Psychology Final Exam

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Psychology Final Exam - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A complex behavior that has a fixed pattern throughout a species and is unlearned. 

    • A.

      Motivation

    • B.

      Instinct

    • C.

      Drive-Reduction Theory

    • D.

      Personality

    Correct Answer
    B. Instinct
    Explanation
    Instinct refers to a complex behavior that is innate and unlearned, yet displayed by all members of a species. It is a fixed pattern of behavior that is genetically programmed and does not require any prior experience or learning. This behavior is typically essential for survival and reproduction.

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  • 2. 

    Division of the nervous system that arouses the body in times of stress. If something alarms you, this nervous system will accelerate your heartbeat, blood pressure, etc, getting you ready for action.

    • A.

      Parasympathetic Nervous System

    • B.

      Pscyhonalaysis

    • C.

      Sympathetic Nervous System

    • D.

      Autonomic Nervous System

    Correct Answer
    C. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Explanation
    The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for activating the body in times of stress or danger. It increases heart rate, blood pressure, and other bodily functions to prepare the body for action. This response is commonly known as the "fight or flight" response. The parasympathetic nervous system, on the other hand, is responsible for calming the body down after the stressor has passed. The autonomic nervous system is the division of the nervous system that controls involuntary bodily functions, including both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Psychoanalysis is a psychological therapy method and is unrelated to the question.

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  • 3. 

    Order Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from least to greatest:

    • A.

      Belongingness and love need, safety needs, Physiological needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, self-transcendence needs.

    • B.

      Physiological needs, esteem needs, belongingness and love needs, safety needs, self-actualization needs, self-transcendence needs.

    • C.

      Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-transcendence needs, self-actualization needs.

    • D.

      Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, self-transcendence needs.

    Correct Answer
    D. Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, self-transcendence needs.
    Explanation
    Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is a theory that categorizes human needs into different levels. According to the theory, physiological needs such as food, water, and shelter are the most basic and must be satisfied first. Safety needs, which include personal security, health, and financial stability, come next. Belongingness and love needs involve the desire for social connections and relationships. Esteem needs refer to the need for recognition, respect, and self-worth. Self-actualization needs involve fulfilling one's potential and achieving personal growth. Lastly, self-transcendence needs go beyond the self and involve finding meaning and purpose in life. Therefore, the correct order is physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs, self-transcendence needs.

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  • 4. 

    A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.

    • A.

      Motivation

    • B.

      Instinct

    • C.

      Social Psychology

    • D.

      Personality

    Correct Answer
    A. Motivation
    Explanation
    Motivation refers to a need or desire that provides the energy and direction for behavior. It is the internal drive that pushes individuals to take action and achieve their goals. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as personal needs, external rewards, and internal drives. It plays a crucial role in determining the behavior and actions of individuals in different situations.

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  • 5. 

    A person's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.

    • A.

      Social Psychology

    • B.

      Id

    • C.

      Personaity

    • D.

      Openness

    Correct Answer
    C. Personaity
    Explanation
    Personality refers to a person's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. It encompasses various traits, attitudes, and behaviors that are consistent and enduring over time. This concept is widely studied in the field of psychology to understand individual differences and how they influence behavior in social situations.

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  • 6. 

    A balanced internal state.

    • A.

      Hierarchy of Needs

    • B.

      Homeostasis

    • C.

      Instinct

    • D.

      Social Faciliation

    Correct Answer
    B. Homeostasis
    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. It involves various physiological processes that regulate temperature, blood pressure, and other bodily functions within a narrow range. A balanced internal state is achieved through homeostasis, ensuring optimal functioning of the body's systems. This concept is closely related to the idea of a balanced internal state, as it emphasizes the importance of maintaining equilibrium and stability for overall well-being.

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  • 7. 

    Traits peculiar to an individual. 

