Microbiology Practice Quiz

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Microbiology Practice Quiz - Quiz


Prepare for your microbiology exams or enhance your understanding of microbial concepts with our Microbiology Practice Quiz. Covering a wide range of microbiological concepts such as microbial morphology, physiology, genetics, pathogenesis, and laboratory techniques, our practice quiz offers a comprehensive review of essential microbiology principles. Engage with multiple-choice questions that challenge your critical thinking and problem-solving skills, providing an effective way to assess your proficiency in the subject.

By participating in our Microbiology Practice Quiz, you'll have the opportunity to identify areas where you may need further study and reinforce your understanding of microbial concepts. Take the first step towards Read moremastering microbiology by diving into our Microbiology Practice Quiz today. Strengthen your expertise, build confidence in your knowledge, and excel in your microbiology studies or professional endeavors.


Microbiology Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    Which of the following is NOT true about bacterial endospores?

    • A.

      All bacteria can sporulate.

    • B.

      Endospores can resist bad environments.

    • C.

      Endospores germinate in favorable environments.

    • D.

      Clostridium species can form endospores.

    Correct Answer
    A. All bacteria can sporulate.
    Explanation
    The statement "All bacteria can sporulate" is not true about bacterial endospores. While many bacteria have the ability to form endospores, not all bacteria can sporulate. Sporulation is a specialized process that only certain bacteria, such as those belonging to the genera Bacillus and Clostridium, are capable of undergoing. Therefore, it is incorrect to claim that all bacteria have the ability to sporulate.

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  • 2. 

    Edward Jenner is credited with which of the following?

    • A.

      Applying germ theory to medical practices such as surgery

    • B.

      Discovering the antibiotic properties of pcn

    • C.

      Creating steps to link a specific bacteria to a specific disease

    • D.

      Discovering the process of fermentation

    • E.

      Developing the process of vaccination

    Correct Answer
    E. Developing the process of vaccination
    Explanation
    Edward Jenner is credited with developing the process of vaccination. Vaccination is the practice of introducing a weakened or inactive form of a disease-causing agent into the body to stimulate the immune system and provide immunity against the actual disease. Jenner's work with cowpox and smallpox led to the development of the smallpox vaccine, which was the first successful vaccine in history. His discovery revolutionized the field of medicine and laid the foundation for the development of other vaccines to prevent various diseases.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is true about the theory of spontaneous generation?

    • A.

      States that all cells come from pre-existing cells

    • B.

      States that life arises from non-living matter

    • C.

      Is believed to be true today

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. States that life arises from non-living matter
    Explanation
    The theory of spontaneous generation states that life arises from non-living matter. This theory was widely believed in the past, but it has been disproven by scientific experiments and observations. Today, it is widely accepted that all cells come from pre-existing cells, and life does not spontaneously generate from non-living matter.

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  • 4. 

    Louis Pasteur is credited with which of the following?

    • A.

      Applying germ theory to medical practices such as surgery

    • B.

      Discovering the antibiotic properties of pcn

    • C.

      Discovering the process of fermentation

    • D.

      Creating steps to link a specific bacteria to a specific disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Discovering the process of fermentation
    Explanation
    Louis Pasteur is credited with discovering the process of fermentation. This refers to his groundbreaking work in the 19th century, where he demonstrated that microorganisms, such as yeast, are responsible for the conversion of sugar into alcohol in the absence of oxygen. This discovery not only had significant implications for the brewing and wine industries, but it also laid the foundation for the field of microbiology and our understanding of the role of microorganisms in various biological processes.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is NOT true of archaea?

    • A.

      They are prokaryotes

    • B.

      They have peptidoglycan in their cell walls

    • C.

      They live in extreme environments

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. They have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
    Explanation
    Archaea are a group of microorganisms that are prokaryotes, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. They are known to live in extreme environments such as hot springs, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and acidic environments. However, unlike bacteria, archaea do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Instead, they have unique cell wall compositions that differ from both bacteria and eukaryotes.

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  • 6. 

    Which is NOT true of bacteria?

    • A.

      They are prokaryotes

    • B.

      They have peptidoglycan in their cell walls

    • C.

      They have a nucleus

    • D.

      Some use photosynthesis

    Correct Answer
    C. They have a nucleus
    Explanation
    Bacteria do not have a nucleus. Unlike eukaryotic cells, bacteria lack a membrane-bound nucleus where their genetic material is stored. Instead, their DNA is found in a region called the nucleoid, which is not enclosed by a membrane. This is one of the defining characteristics of prokaryotic cells, like bacteria.

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  • 7. 

    __________ are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that get their nutrition from absorption.

    • A.

      Protists

    • B.

      Plants

    • C.

      Fungi

    • D.

      Virus

    Correct Answer
    C. Fungi
    Explanation
    Fungi are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that obtain their nutrition through absorption. They have specialized structures called hyphae that allow them to absorb nutrients from their surroundings. Fungi play important roles in ecosystem functioning, as they decompose organic matter and recycle nutrients. They can also form mutualistic relationships with other organisms, such as mycorrhizal associations with plants.

