilayer

    Correct Answer
    A. Into the cell through the channel protein
    Explanation
    The molecules move into the cell through the channel protein. The channel protein acts as a passageway or a tunnel through the cell membrane, allowing specific molecules to pass from outside to inside the cell. This process is known as facilitated diffusion, where the molecules move down their concentration gradient, meaning from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. The phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane also plays a role in maintaining the integrity and structure of the cell, but in this case, the molecules are specifically moving through the channel protein.

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  • 13. 

    The areobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration REQUIRE which products of glycolysis?

    • A.

      NADPH and ATP

    • B.

      Pyruvate and ATP

    • C.

      Pyruvate and NADH

    • D.

      ATP , pyruvate, and NADH

    Correct Answer
    C. Pyruvate and NADH
    Explanation
    The aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration require pyruvate and NADH. Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis and serves as the starting point for both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. NADH is produced during glycolysis and is an important electron carrier that is used in later steps of cellular respiration to generate ATP. ATP is also required for cellular respiration, but it is not specifically mentioned as a product of glycolysis in this question. Therefore, the correct answer is pyruvate and NADH.

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  • 14. 

    While investigating yeast respiration, a researcher detects ethanol in the yeast culture. Which molecules does the yeast culture also contain?

    • A.

      Lactic acid and ATP

    • B.

      Oxygen and lactic acid

    • C.

      Carbon dioxide and ATP

    • D.

      Oxygen and carbon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbon dioxide and ATP
    Explanation
    Yeast respiration involves the breakdown of glucose to produce energy in the form of ATP. This process, known as fermentation, also produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Therefore, if ethanol is detected in the yeast culture, it suggests that the yeast culture also contains carbon dioxide and ATP. Lactic acid and oxygen are not directly involved in yeast respiration.

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  • 15. 

    These diagrams represent different stages of animal cell division. From start to finish, what is the correct order of the stages?

    • A.

      2, 4, 3, 1

    • B.

      2, 3, 4, 1

    • C.

      3, 2, 1, 4

    • D.

      3, 1, 2, 4

    Correct Answer
    A. 2, 4, 3, 1
    Explanation
    Prophase (chromosomes condense & nuclear membrane disappears)
    Metaphase (chromosomes line up in the MIDDLE)
    Anaphase (chromosomes are pulled APART)
    Telophase (2 nuclear membranes form & cytokinesis occurs

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  • 16. 

    When the pH in a stomach increases from 2 to 4, how does the hydrogen ion concentration change?

    • A.

      It increases by a factor of 2.

    • B.

      It increases by a factor of 100.

    • C.

      It decreases by a factor of 2.

    • D.

      It decreases by a factor of 100.

    Correct Answer
    D. It decreases by a factor of 100.
    Explanation
    When the pH in a stomach increases from 2 to 4, it means that the stomach becomes less acidic. As pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration, a higher pH indicates a lower concentration of hydrogen ions. Since the pH increases by 2 units, the hydrogen ion concentration decreases by a factor of 100 (10^2).

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  • 17. 

    Pepsin is a protein-digesting enzyme in the human stomach. Antacids cause the pH of the stomach to increase and protein digestion becomes less efficient. What occurs to reduce the efficiency of protein digestion?

    • A.

      Antacids break the covalent bonds within pepsin.

    • B.

      Pepsin dissolves antacids in the gastric juice.

    • C.

      The active site of pepsin changes shape.

    • D.

      The concentration of pepsin increases.

    Correct Answer
    C. The active site of pepsin changes shape.
    Explanation
    When the pH of the stomach increases due to the use of antacids, the active site of pepsin, which is responsible for binding to and breaking down proteins, undergoes a conformational change. This change in shape of the active site makes it less effective in binding to proteins and carrying out the digestion process. As a result, the efficiency of protein digestion is reduced.

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  • 18. 

    During aerobic cellular respiration, where do ATP molecules form?

    • A.

      Cytoplasm only

    • B.

      Mitochondrial matrix only

    • C.

      Mitochondrial matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane only

    • D.

      Cytoplasm, mitochondrial matrix, and outer mitochondrial membrane

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondrial matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane only
    Explanation
    During aerobic cellular respiration, ATP molecules form in the mitochondrial matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane. The process of aerobic respiration occurs in the mitochondria, where the breakdown of glucose takes place. The majority of ATP synthesis occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane through the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. The mitochondrial matrix also plays a role in ATP production through the Krebs cycle, where the breakdown products of glucose are further metabolized to generate energy. Therefore, the correct answer is that ATP molecules form in the mitochondrial matrix and inner mitochondrial membrane only.

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  • 19. 

    A science teacher performs an experiment to measure the CO2 uptake of the green algae Chlorella under light conditions. He prepares a suspension of Chlorella and places it in a growth chamber near a lamp. A student disrupts the experiment by turning off the lamp, creating dark conditions. Why is there a negative uptake (release) of CO2 under dark conditions?

    • A.

      CO2 production requires light.

    • B.

      Cellular respiration is taking place.

    • C.

      Chlorella is actively photosynthesizing.

    • D.

      Glucose production in the dark requires less CO2.

    Correct Answer
    B. Cellular respiration is taking place.
    Explanation
    In the absence of light, Chlorella cannot perform photosynthesis to convert CO2 into glucose and oxygen. Instead, it relies on cellular respiration to generate energy by breaking down glucose and releasing CO2 as a byproduct. This is why there is a negative uptake (release) of CO2 under dark conditions.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 17, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Awest
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