Psyc 100 (quizzes One And Two) 2018

20 Questions

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Psyc 100 (quizzes One And Two) 2018


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Through their research on human responses to physical stimuli, both Helmholtz and Fechner contributed to the beginning of: 
    • A. 

      Comparative psychology

    • B. 

      Psychophysics

    • C. 

      Rationalism

    • D. 

      Materialism

  • 2. 
    Which is most accurate?
    • A. 

      Psychologists study mental processes and behaviour

    • B. 

      Psychologists study the psyche

    • C. 

      Psychologists study human behaviour

    • D. 

      Psychologists study animal behaviour

  • 3. 
    If psychology can be defined as the science of behaviour and the mind, why are the data in psychology always drawn from behaviour?
    • A. 

      Behaviour can be influenced by the environment but the mind cannot

    • B. 

      Behaviour can be observed and the mind cannot

    • C. 

      Behaviour can be influenced by physiology but the mind cannot

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 4. 
    Structuralism is to __________ as functionalism is to __________.
    • A. 

      Consciousness; memory

    • B. 

      Unobservable behaviour; consciousness

    • C. 

      Consciousness; memory

    • D. 

      Elements of consciousness; purpose of consciousness

  • 5. 
    The concept of natural selection is most important for psychologists interested in the __________ of behaviour.
    • A. 

      Functions

    • B. 

      Variation

    • C. 

      Structure

    • D. 

      Limitations

  • 6. 
    In psychological research, the term "generalization" refers to:
    • A. 

      Obtaining a broad understanding of how different variables are related to each other

    • B. 

      Adding the results from one study to those from other studies

    • C. 

      Concluding that the results obtained from a sample can also be applied to the larger population

    • D. 

      How significant the results of the statistical analysis are

  • 7. 
    A researcher has two groups of subjects - one that has been taught a memory aid and one that has not. Both groups are asked to lean a list of 20 nouns in two minutes, and both are then given a recall test. What is the independent variable?
    • A. 

      Whether or not the participants have been taught the memory aid

    • B. 

      The number of nouns

    • C. 

      The amount of time participants took to complete the recall test

    • D. 

      Participants' scores on the recall test

  • 8. 
    Minor deception may be permitted in research providing there is a __________ and __________.
    • A. 

      Momentary remuneration; prior informed consent

    • B. 

      Prior informed consent; no foreseeable harm

    • C. 

      No foreseeable harm; there is a full debriefing

    • D. 

      No confounding; information; information is confidential

  • 9. 
    Only __________ involve the manipulation of independent variables.
    • A. 

      Experiments

    • B. 

      Correlation studies

    • C. 

      Case studies

    • D. 

      Naturalistic observations

  • 10. 
    Suppose that you conduct an experiment to study the effects of love on improving children's self concepts. To manipulate love, you allow research assistance to hug each child after he or she has successfully completed a set of math problems. Once the study is complete, you ask the children if they felt loved during the study. They say no. Apparently, your operational definition of your independent variable is _________.
    • A. 

      Too subjective

    • B. 

      Not objective

    • C. 

      Unreliable

    • D. 

      Invalid

  • 11. 
    The fact that male peacocks have evolved large tail feathers even though large feathers appear to be an impediment to survival is best explained by:
    • A. 

      Sexual selection

    • B. 

      Evolution through natural selection

    • C. 

      Genetic Drift

    • D. 

      Large feathers can be used to the protect the nest

  • 12. 
    An organism's phenotype is the result of _________.
    • A. 

      Its genotype

    • B. 

      The influence of environmental influences and experiences

    • C. 

      The reproductive success of its parents

    • D. 

      The interaction of its genotype with the environment

  • 13. 
    Concordance is the degree to which two people:
    • A. 

      Share the same phenotype

    • B. 

      Share the same genotype

    • C. 

      Are biologically related

    • D. 

      Share the same environment

  • 14. 
    Natural selection has favoured species that reproduce sexually because sexual reproduction: 
    • A. 

      Leads to a longer lifespan and more variability in behaviour

    • B. 

      Produces organisms that have the capacity for thinking and language

    • C. 

      Leads to genetic diversity which is adaptive

    • D. 

      Pleasurable, which is reinforcing

  • 15. 
    Altruistic behaviour toward non-relatives can be explained by:
    • A. 

      Personal fitness

    • B. 

      Reciprocal altruism

    • C. 

      Non-familial altruism

    • D. 

      Inclusive fitness

  • 16. 
    Which of the following is the best example of operant conditioning?
    • A. 

      A young child becomes fearful whenever seeing the babysitter

    • B. 

      A child continues to pick on his sister, despite receiving repeated time-outs

    • C. 

      Two boys imitate a professional wrestler they view on television

    • D. 

      A student studies for her math test and received a mark of 90%. She then studies harder for the next test

  • 17. 
    To what is the tendency of the CS to elicit a CR related?
    • A. 

      The number of CS-US pairings

    • B. 

      The intensity of the CS

    • C. 

      The intensity of the CR

    • D. 

      The number of times the US has elicited the CR

  • 18. 
    Which of the following presents the most convincing evidence that an animal has learned by "insight" rather than by trial and error?
    • A. 

      The animal gives a smooth, continuous performance

    • B. 

      There is a sudden drop in the learning curve

    • C. 

      A transfer of learning occurs

    • D. 

      One sees an absence of errors in the animal's performance

  • 19. 
    People who live in cities often do not respond to night sounds while asleep (i.e. horns honking). This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Shaping

    • B. 

      Habituation

    • C. 

      Classical Conditioning

    • D. 

      Operant Conditioning

  • 20. 
    __________ is a learning procedure that utilizes reinforcement to guide a response in closer and closer approximations to a desired behaviour.
    • A. 

      Partial reinforcement

    • B. 

      Habituation

    • C. 

      Classical Conditioning

    • D. 

      Shaping