Psych 111 Practice Test

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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

A practice test for Psych 111's first test (Chapters 1 and 2). Meant for personal, private use only.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Name differences between Common Sense and scientific thinking. (Question not graded, explanation contains answer)

  • 2. 

    Identify the independent variable, dependent variable and mode of operationalization in a study summary (Question not graded, answer in explanation).

  • 3. 

    .Name the strengths and weaknesses associated with different forms of data collection (not graded, answer in explanation).

  • 4. 

    Critical thinking is:

    • A.

      Questioning everything you read or hear and refusing to believe anything you have not seen for yourself

    • B.

      Criticizing the way other people think

    • C.

      Becoming an authority on everything so you don't need to rely on other's judgements

    • D.

      Using specific thinking skills to reach reasonable conclusions

    Correct Answer
    D. Using specific thinking skills to reach reasonable conclusions
    Explanation
    Critical thinking is the process of using specific thinking skills to evaluate and analyze information in order to reach reasonable conclusions. It involves questioning and examining everything you read or hear, rather than blindly accepting it. It also means not criticizing the way other people think, but rather engaging in thoughtful and logical analysis. Critical thinking does not require becoming an authority on everything, but rather developing the ability to make informed judgments based on evidence and reasoning.

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  • 5. 

    Which of these are not themes of Psychological Science?

    • A.

      The mind cannot adapt to new surroundings

    • B.

      A new mathematical revolution is energizing research

    • C.

      The brain and mind are inseparable

    • D.

      We often are unaware of the multiple influences on how we think, feel and act

    • E.

      Nature and nurture act independently

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The mind cannot adapt to new surroundings
    B. A new mathematical revolution is energizing research
    E. Nature and nurture act independently
    Explanation
    Seven themes of Psychological Science:

    1. Psychology is an empirical science
    2. Nature and nurture are inextricably entwined
    3. The brain and mind are inseperable.
    4. A new biological revolution is energizing research
    5. The mind is adaptive
    6. Psychological science crosses levels of analysis
    7. We often are unaware of the multiple influences on how we think feel, and act.

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  • 6. 

    In Psychological science, evolutionary theory emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of behavior.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Evolutionary theory in Psychological science highlights the significance of inherited and adaptive behavior. This means that behaviors that have been passed down through generations have a purpose and contribute to the survival and reproduction of individuals. By understanding the evolutionary basis of behavior, psychologists can gain insights into why certain behaviors exist and how they have helped humans and other species adapt to their environments. Therefore, the statement "In Psychological science, evolutionary theory emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of behavior" is true.

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  • 7. 

    The social level of psychological analysis focuses on:

    • A.

      Thoughts, actions and behaviors in different cultural groups

    • B.

      Perception and cognition behavior

    • C.

      Genetics

    • D.

      Interpersonal behavior

    Correct Answer
    D. Interpersonal behavior
    Explanation
    The social level focuses on interpersonal behavior among personal relationships, and workplaces. Not cultural groups.

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  • 8. 

    What marked the beginning of Experimental Psychology?

    • A.

      Aptitude tests of the Han Dynasty

    • B.

      Ancient Greeks and Galen's Humors

    • C.

      Structuralism

    • D.

      Introspection

    Correct Answer
    C. Structuralism
    Explanation
    The first instance of true experimental psychology began with Structuralism in 1879. Before that, psychology was mainly rooted in ancient philosophy.

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  • 9. 

    Gestalt Psychology says that the experience is equal to the sum of its parts.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Gestalt Theory says that the experience is greater than the sum of its parts.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following psychologists did not support structuralism?

    • A.

      William James

    • B.

      Wilhelm Wundt

    • C.

      Edward Titchener

    Correct Answer
    A. William James
    Explanation
    William James was highly critical of structuralism, arguing that the mind is too complex to be broken down.

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  • 11. 

    A "stream of consciousness" refers to:

    • A.

      The progression of psychological research

    • B.

      An ever changing, continuous series of thoughts

    • C.

      A river in Consciousness, Alabama

    • D.