    Correct Answer
    Personal Disposition
    Explanation
    Personal disposition refers to the unique qualities, characteristics, and traits that are specific to an individual. It encompasses a person's inherent nature, temperament, and behavior patterns that distinguish them from others. These traits are personal and can vary greatly from one individual to another. Personal disposition plays a significant role in shaping a person's attitudes, beliefs, and actions, influencing how they interact with others and navigate through various situations. It is a key factor in understanding and predicting an individual's behavior and choices.

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  • 8. 

    Division of the nervous system that calms the body by conserving energy, decreasing your heartbeat, lowering blood pressure, blood sugar, etc. 

    Correct Answer
    Parasympathetic Nervous System
    Explanation
    The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for calming the body and conserving energy. It works by decreasing the heartbeat, lowering blood pressure, blood sugar levels, and other bodily functions. This division of the nervous system is often referred to as the "rest and digest" system because it promotes relaxation and digestion. It counteracts the effects of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the body's fight or flight response. Overall, the parasympathetic nervous system helps maintain homeostasis and keeps the body in a state of rest and recovery.

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  • 9. 

    ______ theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. This psychologist established it during the Victorian era. 

    • A.

      Freud; Psychoanalysis

    • B.

      Freud; Psychosocial

    • C.

      Maslow; Humanistic

    • D.

      Bandura; The Big 5 Theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Freud; Psychoanalysis
    Explanation
    Freud is known for his theory of psychoanalysis, which suggests that unconscious motives and conflicts influence our thoughts and actions. He established this theory during the Victorian era.

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  • 10. 

    Maslow's pyramids of human needs, beginning with physiological needs and then moving up to higher-level psychological needs.

    Correct Answer
    Hierarchy of Needs
    Explanation
    The given statement refers to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which is a theory that suggests human needs can be arranged in a pyramid structure. According to this theory, individuals must fulfill their physiological needs (such as food, water, and shelter) before moving on to higher-level psychological needs (such as love, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization). This hierarchy implies that individuals prioritize their needs in a specific order, with the most basic needs being fulfilled first before progressing to higher-level needs.

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  • 11. 

    Entails being imaginative, independent, and preferring variety.

    • A.

      Conscientiousness

    • B.

      Openness

    • C.

      Extraversion

    • D.

      Agreeableness

    • E.

      Neuroticism

    Correct Answer
    B. Openness
    Explanation
    Openness is the correct answer because being imaginative, independent, and preferring variety are traits associated with this personality trait. Openness refers to the willingness to experience new things, the ability to think creatively, and the inclination to seek out diverse experiences. Individuals who are high in openness tend to be curious, open-minded, and enjoy exploring different ideas and perspectives. They are often creative, independent thinkers who embrace change and are open to new possibilities.

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  • 12. 

    Unconscious energy that cares nothing about the outside world. It only wants to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce, and aggress. It operates on the pleasure principle, meaning it seeks instant gratification. It is considered the "devil" of personality. 

    • A.

      Id

    • B.

      Ego

    • C.

      Superego

    Correct Answer
    A. Id
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Id. The explanation for this is that the Id represents the primitive and instinctual part of the mind. It is driven by the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification of basic needs such as hunger, thirst, and sexual desires. The Id operates on unconscious energy and is not concerned with the outside world or moral considerations. It can be seen as the "devil" of personality because it is impulsive, irrational, and can lead to destructive behaviors if not regulated by the other parts of the mind.

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  • 13. 

    When we overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of situations. 

    • A.

      Reaction Formation

    • B.

      Displacement

    • C.

      Personal Disposition

    • D.

      Fundamental Attribution Error

    Correct Answer
    D. Fundamental Attribution Error
    Explanation
    The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to attribute someone's behavior to their internal characteristics or personality traits, while underestimating the influence of external situational factors. In this case, when we overestimate the influence of personality and underestimate the influence of situations, we are committing the fundamental attribution error. This error occurs because we often rely on cognitive shortcuts and stereotypes to explain behavior, rather than considering the complex interplay between individual traits and situational factors.

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  • 14. 

    The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motives organisms to satisfy those needs.

    • A.

