Control Of Microbial Growth! Trivia Facts Quiz

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Control Of Microbial Growth! Trivia Facts Quiz - Quiz

Microbes have the power to reproduce rapidly at exponential speed, but it is possible to predict the pattern at which this happens and at what rate so as to either increase or control the microbial growth. Based on the information you have about bacteria; do you think you have what it takes to take this quiz on how to control microbial growth? Give it a try!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     absence of all viable microorganisms

    Explanation
    The term "sterile" refers to the absence of all viable microorganisms. In other words, it means that there are no living organisms present in a particular environment or substance. This can be achieved through various sterilization methods such as heat, chemicals, or radiation, which effectively kill or eliminate all microorganisms. The absence of any viable microorganisms is important in certain settings such as medical procedures, laboratory work, or the production of sterile products to prevent contamination and ensure safety.

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  • 2. 

     using physical or chemical agents to destroy microbes or their products, on inert objects or nonliving materials.  

    Explanation
    Disinfection refers to the process of using physical or chemical agents to eliminate or destroy microbes or their products on inert objects or nonliving materials. This method helps to reduce the number of infectious microorganisms present on surfaces, preventing the spread of diseases. Disinfection is commonly used in healthcare settings, food preparation areas, and other environments where it is necessary to maintain a clean and hygienic environment.

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  • 3. 

     chemical agents used  in disinfection

    Explanation
    Disinfectants are chemical agents that are used in the process of disinfection. They are specifically designed to kill or inactivate microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, thereby reducing the risk of infection or disease transmission. Disinfectants are commonly used in various settings, including healthcare facilities, laboratories, and households, to clean and sanitize surfaces, equipment, and instruments. They work by disrupting the structure and function of microorganisms, leading to their destruction. Overall, disinfectants play a crucial role in maintaining a clean and safe environment by eliminating harmful pathogens.

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  • 4. 

    Chemical agents used to destroy or inhibit pathogenic microbes on tissue

    Explanation
    Antiseptics are chemical agents that are used to destroy or inhibit pathogenic microbes on tissue. They are commonly used to clean wounds or prepare the skin before surgical procedures. Antiseptics work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, helping to prevent infections. They are different from disinfectants, which are used on inanimate objects, and antibiotics, which are used to treat infections inside the body. Antiseptics are an important tool in maintaining hygiene and preventing the spread of diseases.

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  • 5. 

    Use of antiseptics to destroy vegetative pathogens.

    Explanation
    Antisepsis refers to the use of antiseptics, which are substances that can destroy or inhibit the growth of vegetative pathogens. Antiseptics are typically applied to living tissues, such as the skin, to prevent or reduce the risk of infection. This method is commonly used in medical settings, such as during surgical procedures or when cleaning wounds, to ensure that harmful microorganisms are eliminated. Antisepsis is an important practice in maintaining hygiene and preventing the spread of infections.

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  • 6. 

    Removing microbes from eating utensils or food contact surfaces

    Explanation
    Sanitization refers to the process of removing microbes from eating utensils or food contact surfaces. It involves cleaning and disinfecting these items to ensure they are safe for use and do not pose a health risk. Sanitization is important in food preparation and handling to prevent the spread of bacteria, viruses, and other harmful microorganisms that can cause foodborne illnesses. It helps maintain hygiene and reduces the risk of contamination, ensuring that the utensils and surfaces are free from harmful pathogens.

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  • 7. 

     methods employed to prevent microbial contamination.

    Explanation
    Aseptic techniques are methods employed to prevent microbial contamination. These techniques involve creating and maintaining a sterile environment to minimize the risk of introducing harmful microorganisms. This can include practices such as sterilizing equipment and surfaces, using sterile gloves and clothing, and practicing proper hand hygiene. By implementing aseptic techniques, healthcare professionals can reduce the spread of infections and ensure the safety of patients during medical procedures.

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  • 8. 

    4 factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Antimicrobial Agents

    Explanation
    The effectiveness of antimicrobial agents is influenced by four factors: the number of microbes present, environmental influences, the time of exposure to the agent, and the characteristics of the microbes themselves. These factors play a crucial role in determining how well the antimicrobial agent can control or eliminate the microbes. The number of microbes affects the concentration of the agent needed to achieve the desired effect. Environmental influences, such as temperature and pH, can affect the activity of the agent. The time of exposure determines how long the agent has to act on the microbes. Finally, the characteristics of the microbes, such as their resistance mechanisms, can impact the effectiveness of the agent.

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  • 9. 

    Alteration  of  Membrane Permeability - Damage to ?? allows ? to leak out and/or toxic materials to enter cell.