      The way the scientific method works

    Correct Answer
    B. An ever changing, continuous series of thoughts
    Explanation
    The term "stream of consciousness" refers to an ever-changing, continuous series of thoughts. It describes the flow of thoughts in a person's mind, which can be random, unfiltered, and often without a clear structure. This term is commonly used in literature and psychology to depict the inner workings of a character's mind or to study the nature of human thought processes. It emphasizes the fluid and unpredictable nature of our thoughts, which can jump from one topic to another without any logical sequence or order.

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  • 12. 

    The approach that functions of the mind, rather than the elements of the mind should be the focus of psychology is known as cognitive psychology.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The approach that functions of the mind, rather than the elements of the mind should be the focus of psychology is known as functionalism, first put forwards by William James.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is a true of Gestalt Psychology (check all that apply):

    • A.

      Emphasis on the unconcious

    • B.

      Opposed to structuralism

    • C.

      Perception is based on context and patterns

    • D.

      Perceptions of objects are objective

    • E.

      We organize our experiences randomly

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Opposed to structuralism
    C. Perception is based on context and patterns
    Explanation
    Gestalt Psychology states that the whole of an experience is more than the sum of its parts, and that perceptions of objects are subjective and based on context and patterns.

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  • 14. 

    The Law of Continuity states that elements with the same moving direction are perceived as a collective or unit.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The Law of Continuity states that the mind continues visual, auditory and kinetic patterns.

    The Law of Common Fate states that elements with the same moving direction are perceived as a collective or unit.

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  • 15. 

    Sigmund Freud pioneered the psychological field of:

    Correct Answer
    Psychoanalysis
    Psychodynamics
    Explanation
    The field that states behavior is determined by mental processes operating below a conscious level.

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  • 16. 

    Behaviorism was first proposed by:

    • A.

      Sigmund Freud

    • B.

      BF Skinner

    • C.

      John B. Watson

    • D.

      George A. Miller

    • E.

      Ivan Pavlov

    Correct Answer
    C. John B. Watson
    Explanation
    Watson first proposed the field, and BF Skinner helped support it.

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  • 17. 

    According to Behaviorism, what is most important:

    • A.

      Conscious and Unconscious processes

    • B.

      Stimulus and Response

    • C.

      Higher order mental functions

    • D.

      Structure of the mind

    Correct Answer
    B. Stimulus and Response
    Explanation
    Because Stimulus and Response are important, a lot of Behaviorism focuses on Reward and Punishment.

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  • 18. 

    Cognitive Psychology is modeled after what?

    • A.

      Computers

    • B.

      Organs of the brain that control specific functions

    • C.

      BF Skinner's haircut

    • D.

      Similarity of thoughts

    Correct Answer
    A. Computers
    Explanation
    Cognitive Psychology was modeled after computers because it is rule based (if "x" then "y").

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  • 19. 

    CBT stands for:

    Correct Answer
    Cognitive behavioral therapy
    Explanation
    An approach to therapy that combines Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following are not Law(s) of Pragnanz?

    • A.

      Law of Closure

    • B.

      Law of Large Numbers

    • C.

      Law of Similarity

    • D.

      Law of Proximity

    • E.

      Law of Continuity

    • F.

      Law of Common Fate

    Correct Answer
    B. Law of Large Numbers
    Explanation
    The Law of Large Numbers is not a Law of Pragnanz because it is a statistical principle that describes the behavior of the average of a large number of independent random variables. In contrast, the Laws of Pragnanz, also known as the Gestalt Principles, are a set of principles that describe how humans perceive and organize visual information. These principles include the Law of Closure, Law of Similarity, Law of Proximity, Law of Continuity, and Law of Common Fate.

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  • 21. 

    A theory of Psychology, based in Physiology, now known to be extremely flawed, is known as:

    Correct Answer
    Phrenology
    Explanation
    Phrenology states that there are 35 organs in the brain, and that each corresponds to a different mental faculty. It would increase in size as a result when exercised. It is flawed because it assumed the shape of the skull depicted the shape of the brain, because it consisted of inadequate classifications and his selective and unscientific methods.

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  • 22. 

    The person who started Phrenology was:

    • A.

      Ivan Pavlov

    • B.

      Carl Rogers

    • C.

      Francis Gall

    • D.

      Luke Fon Fabre

    • E.