      Instinct

    • B.

      Drive-Reduction Theory

    • C.

      Motivation

    • D.

      Psychoanalysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Drive-Reduction Theory
    Explanation
    The concept of drive-reduction theory suggests that when an organism experiences a physiological need, such as hunger or thirst, it creates a state of tension or drive. This drive then motivates the organism to engage in behaviors that will satisfy those needs and reduce the tension. In other words, the theory proposes that our primary motivation is to reduce any physiological imbalances or needs that we experience. This explanation aligns with the idea that motivation is driven by the desire to fulfill basic physiological needs.

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  • 15. 

    Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others. When an athlete does more well in a sport because he believes people are “watching” him. 

    • A.

      Social Facilitation

    • B.

      Social Loafing

    • C.

      Bystander Effect

    • D.

      Situational Influence

    Correct Answer
    A. Social Facilitation
    Explanation
    Social facilitation refers to the phenomenon where individuals tend to perform better on simple or well-learned tasks when they are in the presence of others. In this case, the athlete performs better in the sport because he believes people are watching him, which creates a sense of accountability and arousal, leading to improved performance. This aligns with the concept of social facilitation, where the presence of others enhances individual performance.

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  • 16. 

    When one retreats to a more infantile stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. A little boy sucks on his thumb for oral comfort because it’s the first day of school.

    • A.

      Regression

    • B.

      Reaction Formation

    • C.

      Projection

    • D.

      Displacement

    Correct Answer
    A. Regression
    Explanation
    Regression refers to a defense mechanism where an individual retreats to an earlier stage of development in order to cope with stress or anxiety. In this scenario, the little boy sucking his thumb for oral comfort on the first day of school indicates a regression to a more infantile stage. This behavior is a way for him to find comfort and security in a familiar habit during a potentially stressful situation.

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  • 17. 

    The conscious "exectutive" of personality that mediates between the id and the superego. Allows us to do what's appropriate in the real world. It is considered the "mediator". 

    • A.

      Id

    • B.

      Ego

    • C.

      Superego

    Correct Answer
    B. Ego
    Explanation
    The ego is the conscious "executive" of personality that mediates between the id and the superego. It helps us make decisions and take actions that are appropriate in the real world. It acts as a mediator between the impulsive desires of the id and the moral standards of the superego. The ego helps us find a balance between our instinctual drives and societal expectations.

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  • 18. 

    When we ___________________ or when we are unable to control our environment, we become more susceptible to _______. Workers with more stressful jobs will usually die more often and quicker than those who don’t. The more control workers have, the ____________.

    • A.

      Perceive a loss of control; illness; shorter they live

    • B.

      Illness; perceive a loss of control; longer they live

    • C.

      Perceive a loss of control; illness; longer they live

    Correct Answer
    C. Perceive a loss of control; illness; longer they live
    Explanation
    When we perceive a loss of control or when we are unable to control our environment, we become more susceptible to illness. Workers with more stressful jobs will usually die more often and quicker than those who don't. The more control workers have, the longer they live.

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  • 19. 

    Patterns of thoughts, feelings, or action that are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.

    • A.

      Deviant

    • B.

      Psychological Disorder

    • C.

      Biopsychosocial Approach

    • D.

      Social Phobia

    Correct Answer
    B. Psychological Disorder
    Explanation
    A psychological disorder refers to patterns of thoughts, feelings, or actions that are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional. This means that the individual's thoughts, emotions, or behaviors deviate from what is considered normal or socially acceptable. These patterns also cause significant distress or impairment in the person's daily functioning. The biopsychosocial approach is a comprehensive perspective that considers biological, psychological, and social factors in understanding and treating psychological disorders. Social phobia, on the other hand, is a specific psychological disorder characterized by an intense fear and avoidance of social situations.

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  • 20. 

    When people put less effort into things because they are working in a group. When a group of people are hosting a carwash and one person just watches others do the work while he stands there doing nothing.

    • A.

      Social Facilitation

    • B.