    Explanation
    Damage to the cell membrane allows substances to leak out of the cell, such as ions and other molecules that are essential for cellular function. Additionally, the damage to the cell membrane can also allow toxic materials to enter the cell, which can disrupt normal cellular processes and potentially lead to cell death. The cytoplasm is the fluid-filled region inside the cell where many cellular processes take place, but it is not directly involved in the alteration of membrane permeability.

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  • 10. 

    Damage to cell membrane allows cytoplasm to leak out and/or toxic materials to enter cell.

    Explanation
    When the cell membrane is damaged, it becomes more permeable, meaning that substances that would normally be restricted by the membrane can now enter or exit the cell freely. This can lead to the leakage of cytoplasm, the fluid inside the cell, and the entry of toxic materials into the cell. Therefore, alteration of membrane permeability is the correct answer as it describes the process of the cell membrane becoming more permeable due to damage.

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  • 11. 

     A are a significant portion of cell components. Damage to B prevent normal A synthesis.  Alteration of these existing components will also quickly halt cellular function.

    Explanation
    Proteins and nucleic acids are a significant portion of cell components. Damage to proteins can prevent normal nucleic acid synthesis, and alteration of these existing components will also quickly halt cellular function.

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  • 12. 

    Breaking thebonds along the protein chain that amino acid chain in its  3-dimensional shape.  The protein then assumes abnormal configuration which results in loss of function. Some chemicals bind to the active sites of proteins and prevent their proper function

    Explanation
    The given explanation describes the process of protein denaturation. Denaturation occurs when the bonds along the protein chain are broken, causing the protein to lose its 3-dimensional shape and assume an abnormal configuration. This abnormal configuration leads to a loss of function. Some chemicals can bind to the active sites of proteins and prevent them from functioning properly, causing denaturation. Therefore, the correct answer is protein denaturation.

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  • 13. 

    ??-  breaking bonds along the protein chain that hold the ?? chain in its  ? shape.  Protein then assumes an abnormal configuration which results in loss of function. Some chemicals bind to the active sites of proteins and prevent their proper function.

    Explanation
    When proteins undergo denaturation, the bonds that hold the protein chain in its native shape are broken. This causes the protein to assume an abnormal configuration, resulting in a loss of function. The process of denaturation can be caused by various factors such as heat, pH changes, or the presence of certain chemicals. In this case, the chemicals mentioned in the question bind to the active sites of proteins, preventing their proper function. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and the mention of "3D" likely refers to the three-dimensional structure that proteins adopt.

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  • 14. 

     The length of time required to kill all microbes at a specific temperature.

    Explanation
    Thermal death time refers to the length of time needed to kill all microbes at a particular temperature. It is a measure of the effectiveness of heat in destroying microorganisms.

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  • 15. 

    Moist Heat.  Mode of Action: ??.  Presence of water enhances the process and facilitates heat transfer.  Moist heat also can damage ?,?,and?. 

    Explanation
    Moist heat is a mode of action that involves the presence of water, which enhances the process and facilitates heat transfer. It can cause damage to various components, including protein denaturation, ribosomes, nucleic acids, and membranes.

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  • 16. 

    3 examples of moist heat

    Explanation
    Autoclaving, boiling, and pasteurization are all examples of moist heat methods used for sterilization and food preservation. Autoclaving involves subjecting items to high pressure and temperature steam, effectively killing microorganisms. Boiling is a simple and common method where food or objects are submerged in boiling water to eliminate bacteria and other pathogens. Pasteurization, typically used in the dairy industry, involves heating milk or other liquids to a specific temperature for a set time to kill harmful bacteria while maintaining product quality. These methods rely on the heat and moisture to destroy microorganisms and ensure safety.

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  • 17. 

    Examples of dry heat

    Explanation
    The given answer includes examples of dry heat, which are desiccation, filtration, high pressure, and radiation. Desiccation refers to the process of removing moisture from something, such as through drying. Filtration involves passing a substance through a filter to separate solids from liquids. High pressure can be used to achieve sterilization by subjecting the object to extreme pressure. Radiation, such as heat from a heat source or UV radiation, can also be used to achieve dry heat sterilization. These examples demonstrate different methods of applying dry heat for various purposes.

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  • 18. 

     used to disinfect liquids to kill pathogens and reduce  spoilage microbes without altering the quality of the product.  The various pasteurization processes use very high temps and short exposure times, followed by rapid cooling.  This is not a sterilization process.