      Abraham Maslow

    Correct Answer
    C. Francis Gall
    Explanation
    Francis Gall is credited with starting Phrenology, a pseudoscience that claimed to be able to determine a person's character and mental abilities based on the shape and size of their skull. This practice was popular in the 19th century but has since been discredited and is not recognized as a legitimate scientific field. Ivan Pavlov is known for his work in classical conditioning, Carl Rogers for his contributions to humanistic psychology, Luke Fon Fabre is not a known figure in psychology, and Abraham Maslow is known for his hierarchy of needs theory.

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  • 23. 

    The cognitive model says that a situation produces __________ which lead(s) to _________.

    • A.

      A stimulus, response

    • B.

      Automatic thoughts, reaction

    • C.

      Rational thoughts, reaction

    • D.

      Impulse, response

    Correct Answer
    B. Automatic thoughts, reaction
    Explanation
    The cognitive model suggests that a situation triggers automatic thoughts, which then lead to a reaction. This means that our immediate thoughts and interpretations of a situation can influence our emotional and behavioral response to it. These automatic thoughts can be positive or negative, and they play a significant role in shaping our overall reactions and behaviors in various situations.

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  • 24. 

    The cognitive triad consists of which of the following:

    • A.

      Negative view of self

    • B.

      Negative view of science

    • C.

      Negative view of world

    • D.

      Negative view of God

    • E.

      Negative view of the future

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Negative view of self
    C. Negative view of world
    E. Negative view of the future
    Explanation
    The cognitive triad refers to the three negative beliefs that individuals with depression often have about themselves, the world, and the future. This includes a negative view of self, where individuals perceive themselves as inadequate or unworthy. It also includes a negative view of the world, where individuals see the world as a hostile or unfriendly place. Lastly, it includes a negative view of the future, where individuals anticipate negative outcomes and feel hopeless about their prospects.

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  • 25. 

    An example of an Automatic Thought is catastrophizing.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Catastrophizing means assuming an event will have extreme consequences.

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  • 26. 

    A hypothesis is an interconnected idea or model of behavior.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A hypothesis is a testable prediction, based off of a theory (which is an interconnected idea or model of behavior).

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  • 27. 

    Which are common problems of Psychological research?

    • A.

      Direction of variable relationships

    • B.

      Correlational reasonings (correlation does not imply causation)

    • C.

      Third variables

    • D.

      Observer bias

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Direction of variable relationships
    B. Correlational reasonings (correlation does not imply causation)
    C. Third variables
    D. Observer bias
    Explanation
    Psychological research often faces several common problems. One problem is the direction of variable relationships, which refers to the difficulty in determining if one variable causes changes in another or if the relationship is the other way around. Correlational reasonings are also problematic as correlation does not imply causation, meaning that just because two variables are related does not mean that one causes the other. Third variables are additional factors that may influence the relationship between two variables, making it difficult to establish a direct cause-and-effect relationship. Lastly, observer bias can occur when researchers' expectations or biases influence their observations and interpretations of data.

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  • 28. 

    The independent variable is:

    • A.

      The variable that is affected by manipulation of the dependent variable

    • B.

      The variable that is manipulated to affect the dependent variable

    • C.

      A variable that may or may not be working unknown to change the experiment

    • D.

      A lie made up by the government

    Correct Answer
    B. The variable that is manipulated to affect the dependent variable
    Explanation
    The independent variable is the variable that is manipulated or changed by the researcher in order to observe its effects on the dependent variable. In an experiment, the independent variable is intentionally altered to see how it influences the outcome or behavior of the dependent variable. This allows researchers to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

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  • 29. 

    An important characteristic of a Dependent Variable is:

    • A.

      There may be more than one of them

    • B.

      They must be under the direct control of the researcher

    • C.

      The variable cannot fail

    • D.

      The variable must be possible to fail

    Correct Answer
    D. The variable must be possible to fail
    Explanation
    An important characteristic of a Dependent Variable is that it must be possible to fail. This means that the variable should have the potential to not produce the desired outcome or result. In research, the dependent variable is the one that is being measured or observed to determine the effect of the independent variable. If the dependent variable cannot fail, it would imply that it always produces the same result, making it difficult to assess the impact of the independent variable. Therefore, the possibility of failure is crucial for evaluating the relationship between variables in a study.