      Bystander Effect

    • C.

      Social Loafing

    • D.

      Conformity

    Correct Answer
    C. Social Loafing
    Explanation
    Social loafing refers to the phenomenon where individuals exert less effort when working in a group compared to when working alone. In the given scenario, the person who is not actively participating in the carwash while others are working is an example of social loafing. This behavior occurs because individuals feel less accountable and tend to rely on others to complete the task, leading to a decrease in overall effort.

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  • 21. 

    Switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Holding back angry feelings or someone being exaggeratingly friendly. 

    • A.

      Regression

    • B.

      Reaction Formation

    • C.

      Projection

    • D.

      Displacement

    Correct Answer
    B. Reaction Formation
    Explanation
    Reaction formation is a defense mechanism in which a person expresses feelings or impulses that are opposite to their true feelings. In this case, the individual is holding back angry feelings or being excessively friendly. This defense mechanism allows the person to cope with unacceptable impulses by behaving in a manner that is socially acceptable, even if it contradicts their true feelings.

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  • 22. 

    In women who experienced ________ after caregiving for children with disorders, studies found that their telomeres ________. So stress causes telomeres to shorten, which may be why stressed people always look ______ than they actually are.

    • A.

      Stress; got longer; older

    • B.

      Stress; shortened; younger

    • C.

      Stress; shortened; older

    • D.

      Loneliness; shortened; younger

    Correct Answer
    C. Stress; shortened; older
    Explanation
    When women experience stress after caregiving for children with disorders, studies have found that their telomeres, which are protective caps on the ends of chromosomes, become shorter. This suggests that stress causes telomeres to shorten. Since telomere length is associated with aging, shorter telomeres make individuals appear older than they actually are. Therefore, the correct answer is "stress; shortened; older."

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  • 23. 

    Helps us name and describe psychological disorders using a 5 axis criteria. 

    • A.

      DSM-IV

    • B.

      DSM-IV IR

    • C.

      DSM-IV TR

    • D.

      DSM-V TR

    Correct Answer
    C. DSM-IV TR
    Explanation
    The DSM-IV TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) is a classification system used to name and describe psychological disorders. It utilizes a five-axis criteria, which includes the assessment of clinical disorders, personality disorders and mental retardation, medical conditions, psychosocial and environmental problems, and global assessment of functioning. This system helps clinicians and researchers in accurately diagnosing and understanding various psychological disorders.

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  • 24. 

    The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid to someone if other bystanders are around as well. 

    • A.

      Social Facilitation

    • B.

      Bystander Effect

    • C.

      Social Loafing

    • D.

      GAD

    Correct Answer
    B. Bystander Effect
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Bystander Effect. The Bystander Effect refers to the phenomenon where individuals are less likely to offer help to a person in need when there are other people present. This is because individuals often assume that someone else will take responsibility or that their own help is not necessary. As a result, the presence of other bystanders decreases the likelihood of any one person taking action to help.

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  • 25. 

    Therapy that prescribes medication or procedures that act directly on a person's physiology.

    • A.

      Psychoanalysis

    • B.

      Cognitive Therapy

    • C.

      Counterconditioning

    • D.

      Biomedical Therapy

    Correct Answer
    D. Biomedical Therapy
    Explanation
    Biomedical therapy refers to a type of therapy that involves prescribing medication or procedures that directly target a person's physiology. This approach focuses on treating mental health conditions by addressing the biological factors that contribute to them. Unlike psychoanalysis, which explores unconscious thoughts and emotions, cognitive therapy, which focuses on changing negative thought patterns, and counterconditioning, which aims to replace negative behaviors with positive ones, biomedical therapy primarily relies on medical interventions to alleviate symptoms and improve mental well-being.

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  • 26. 

    A mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.

    • A.

      Bipolar Disorder

    • B.

      Depression

    • C.

      Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    • D.

      Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

    Correct Answer
    A. Bipolar Disorder
    Explanation
    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by alternating episodes of depression and mania. During depressive episodes, individuals experience feelings of hopelessness and lethargy, while during manic episodes, they exhibit overexcitement and high energy levels. This disorder is different from depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) as it involves both depressive and manic symptoms.

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  • 27. 

    Stress hormones _________ the amount of disease-fighting lymphocytes you have. Stress ________ energy from your immune system and sends it to your muscles and brain. This makes you _____ susceptible to disease.

    • A.

      Decrease; adds; more

    • B.

      Decrease; takes away; more

    • C.

      Decrease; takes away; less

    • D.

      Increase; takes away; more

    Correct Answer
    B. Decrease; takes away; more
    Explanation
    Stress hormones decrease the amount of disease-fighting lymphocytes you have. Stress takes away energy from your immune system and sends it to your muscles and brain. This makes you more susceptible to disease.

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  • 28. 

    Being organized, careful, and disciplined. 

    • A.

      Conscientousness

    • B.

      Openness

    • C.

      Extraversion

    • D.

      Agreeableness

    • E.

      Neuroticism

    Correct Answer
    A. Conscientousness
    Explanation
    Conscientiousness refers to the personality trait of being organized, careful, and disciplined. People who are conscientious tend to be responsible, reliable, and self-disciplined. They are likely to plan ahead, pay attention to details, and follow through on their commitments. This trait is often associated with being diligent, efficient, and focused.

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  • 29. 

    Focuses on how we should behave and provides standards for judgment. It often conflicts with the id. It is known as the "angel" of personality.

    • A.

      Id

    • B.

      Ego

    • C.

      Superego

    Correct Answer
    C. Superego
    Explanation
    The superego is the part of the personality that focuses on how we should behave and provides standards for judgment. It is often in conflict with the id, which represents our basic instincts and desires. The superego acts as the moral compass or "angel" of the personality, guiding us to make decisions based on societal norms and values.

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  • 30. 

    The study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

    • A.

      Social Psychology

    • B.

      Personality

    • C.

      Social-Cognitive Personality

    • D.

      Drive-Reduction Theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Social Psychology
    Explanation
    Social psychology is the study of how individuals think about, influence, and relate to one another. It focuses on understanding how social factors impact behavior and cognition. This field explores topics such as attitudes, conformity, persuasion, group dynamics, and interpersonal relationships. By examining the social influences on human behavior, social psychology provides insights into the ways individuals perceive and interact with others in various social contexts.

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  • 31. 

    Biological, psychological, and social factors interact together to create a psychological disorder. Nature and nurture plays a role in creating disorders. Negative emotions contribute to physical illness, and physical illness contributes to negative emotions. Our body and mind are intertwined. 

    • A.

      Biological Perspective

    • B.

      Psychological Approach

    • C.

      Biopsychosocial Approach

    • D.

      Psychological Disorder

    Correct Answer
    C. Biopsychosocial Approach
    Explanation
    The biopsychosocial approach is the correct answer because it acknowledges that biological, psychological, and social factors all interact to create a psychological disorder. This approach recognizes that nature and nurture both play a role in the development of disorders, and that negative emotions can contribute to physical illness, and vice versa. It also recognizes that our body and mind are interconnected, suggesting that a holistic approach is necessary to understand and treat psychological disorders.

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  • 32. 

    An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions.

    • A.

      Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

    • B.

      Phobia

    • C.

      Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    • D.

      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Correct Answer
    D. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    Explanation
    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is the correct answer because it is an anxiety disorder that involves unwanted repetitive thoughts, known as obsessions, and/or actions, known as compulsions. People with OCD often feel the need to perform certain rituals or routines to alleviate their anxiety caused by these obsessions. This disorder can significantly interfere with daily life and functioning.

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  • 33. 

    Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorders.

    • A.

      Anti-Depressants Drugs

    • B.

      Anti-Psychotic Drugs

    • C.

      Xanax

    • D.