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  • 8. 

    The maximum magnification using a light microscope is?

    • A.

      10,000x

    • B.

      1,000x

    • C.

      100x

    • D.

      10x

    Correct Answer
    B. 1,000x
    Explanation
    The maximum magnification using a light microscope is 1,000x. This means that the microscope can magnify an object up to 1,000 times its actual size. This level of magnification allows for detailed observation of small structures and organisms that are otherwise not visible to the naked eye.

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  • 9. 

    Which is the correct term for the domain of life?

    • A.

      Prokaryote

    • B.

      Fungi

    • C.

      Archaea

    • D.

      Animal

    Correct Answer
    C. Archaea
    Explanation
    The correct term for the domain of life is archaea. Archaea is one of the three domains of life, along with bacteria and eukarya. Archaea are single-celled microorganisms that are distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes. They are known for their ability to survive in extreme environments such as hot springs and deep-sea vents.

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  • 10. 

    The cell theory is composed of 2 findings:

    • A.

      Living cells are composed of cells, and cells arise from pre-existing cells

    • B.

      All cells have a defined shape, and cells arise from pre-existing cells

    • C.

      Cells arise from pre-existing cells, and cells can only be composed of organic materials

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Living cells are composed of cells, and cells arise from pre-existing cells
    Explanation
    The answer states that the cell theory is composed of two findings: living cells are composed of cells and cells arise from pre-existing cells. This means that all living organisms are made up of cells and that cells can only come from other existing cells. These two findings are fundamental to the understanding of the structure and function of living organisms and have been supported by numerous scientific observations and experiments.

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  • 11. 

    You want to know if a bacteria has a capsule. What do you use to identify it?

    • A.

      A flagella stain

    • B.

      A negative stain

    • C.

      Simple stain

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. A negative stain
    Explanation
    A negative stain is used to identify the presence of a capsule in bacteria. In a negative stain, the background is stained while the bacteria remain unstained. This allows the capsule, which is a gelatinous layer surrounding the bacterial cell, to be visible as a clear halo around the stained background. Therefore, a negative stain would be the appropriate method to use in order to identify if a bacteria has a capsule.

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  • 12. 

    If you boiled nutrient broth and sealed the flask, and saw no growth. Which of the following are valid conclusions?

    • A.

      Life can spontaneously generate without air

    • B.

      Air or "vital force" may be needed for spontaneous generation

    • C.

      That spontaneous generation is true

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Air or "vital force" may be needed for spontaneous generation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "air or 'vital force' may be needed for spontaneous generation." This conclusion can be drawn from the experiment described in the question, where the nutrient broth was boiled and sealed. The lack of growth suggests that something from the air, such as microorganisms or nutrients, may be necessary for spontaneous generation to occur. This supports the idea that life cannot spontaneously generate on its own.

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  • 13. 

    Who came up with the rules for attributing a certain disease to a specific microbe?

    • A.

      Bassi

    • B.

      Semmelwise

    • C.

      Koch

    • D.

      Lister

    Correct Answer
    C. Koch
    Explanation
    Koch is the correct answer because he is credited with developing the criteria known as Koch's postulates, which are used to establish a causal relationship between a specific microbe and a particular disease. These postulates outline a set of guidelines that must be met in order to attribute a disease to a specific microorganism, including isolating the microbe from the diseased host, cultivating it in pure culture, and demonstrating that it causes the same disease when introduced into a healthy host. Koch's work revolutionized the field of microbiology and laid the foundation for modern germ theory.

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  • 14. 

    Who am I? I am a single cell and have no nucleus.

    • A.

      Fungus

    • B.

      Protista

    • C.

      Bacteria

    • D.

      Virus

    Correct Answer
    C. Bacteria
    Explanation
    Bacteria is the correct answer because bacteria are single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus. Unlike protists and fungi, bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus to store their genetic material. Viruses, on the other hand, are not considered living organisms as they are acellular and cannot reproduce on their own. Therefore, the characteristics mentioned in the question align with the description of bacteria.

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  • 15. 

    A cell is placed in a solution, and the cell lyses. The solution is:

    • A.

      Isotonic

    • B.

      Hypotonic

    • C.

      Hypertonic

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypotonic
    Explanation
    When a cell lyses, it means that the cell bursts open due to an influx of water. This occurs when the solution surrounding the cell has a lower concentration of solutes compared to the inside of the cell. In other words, the solution is hypotonic, causing water to flow into the cell in an attempt to balance the solute concentration.

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  • 16. 

    What is osmosis?

    • A.

      Movement of particles from high concentration to low

    • B.

      Bursting of cells due to pressure

    • C.

      Movement of water

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Movement of water
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. It is a passive process that occurs to equalize the concentration of solutes on both sides of the membrane. This process is vital for maintaining the balance of fluids in living organisms and plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following does NOT damage a cell's plasma membrane specifically?