    Explanation
    Pasteurization is a process used to disinfect liquids by killing pathogens and reducing spoilage microbes. It involves subjecting the liquid to high temperatures for a short period of time, followed by rapid cooling. This process helps to ensure the safety of the product without altering its quality. However, it is important to note that pasteurization is not a sterilization process, as it does not completely eliminate all microorganisms present in the liquid.

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  • 19. 

    ? -application of steam under pressure, temperature of ?  increases as ? increases.  A a reinforced chamber into which materials to be sterilized are sealed.  Air is then removed and steam is  pumped in under pressure.            

    Explanation
    Autoclaving is the process of sterilizing materials using steam under pressure. In an autoclave, materials to be sterilized are sealed in a reinforced chamber. Air is removed from the chamber and steam is pumped in under pressure. As the pressure increases, the temperature of the steam also increases. Therefore, the correct answer is autoclaving steam pressure.

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  • 20. 

       Autoclaving effective temp pressure time?psi/?o?-?minutes

    Explanation
    The correct answer is 15psi 121C 15-20. This answer provides the necessary information for effective autoclaving, including the pressure (15psi), temperature (121C), and time (15-20 minutes). Autoclaving is a process used to sterilize equipment and materials by using high pressure and steam. The combination of pressure, temperature, and time specified in the answer ensures that the autoclaving process is effective in killing microorganisms and achieving sterilization.

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  • 21. 

    Boiling - ? psi of pressure the highest possible temperature of boiling water is 100oC.    

    Explanation
    The given statement states that with the highest possible pressure, the boiling point of water is 100oC. This means that as the pressure increases, the boiling point of water also increases. Therefore, with zero psi of pressure, the boiling point of water would be lower than 100oC.

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  • 22. 

    Boiling has many applications but is most commonly used to disinfect ??materials.

    Explanation
    Boiling is a common method used to disinfect materials because it can effectively kill microorganisms and bacteria that may be present. Heat stability is important in this context because it ensures that the materials being disinfected can withstand the high temperatures required for boiling without being damaged or altered. Therefore, heat stable materials are ideal for the process of boiling and disinfection.

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  • 23. 

    Which methods acheive sterility?

    Explanation
    Autoclaving, filtration, incineration, and radiation are all methods that can achieve sterility. Autoclaving involves subjecting the material to high temperature and pressure in a sterilization chamber, effectively killing all microorganisms. Filtration involves passing the material through a filter with small pores that can trap and remove microorganisms. Incineration involves burning the material at high temperatures, destroying any microorganisms present. Radiation, such as gamma rays or ultraviolet light, can also be used to kill microorganisms and achieve sterility.

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  • 24. 

      ?-Many types of microbes can be killed by drying-out.  Others may not be killed but drying is  usually sufficient to retard growth.

    Explanation
    Desiccation refers to the process of drying out. The explanation for the given correct answer is that many types of microbes can be killed by drying out, while others may not be killed but drying is usually sufficient to retard their growth. This means that drying out can either kill or slow down the growth of various types of microbes.

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  • 25. 

     High energy emitted from atomic activities and dispensed at high velocity.

    Explanation
    Radiation refers to the high energy emitted from atomic activities and dispersed at high velocity. It can take the form of electromagnetic waves or particles. This energy can be harmful to living organisms and can cause ionization or damage to cells and tissues. Radiation is commonly associated with nuclear reactions, radioactive materials, and certain medical procedures. It is important to take precautions and protect oneself from excessive exposure to radiation.

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  • 26. 

       food preservation and disinfection of various heat sensitive materials.   

    Explanation
    Radiation is a method used for food preservation and disinfection of various heat sensitive materials. It involves the use of high-energy waves or particles such as gamma rays, X-rays, or electron beams to kill bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms. These waves or particles penetrate the food or material and disrupt the DNA or cellular structure of the microorganisms, rendering them unable to reproduce or cause harm. Radiation is effective in extending the shelf life of food and ensuring its safety by eliminating pathogens and spoilage-causing organisms.

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  • 27. 

    Causes electrons to leave atoms it strikes.

    Explanation
    Ionizing radiation refers to any type of radiation that has enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, causing them to become charged particles called ions. This can occur through various processes such as the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. When ionizing radiation interacts with atoms, it transfers enough energy to overcome the binding forces holding electrons in their orbits, resulting in the ejection of electrons from the atoms. This process can have various biological and environmental effects and is used in various applications such as medical imaging and cancer treatment.

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  • 28. 

      Examples include x-rays, beta particles, gamma  rays, alpha particles.    