      Psychoanalysis

    Correct Answer
    B. Anti-Psychotic Drugs
    Explanation
    Anti-psychotic drugs are used to treat schizophrenia and other severe thought disorders. These medications help to reduce hallucinations, delusions, and other symptoms associated with these conditions. They work by affecting certain chemicals in the brain, such as dopamine, which are believed to be involved in the development of psychosis. Anti-psychotic drugs can be an important part of a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals with these conditions, along with therapy and other interventions.

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  • 34. 

    Freud’s therapeutic technique, in which he believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams and transferences – and the therapist’s interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight. 

    • A.

      Psychosocial

    • B.

      Psychoanalysis

    • C.

      Psyco-cognitive

    • D.

      Biomedical Approach

    Correct Answer
    B. Psychoanalysis
    Explanation
    Psychoanalysis is the correct answer because it aligns with the description provided in the question. Freud's therapeutic technique involved the exploration of the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences, as well as the therapist's interpretations of them. Through this process, previously repressed feelings were released, leading to self-insight for the patient. This description accurately reflects the principles and goals of psychoanalysis.

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  • 35. 

    Shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person. A girl kicks the family dog after her mother sends her to her room.

    • A.

      Regression

    • B.

      Reaction Formation

    • C.

      Projection

    • D.

      Displacement

    Correct Answer
    D. Displacement
    Explanation
    Displacement refers to the act of redirecting one's emotions or impulses from the original target to a substitute target that is less threatening or more acceptable. In this scenario, the girl kicks the family dog instead of expressing her anger towards her mother, who sent her to her room. By displacing her aggression onto the dog, she is able to release her emotions in a safer and more socially acceptable manner.

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  • 36. 

    Being anxious, insecure, self-pitying, and emotionally unstable.

    • A.

      Conscientiousness

    • B.

      Openness

    • C.

      Extraversion

    • D.

      Agreeableness

    • E.

      Neuroticism

    Correct Answer
    E. Neuroticism
    Explanation
    Neuroticism refers to a personality trait characterized by being anxious, insecure, self-pitying, and emotionally unstable. People with high levels of neuroticism tend to experience negative emotions more frequently and intensely. They may worry excessively, feel insecure in relationships, and have difficulty managing stress. This trait is associated with a higher risk of developing mental health issues such as anxiety and depression.

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  • 37. 

    From Solomon Asch's Experiment: More than _______ of the time, people are willing to ______ with a group’s standard (give into social pressures) if their answer _______ match that of a group’s, but they still know they’re right. 

    • A.

      One-third; conform; does not

    • B.

      Two-thirds; conform; does not

    • C.

      One-third; conform; does

    • D.

      One-third; not conform; does

    Correct Answer
    A. One-third; conform; does not
    Explanation
    In Solomon Asch's experiment, it was found that more than one-third of the time, people are willing to conform with a group's standard even if their answer does not match that of the group's, but they still know they're right. This suggests that a significant portion of individuals are influenced by social pressures and are willing to go against their own judgment to conform to the majority opinion.

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  • 38. 

    Disguising one’s own threatening impulses by attributing them onto others. The thief thinks everyone else is a thief.

    • A.

      Regression

    • B.

      Reaction Formation

    • C.

      Projection

    • D.

      Displacement

    Correct Answer
    C. Projection
    Explanation
    Projection is the correct answer because it involves attributing one's own unacceptable or threatening impulses onto others. In this scenario, the thief is projecting their own tendency to steal onto everyone else, assuming that everyone else is also a thief. Projection allows individuals to avoid facing their own unacceptable thoughts or desires by displacing them onto others.

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  • 39. 

    An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations. 

    • A.

      Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    • B.

      Panic Disorder

    • C.

      Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    • D.

      Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

    Correct Answer
    B. Panic Disorder
    Explanation
    Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by sudden and recurrent panic attacks. These panic attacks are unpredictable and can last for a few minutes, causing intense fear and distress. Physical symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, choking sensations, and a rapid heartbeat are commonly experienced during these episodes. Unlike other anxiety disorders, panic disorder is specifically defined by the occurrence of panic attacks. Therefore, panic disorder is the most appropriate explanation for the given symptoms described in the question.

