Microbiology Immunology Pt 4

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Microbiology Immunology Pt 4 - Quiz


micro final review. Part 4.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    How do vaccines work?

    Explanation
    Vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies, which are proteins that help fight off infections. This process creates an artificial active immunity, where the body is prepared to recognize and respond to the specific pathogen targeted by the vaccine. It usually takes around 2-3 weeks for the immune system to develop immunity after vaccination.

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  • 2. 

    What are the types of vaccines?

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Live, inactivated, subunit, autogenic, DNA or gene, Live, inactivated, subunit, autogenic, DNA and gene". This answer includes all the types of vaccines mentioned in the options, which are live, inactivated, subunit, autogenic, DNA, and gene vaccines.

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  • 3. 

    Types of live vaccine?

    Explanation
    Live vaccines can be categorized into two types: weakened or attenuated and mutant non-pathogenic strains. The correct answer, "weakened or attenuated," refers to vaccines that contain live viruses or bacteria that have been modified to reduce their virulence. These vaccines are capable of replicating in the body but cause only mild or no symptoms of the disease they protect against. On the other hand, "mutant non-pathogenic strains" refers to vaccines that use live viruses or bacteria that have been genetically altered to remove their ability to cause disease. These strains are incapable of causing illness but can still stimulate an immune response.

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  • 4. 

    What is an example of passive active immunity?

    Explanation
    Passive active immunity refers to the immunity acquired when the immune system produces its own antibodies in response to a vaccine or infection. Vaccination and vaccines are an example of passive active immunity because they stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against specific pathogens, providing protection against future infections. Vaccination involves the administration of a vaccine, which contains weakened or inactivated pathogens or their components, to stimulate an immune response. The production of antibodies by the immune system after vaccination helps in developing immunity against the targeted pathogen.

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  • 5. 

    What is an example of natural active immunity?

    Explanation
    An example of natural active immunity is when a person contracts a disease like chickenpox and their body responds by producing its own antibodies to fight off the infection. This type of immunity is acquired through direct exposure to the pathogen and the subsequent immune response generated by the individual's own immune system.

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  • 6. 

    What is an example of natural acquired immunity?

    Explanation
    An example of natural acquired immunity is the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her child during pregnancy or breastfeeding. This is known as vertical transmission or mother-to-child transmission. The antibodies passed from the mother to the child provide temporary protection against certain diseases until the child's immune system develops fully. This type of immunity is a natural process that occurs without the need for medical intervention.

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  • 7. 

    What is an example of passive acquired?

    Explanation
    Passive acquired immunity refers to the transfer of pre-formed antibodies from one individual to another. Immune globulin, also known as antibody-containing serum, is a prime example of passive acquired immunity as it contains a concentrated amount of antibodies obtained from the blood plasma of multiple donors. Similarly, receiving antibodies directly means obtaining pre-formed antibodies from an external source, which aligns with the concept of passive acquired immunity. Both options demonstrate the transfer of antibodies to provide immediate protection against a specific pathogen or toxin.

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  • 8. 

    Benefit of inactivated vaccine?

    Explanation
    Inactivated vaccines are produced faster compared to other types of vaccines because they do not require live pathogens. Instead, the virus or bacteria is killed or inactivated before being used in the vaccine. This eliminates the need for extensive culturing and growth of the pathogen, which can be time-consuming. Inactivated vaccines also have a longer shelf life, making them easier to store and distribute.

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  • 9. 

    Disadvantage of inactivated vaccine?

    Explanation
    Inactivated vaccines have a disadvantage of being less effective compared to other types of vaccines. This is because inactivated vaccines contain killed or inactivated pathogens, which may not stimulate a strong immune response in the body. As a result, the immune system may not develop as strong of a defense against the pathogen, leading to a reduced effectiveness of the vaccine. Other types of vaccines, such as live attenuated vaccines, may provide a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

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  • 10. 

    What happens in Type I hypersensitivity?

    Explanation
    Type I hypersensitivity is an allergic reaction that occurs immediately after exposure to an allergen. It involves the activation of mast cells and the release of histamine, leading to symptoms such as itching, redness, swelling, and hives. Anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially life-threatening form of Type I hypersensitivity, characterized by a rapid onset of symptoms including difficulty breathing, low blood pressure, and hives. Hay fever, also known as allergic rhinitis, is a common Type I hypersensitivity reaction that affects the nasal passages, causing symptoms such as sneezing, congestion, and itching. Asthma is another manifestation of Type I hypersensitivity, characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, leading to difficulty breathing, wheezing, and coughing.

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  • 11. 

    What happens in Type II hypersensitivity?

    Explanation
    In Type II hypersensitivity, the immune system produces antibodies that mistakenly target and attack the body's own cells or tissues. This antibody-mediated response leads to the destruction of the targeted cells through a process called cell lysis. Cell lysis refers to the rupture or destruction of cells, which can result in tissue damage and various symptoms depending on the affected organs or tissues.

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  • 12. 

    What happens in Type III hypersensitivity?

    Explanation
    In Type III hypersensitivity, antibody mediated inflammation occurs, leading to the deposition of IgG complexes in the membrane of target organs. This immune response is characterized by the formation of immune complexes, which can accumulate in various tissues and organs, causing inflammation and damage. The immune complexes activate complement proteins and attract inflammatory cells, resulting in tissue injury and inflammation. This type of hypersensitivity reaction is associated with conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.

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  • 13. 

    What happens in Type IV hypersensitivity?

    Explanation
    Type IV hypersensitivity is a delayed, cell-mediated immune response that occurs when T cells become sensitized to an antigen and release cytokines, causing inflammation and tissue damage. This type of hypersensitivity is involved in graft rejections, where the immune system recognizes transplanted tissue as foreign and mounts an immune response against it. Contact dermatitis is another example of Type IV hypersensitivity, where the skin reacts to an allergen or irritant by producing an inflammatory response.

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  • Current Version
  • Feb 14, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 15, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Megsie122
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