    Explanation
    Ionizing radiation refers to any type of radiation that carries enough energy to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, thus ionizing them. This includes x-rays, beta particles, gamma rays, and alpha particles. These forms of radiation are capable of causing damage to living tissues and cells, as they can break chemical bonds and cause mutations in DNA. Therefore, ionizing radiation is considered potentially harmful and requires proper safety precautions when handling or being exposed to it.

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  • 29. 

     Causes atoms to shift to a higher energy state but does not ionize them. 

    Explanation
    Nonionizing radiation refers to a type of radiation that causes atoms to shift to a higher energy state without ionizing them. This means that the radiation does not have enough energy to remove electrons from atoms, resulting in the atoms remaining neutral. Examples of nonionizing radiation include radio waves, microwaves, and visible light. These forms of radiation are generally considered to be less harmful compared to ionizing radiation, which has enough energy to ionize atoms and potentially cause damage to living cells.

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  • 30. 

      Examples   include microwaves, UV light.

    Explanation
    Nonionizing radiation refers to a type of electromagnetic radiation that does not have enough energy to remove electrons from atoms or molecules, therefore, it does not cause ionization. Examples of nonionizing radiation include microwaves and UV light. This type of radiation is generally considered to be less harmful compared to ionizing radiation, which has higher energy and can cause ionization.

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  • 31. 

     Used primarily to preserve liquid products. 

    Explanation
    High pressure is used primarily to preserve liquid products. This is because when liquids are subjected to high pressure, it inhibits the growth of microorganisms and enzymes that can cause spoilage. High pressure processing can effectively extend the shelf life of liquid products, such as juices, sauces, and dairy products, without the need for heat or chemical additives. The increased pressure helps to maintain the freshness, flavor, and nutritional value of the liquids, making it a preferred preservation method in the food and beverage industry.

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  • 32. 

    C.    High Pressure – Alters ? and ? structure and inactivates bacterial cells.

    Explanation
    High pressure can alter the protein and carbohydrate structure in bacterial cells, leading to their inactivation. The application of high pressure can cause denaturation or unfolding of proteins, disrupting their functional structure and rendering them inactive. Similarly, high pressure can also disrupt the structure of carbohydrates, such as breaking glycosidic bonds or altering their conformation. These structural changes can affect the essential functions of proteins and carbohydrates in bacterial cells, ultimately leading to their inactivation.

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  • 33. 

    Involves drawing fluids or gases through a filter which has a pore size too small to allow the   passage of microorganisms.  

    Explanation
    Filtration is a process that involves passing fluids or gases through a filter with tiny pores that are too small for microorganisms to pass through. This method is commonly used to remove bacteria, viruses, and other contaminants from liquids or gases. By physically trapping the microorganisms in the filter, filtration helps to ensure the purity and cleanliness of the fluid or gas being filtered.

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  • 34. 

     Oxidizes cellular components and denatures proteins.

    Explanation
    Dry heat is a method of sterilization that involves the use of high temperatures without the presence of moisture. When exposed to dry heat, cellular components undergo oxidation, leading to their destruction. Additionally, the high temperatures denature proteins, causing them to unfold and lose their functional shape. This disruption of cellular components and proteins ultimately leads to the death of microorganisms and the sterilization of the object or surface being treated.

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  • 35. 

    Dry Heat -  In the absence of water, protein denaturization can be ? unless extremely high temps are exerted

    Explanation
    Protein denaturation refers to the unfolding or disruption of the protein's structure, which can lead to loss of its biological activity. In the absence of water, dry heat can cause protein denaturation. However, if extremely high temperatures are applied, the denaturation becomes irreversible, meaning the protein cannot regain its original structure and function. Therefore, in the absence of water, protein denaturation can be reversible unless extremely high temperatures are exerted.

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  • 36. 

    ? slows growth (bacteriostatic effect), although certain types of ? can be reliably destroyed by freezing.

    Explanation
    Refrigeration slows the growth of parasites, causing a bacteriostatic effect. However, certain types of parasites can still be reliably destroyed by freezing.

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  • 37. 

    2 halogen chemicals

    Explanation
    The question is asking for two halogen chemicals, and the correct answer is chlorine and iodine. Halogens are a group of elements in the periodic table that includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Chlorine and iodine are both halogens, making them the correct answer to the question.

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  • 38. 

     halogen elements are ? (?), ? (?), ? (?) and ? (?).  These elements, and compounds that contain these elements, have antimicrobial properties.

    Explanation
    Halogen elements refer to a group of elements in the periodic table that includes chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), fluorine (F), and iodine (I). These elements and compounds containing them possess antimicrobial properties, meaning they have the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi.

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  • 39. 

    Halogen Elements most widely used ? and ?