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  • 40. 

    An antianxiety drug that depresses central nervous system anxiety. 

    • A.

      Prozac

    • B.

      Lipitor

    • C.

      Zoloft

    • D.

      Xanax

    Correct Answer
    D. Xanax
    Explanation
    Xanax is an antianxiety drug that depresses the central nervous system's anxiety. It is commonly prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and panic disorders. Xanax belongs to the class of medications known as benzodiazepines, which work by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA helps to reduce anxiety and promote relaxation. Therefore, Xanax helps to alleviate anxiety symptoms by slowing down the activity in the brain and producing a calming effect.

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  • 41. 

    Behavioral techniques that attempt to treat anxiety by exposing people to what they would normally escape or avoid.

    • A.

      Biomedical Therapy

    • B.

      Exposure Therapy

    • C.

      Cognitive Therapy

    • D.

      Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Correct Answer
    B. Exposure Therapy
    Explanation
    Exposure therapy is a behavioral technique used to treat anxiety by gradually exposing individuals to situations or stimuli that trigger their anxiety. This therapy aims to help individuals confront and overcome their fears by gradually increasing their tolerance and reducing their avoidance behavior. By repeatedly exposing themselves to these anxiety-provoking situations in a controlled and supportive environment, individuals can learn to manage their anxiety and regain control over their lives. This therapy has been proven effective in treating various anxiety disorders, such as phobias, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

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  • 42. 

    Anxiety disorders in which an irrational fear causes the person to avoid some object, activity, or situation. 

    • A.

      Panic Disorder

    • B.

      Social Phobia

    • C.

      Phobia

    • D.

      Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Correct Answer
    C. Phobia
    Explanation
    Phobia is the correct answer because it refers to an anxiety disorder where an individual experiences an irrational fear that leads them to avoid certain objects, activities, or situations. Phobias can be specific, such as a fear of spiders or heights, or they can be more generalized, such as a fear of public speaking. In either case, the fear is excessive and causes significant distress or impairment in daily life.

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  • 43. 

    Result of Stanley Milgram’s study on obedience: More than ___ of men aged 20 to 50 complied fully – right up the last 450 volt switch. And ____ of adult males complied to a later experiment in which the learner had a heart condition. Women obeyed at the ______ as men.

    • A.

      60%; 65%; same rate

    • B.

      40%; 65%; same rate

    • C.

      60%; 65%; different rate

    • D.

      50%; 60%; same rate

    Correct Answer
    A. 60%; 65%; same rate
    Explanation
    In Stanley Milgram's study on obedience, 60% of men aged 20 to 50 complied fully - right up to the last 450 volt switch. Additionally, 65% of adult males complied to a later experiment in which the learner had a heart condition. The explanation suggests that women obeyed at the same rate as men, indicating that gender did not significantly influence obedience levels in the study.

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  • 44. 

    Being sociable, friendly, and affectionate.

    • A.

      Conscientiousness

    • B.

      Openness

    • C.

      Extraversion

    • D.

      Agreeableness

    • E.

      Neuroticism

    Correct Answer
    C. Extraversion
    Explanation
    Extraversion refers to the personality trait of being sociable, friendly, and affectionate. People who score high on extraversion tend to be outgoing, enjoy social interactions, and seek stimulation from the external world. They are often energized by being around others and are more likely to take part in social activities. This trait is characterized by assertiveness, enthusiasm, and a positive outlook on life.

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  • 45. 

    Being different (_______) from most other people in one’s culture is part of what it takes to ____ a psychological disorder. Deviant and distressful behaviors are more likely to be considered disordered when also judged to be a harmful __________. Mark’s obsessive behaviors, for example, interfered with his work. 

    • A.

      Deviant; define; dysfunction

    • B.

      Non-deviant; define; dysfunction

    • C.

      Non-conformative; not define; disorder

    • D.