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  • 30. 

    The group you want to know about is called the:

    • A.

      Sample

    • B.

      Population

    • C.

      Popular kids

    Correct Answer
    B. Population
    Explanation
    The Population is the group you want to know about, and the sample is a subset of the population you are studying.

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  • 31. 

    The Law of Large Numbers state:

    • A.

      The larger number of $20 bills you have, the happier you are

    • B.

      The more people from one ethnic group in population, the more accurate it is

    • C.

      The more people in a sample, the more accurate.

    • D.

      The more monkeys typing on a computer, the more likely they are to type Shakespeare's work

    Correct Answer
    C. The more people in a sample, the more accurate.
    Explanation
    The Law of Large Numbers states that the more people in a sample, the more accurate the results will be. This is because as the sample size increases, it becomes more representative of the entire population, reducing the impact of random variations. With a larger sample size, the results are more likely to reflect the true characteristics or trends of the population, leading to greater accuracy in statistical analysis or predictions.

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  • 32. 

    Errors that cancel each other out are called systematic errors.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Errors that cancel each other out are called random errors. Systematic errors do not cancel.

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  • 33. 

    What method of brain scan are we responsible to know?

    • A.

      EEG

    • B.

      TMS

    • C.

      MRI

    • D.

      FMRI

    • E.

      PET

    Correct Answer
    D. FMRI
    Explanation
    fMRI stands for functional magnetic resonance imaging. It's an imaging technique used to examine changes in the activity of the brain. It functions by measuring the level of oxygen of the blood flowing through the brain.

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  • 34. 

    Confidentiality means collecting no personal information.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Confidentiality means the information collected by the researchers is kept secret or only revealed to those who need to know. Anonymity is collecting no personal information.

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  • 35. 

    Indicate which quality of good data is violated by the following description.A booth at the local carnival announces the discovery of a new way to assess intelligence. The assessment method involves interpreting the patterns of creases on one's left palm.

    • A.

      Accuracy

    • B.

      Reliability

    • C.

      Validity

    Correct Answer
    C. Validity
    Explanation
    Validity is how the data collected addresses the question.

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  • 36. 

    Indicate which quality of good data is violated by the following description.At the end of a long night of grading, a professor reads what he believes to be the last essay in the pile. He assigns it a grade of 80%. When he goes to write the grade on the back of the paper, he realizes he has already graded the paper earlier this evening- and only gave it a 70% the first time around.

    • A.

      Accuracy

    • B.

      Reliability

    • C.

      Validity

    Correct Answer
    B. Reliability
    Explanation
    Reliability is if the data is consistent over time.

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  • 37. 

    Indicate which quality of good data is violated by the following description.A five-year-old counts the jelly beans in a jar, often skipping over numbers ending in 8 (e.g. 8, 18, 28).

    • A.

      Accuracy

    • B.

      Reliability

    • C.

      Validity

    Correct Answer
    A. Accuracy
    Explanation
    Accuracy is the extent to which the measure is error free.

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  • 38. 

    What denotes a strong relationship?

    • A.

      A correlation near +1

    • B.

      A correlation near -1

    • C.

      A correlation near zero

    • D.

      A correlation near +1 or -1

    Correct Answer
    D. A correlation near +1 or -1
    Explanation
    A correlation near +1 or -1 denotes a strong relationship because it indicates a high degree of linear association between two variables. A correlation near +1 suggests a strong positive relationship, meaning that as one variable increases, the other variable also tends to increase. On the other hand, a correlation near -1 indicates a strong negative relationship, implying that as one variable increases, the other variable tends to decrease. In both cases, the variables are closely related and their values tend to move together in a predictable manner.

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  • 39. 

    Which is not a form of Response performance?

    • A.

      Stimulus judgments

    • B.

      Response accuracy

    • C.

      Response reliability

    • D.

      Reaction time

    Correct Answer
    C. Response reliability
    Explanation
    Response reliability is not a form of response performance because it refers to the consistency or stability of a response over time, rather than the actual performance or accuracy of the response. While response accuracy and reaction time are measures of how well and how quickly a response is performed, stimulus judgments involve the ability to perceive and interpret the stimulus accurately.