    Explanation
    The halogen elements chlorine (Cl) and iodine (I) are the most widely used because of their various applications in different fields. Chlorine is commonly used in water treatment to disinfect and purify drinking water, as well as in the production of plastics, solvents, and pesticides. Iodine is widely used in medicine as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and in the production of pharmaceuticals. It is also used in the production of dyes, pigments, and as a catalyst in various chemical reactions. Both chlorine and iodine have important industrial and medical uses, making them the most widely used halogen elements.

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  • 40. 

    a.   Free I2 solutions.  I2 is typically used in this form as a ?.   

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "tincture". A tincture is a solution made by dissolving a substance in alcohol or another solvent. In this context, the question is asking about the form in which I2 (iodine) is typically used, and the answer is that it is commonly used as a tincture.

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  • 41. 

     is an alcoholic  solution  

    Explanation
    A tincture is an alcoholic solution that is commonly used in medicine. It is made by dissolving a medicinal substance in alcohol to extract its active ingredients. Tinctures are often used for their ability to preserve and concentrate the medicinal properties of herbs or other substances. The alcohol in the tincture acts as a solvent and helps to extract and preserve the active compounds. This allows for easy administration and absorption of the medicine into the body.

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  • 42. 

    Uses:  Antiseptic and disinfectant.    

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "free I2 solutions" because it implies that the solution contains I2, which is iodine. Iodine is commonly used as an antiseptic and disinfectant due to its ability to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. Therefore, a solution that is free of I2 would not have the disinfectant properties associated with iodine.

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  • 43. 

    Complex of I with a neutral organic polymer (such as a soap molecule).   

    Explanation
    An iodophor is a complex of iodine with a neutral organic polymer, such as a soap molecule. This complex is commonly used as an antiseptic or disinfectant due to its ability to release iodine slowly, providing a sustained antimicrobial effect. The organic polymer helps to stabilize the iodine, allowing it to be more effective and less irritating to the skin.

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  • 44. 

    Use:  Antiseptic.  e.g. betadine.

    Explanation
    Iodophor is a type of antiseptic that contains iodine. It is commonly used in medical settings as a disinfectant for wounds and surgical instruments. Iodophor is effective against a wide range of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it a reliable choice for preventing infections. Its antiseptic properties are due to the release of free iodine, which has the ability to kill microorganisms. Iodophor solutions are also less irritating to the skin compared to other iodine-based antiseptics, making them suitable for use on sensitive areas. Overall, iodophor is a well-known and widely used antiseptic in healthcare settings.

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  • 45. 

     compounds are stable and maintain effectiveness in the presence of organic material.

    Explanation
    Phenol is a stable compound that can maintain its effectiveness even in the presence of organic material. This means that it is able to remain stable and retain its properties when exposed to substances such as proteins, fats, or other organic compounds. This stability makes phenol an effective choice for various applications where organic material may be present, such as disinfectants or antiseptics.

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  • 46. 

    Disrupts cell membranes and inactivates proteins.  

    Explanation
    Phenol is a chemical compound that disrupts cell membranes and inactivates proteins. It can penetrate cell membranes and cause damage by denaturing proteins, leading to cell death. Phenol's ability to disrupt cell membranes and inactivate proteins makes it a useful compound in various applications, such as disinfectants and antiseptics.

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  • 47. 

    Uses:  These compounds are widely used as antiseptics and disinfectants

    Explanation
    Phenol is widely used as an antiseptic and disinfectant due to its strong antimicrobial properties. It can effectively kill or inhibit the growth of various microorganisms, making it suitable for use in healthcare settings, laboratories, and industrial applications. Phenol works by denaturing proteins and disrupting the cell membranes of bacteria and other pathogens, thereby preventing their survival and reproduction. Its broad-spectrum activity and stability make it a valuable compound for maintaining cleanliness and preventing the spread of infections.

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  • 48. 

     2 connected phenolic compounds    

    Explanation
    Bisphenols refer to a group of phenolic compounds that are connected to each other. This term is used to describe compounds that have two phenolic rings connected by a bridge. Bisphenols are commonly used in the production of plastics and are known for their ability to provide strength and durability to various materials.

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  • 49. 

    Mode of Action: Disrupt plasma membranes

    Explanation
    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals that have the ability to disrupt plasma membranes. They can interfere with the structure and function of the membranes, leading to various biological effects. This disruption can affect the integrity and permeability of the membranes, potentially causing cellular damage or dysfunction. Therefore, bisphenols are known for their mode of action of disrupting plasma membranes.

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  • 50. 

        class of compounds related to phenolics. 

    Explanation
    Biguanides are a class of compounds related to phenolics.

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