      Deviant; define; dysfunction

    Correct Answer
    A. Deviant; define; dysfunction
    Explanation
    Being deviant from most other people in one's culture is part of what it takes to define a psychological disorder. Deviant behaviors are more likely to be considered disordered when also judged to be a harmful dysfunction. Mark's obsessive behaviors, for example, interfered with his work.

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  • 46. 

    An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jump anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience. 

    • A.

      Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    • B.

      Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    • C.

      Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

    • D.

      Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

    Correct Answer
    C. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    Explanation
    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is the correct answer because it is an anxiety disorder that occurs after experiencing a traumatic event. The symptoms mentioned in the question, such as haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jump anxiety, and insomnia, are all common symptoms of PTSD. GAD, OCD, and MDD are not specifically related to a traumatic experience and do not encompass all the symptoms mentioned.

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  • 47. 

    A behavior therapy procedure that uses classical condition to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors. Conditioning someone to relax (new response) to being in a closed elevator (triggering unwanted behaviors).

    • A.

      Biomedical Therapy

    • B.

      Psychoanalysis

    • C.

      Counterconditioning

    • D.

      Exposure Therapy

    Correct Answer
    C. Counterconditioning
    Explanation
    Counterconditioning is the correct answer because it involves using classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors. In this case, the person is being conditioned to relax (new response) when in a closed elevator (triggering unwanted behaviors). Counterconditioning aims to replace the unwanted behavior with a more desirable one by pairing the triggering stimulus with a positive or neutral stimulus, such as relaxation or pleasant experiences. This helps to change the person's response to the triggering stimulus and reduce or eliminate the unwanted behavior.

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  • 48. 

    How is depression treated using drugs?

    • A.

      By using antidepressants, which lift people up from a state of depression.

    • B.

      By using antidpyschotics, which lift people up from a state of depression.

    • C.

      By using depressants like alcohol, which lift people up from a state of depression.

    • D.

      By using antianxiety drugs, which depress the central nervous system.

    Correct Answer
    A. By using antidepressants, which lift people up from a state of depression.
    Explanation
    Antidepressants are commonly used to treat depression as they work by balancing chemicals in the brain that affect mood. These medications can help lift people out of a state of depression by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. They are specifically designed to target the symptoms of depression and improve mood, energy levels, and overall well-being. Antipsychotics are typically used to treat conditions like schizophrenia, not depression. Depressants like alcohol may temporarily provide relief but can worsen depression in the long run. Antianxiety drugs depress the central nervous system but are not specifically indicated for treating depression.

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  • 49. 

    Why Milgram’s study was conducted: to see whether or not people would respond to outright _________ from someone else, even if those commands caused unnecessary pain to others. People are more likely to ____ someone if they are seen as an ______ figure.

    • A.

      Commands; obey; non-authority

    • B.

      Commands; not obey; parent

    • C.

      Assertiveness; not obey; parent

    • D.

      Commands; obey; authority

    Correct Answer
    D. Commands; obey; authority
    Explanation
    Milgram's study was conducted to see whether or not people would respond to outright commands from someone else, even if those commands caused unnecessary pain to others. The study aimed to examine the extent to which individuals would obey authority figures, regardless of the moral implications of their actions. The correct answer, "commands; obey; authority," accurately reflects the purpose of Milgram's study and the relationship between commands, obedience, and authority.

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  • 50. 

    Being soft-hearted, trusting and helpful.

    • A.

      Conscientousness

    • B.

      Openness

    • C.

      Extraversion

    • D.

      Agreeableness

    • E.

      Neuroticism

    Correct Answer
    D. Agreeableness
    Explanation
    Agreeableness refers to an individual's tendency to be compassionate, cooperative, and considerate towards others. People who are soft-hearted, trusting, and helpful are likely to score high on agreeableness as they prioritize maintaining harmonious relationships and helping others. They are empathetic and willing to compromise, making them easy to get along with. This trait is often associated with kindness, warmth, and a desire to avoid conflict.

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