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  • 40. 

    Anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study is known as a

    Correct Answer
    Confound
    Explanation
    A confound refers to any factor that can influence the dependent variable in a study and may vary unintentionally between the different experimental conditions. It is an extraneous variable that can potentially affect the results and lead to incorrect conclusions. Confounds are important to identify and control for in research to ensure that any observed effects are truly due to the independent variable being studied and not influenced by other variables.

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  • 41. 

    Meta-analyses provide stronger evidence than single studies.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Meta-analysis studies have the concept of replication built in, and combine multiple studies while weighing sample sizes.

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  • 42. 

    When groups are not equivalent because participants differ between conditions in unexpected ways, the condition is known as:

    Correct Answer
    selection bias
    Explanation
    Selection bias refers to a situation where groups being compared in a study are not equivalent because participants differ between conditions in unexpected ways. This can occur when participants are not randomly assigned to different conditions, leading to systematic differences between the groups. Selection bias can compromise the internal validity of a study and make it difficult to draw accurate conclusions about the effects of the independent variable.

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  • 43. 

    The only way to make groups equivalency more likely is random assignment.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Random assignment is the procedure for placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in which each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable.

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  • 44. 

    Research subjects behaving differently because they know they are being watched is know as _______. (AKA the Hawthorne effect).

    • A.

      Observer Bias

    • B.

      Observational Technique

    • C.

      Reactivity

    • D.

      Poorly handled research

    Correct Answer
    C. Reactivity
    Explanation
    Reactivity refers to the phenomenon where research subjects alter their behavior because they are aware that they are being observed or studied. This can lead to changes in their natural behavior and may affect the validity of the research findings. The Hawthorne effect is a specific example of reactivity, where individuals improve their performance or behavior simply because they are aware that they are being observed.

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  • 45. 

    Double blinding (where the observer is unaware of who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group) is used to eliminate which of the following:

    • A.

      Observer Bias

    • B.

      Experimenter expectancy effect

    • C.

      Variables

    • D.

      BC Lions fumbling the football

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Observer Bias
    B. Experimenter expectancy effect
    Explanation
    Double blinding is used to eliminate observer bias and experimenter expectancy effect. Observer bias refers to the tendency of observers to see what they expect or want to see, which can introduce bias into the results. Experimenter expectancy effect occurs when the experimenter's expectations or beliefs about the outcome of the study influence the behavior of the participants or the interpretation of the results. By keeping the observer unaware of which participants are in the control and experimental groups, double blinding helps to minimize these biases and increase the validity of the study. The option "Variables" is not eliminated by double blinding, as it refers to the factors being studied in the experiment. The option "BC Lions fumbling the football" is unrelated and not eliminated by double blinding.

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  • 46. 

    Naturalistic Observation is where a researcher is involved in a situation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Participant Observation is where a researcher is involved in the situation. This can present a problem as the obeserver's presence can cause reactivity.

    Naturalistic Observation is where the observer remains separated from the situation and makes no attempt to change it.

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  • 47. 

    Cross sectional studies compare different groups to make inferences about both while longitudinal studies involve observing changes that occur in the same people over time.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Cross-sectional studies involve comparing different groups at a single point in time to make inferences about both groups. This type of study is useful for examining the prevalence of a condition or the association between variables. On the other hand, longitudinal studies involve observing the same individuals over an extended period to track changes that occur over time. This type of study is useful for understanding patterns of development, causality, and the effects of interventions. Therefore, the statement is true as it accurately describes the differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

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  • 48. 

    What influential book of Psychology did William James publish in 1890?

    • A.

      A System of Logic

    • B.

      On the Origin of Species

    • C.

      Cognitive Psychology

    • D.

      The Principles of Psychology

    Correct Answer
    D. The Principles of Psychology
    Explanation
    William James published The Principles of Psychology in 1890, which is an influential book in the field of psychology. This book is considered one of the foundational texts in psychology and covers various topics such as perception, memory, consciousness, and emotions. It had a significant impact on the development of psychology as a scientific discipline and helped establish James as one of the leading figures in the field.

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  • Current Version
  • Sep 28, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 25, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Mike543123
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