    • A.

      PCN (Penicillin)

    • B.

      Detergent

    • C.

      Alcohol

    • D.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    A. PCN (Penicillin)
    Explanation
    PCN does not damage a cell's plasma membrane specifically because PCN (Penicillin) is an antibiotic that targets bacterial cell walls, not the plasma membrane of cells. It inhibits the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a component of bacterial cell walls, leading to cell wall damage and ultimately cell death. Therefore, PCN does not directly affect the plasma membrane of cells.

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  • 18. 

    In bacteria, DNA is found where?

    • A.

      In a nucleus

    • B.

      In ribosomes

    • C.

      In the nuclear area

    • D.

      Not defined

    Correct Answer
    C. In the nuclear area
    Explanation
    Bacteria do not have a true nucleus like eukaryotic cells. Instead, their DNA is found in a region called the nuclear area or nucleoid, which is not enclosed by a membrane. This area contains the bacterial chromosome, which is a circular DNA molecule. Additionally, bacteria may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can be found in the nuclear area as well.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is true of the Gram stain process?

    • A.

      Alcohol removes Crystal Violet from gram-negative bacteria

    • B.

      Iodine is the mordant

    • C.

      Safranin is red

    • D.

      All are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. All are correct
    Explanation
    The Gram stain process involves several steps to differentiate between different types of bacteria. One of these steps involves using iodine as a mordant. A mordant is a substance that helps to fix or bind a stain to the bacteria. In the Gram stain process, iodine is used to enhance the binding of the crystal violet stain to the cell walls of bacteria. This step is crucial for distinguishing between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria based on their ability to retain the crystal violet stain. Therefore, the statement "iodine is the mordant" is true.

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  • 20. 

    A peritrichous flagellum means

    • A.

      One flagellum

    • B.

      Two flagella

    • C.

      Many flagella

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Many flagella
    Explanation
    A peritrichous flagellum refers to the presence of multiple flagella on a bacterial cell. This arrangement allows the bacterium to move and navigate through its environment more efficiently. The term "peritrichous" specifically describes the distribution of flagella around the entire surface of the cell. Therefore, the correct answer is "many flagella."

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  • 21. 

    Where is a basal body found?

    • A.

      In cell wall

    • B.

      At the base of flagella

    • C.

      In nuclear area

    • D.

      Not known

    Correct Answer
    B. At the base of flagella
    Explanation
    Basal bodies are organelles found at the base of flagella and cilia. They are responsible for organizing the microtubules that make up the structure of flagella and cilia, allowing them to move in a coordinated manner. Basal bodies are located within the cell and are connected to the cell membrane, providing support and anchorage for the flagella. Therefore, the correct answer is "at the base of flagella".

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  • 22. 

    What information is not found in a Gram stain process?

    • A.

      Cell wall structure

    • B.

      Ease of treatment with antibiotics

    • C.

      Flagella arrangement

    • D.

      Shape

    Correct Answer
    C. Flagella arrangement
    Explanation
    The Gram stain process is a technique used to classify bacteria into two major groups based on their cell wall structure. It helps determine whether bacteria are Gram-positive or Gram-negative. This information is crucial for identifying the ease of treatment with antibiotics, as Gram-positive bacteria are generally more susceptible to antibiotics than Gram-negative bacteria. Additionally, the Gram stain process also provides information about the shape of bacteria, whether they are cocci (round) or bacilli (rod-shaped). However, the arrangement of flagella, which are the whip-like structures used for bacterial movement, is not determined by the Gram stain process.

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  • 23. 

    Which is true?

    • A.

      A micrometer is bigger than a nanometer

    • B.

      A nanometer is bigger than a micrometer

    • C.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. A micrometer is bigger than a nanometer
    Explanation
    A micrometer is bigger than a nanometer because the prefix "micro-" represents one millionth (10^-6) of a unit, while the prefix "nano-" represents one billionth (10^-9) of a unit. Therefore, a micrometer is larger than a nanometer.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is equal to .5 micrometers

    • A.

      500nm

    • B.

      50nm

    • C.

      .1nm

    • D.

      1nm

    Correct Answer
    A. 500nm
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 500nm because 1 micrometer is equal to 1000 nanometers. Therefore, to convert .5 micrometers to nanometers, we multiply by 1000, resulting in 500 nanometers.

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  • 25. 

    What type of microscopy uses fluorochromes and laser light to produce a 3D image?

    • A.

      Phase-contrast

    • B.

      Confocal

    • C.

      Fluorescence microscopy

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Confocal
    Explanation
    Confocal microscopy uses fluorochromes and laser light to produce a 3D image. Unlike traditional fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy eliminates out-of-focus light, resulting in improved resolution and clarity. This technique is commonly used in biological research to visualize and study cellular structures and processes in three dimensions. Phase-contrast microscopy, on the other hand, enhances contrast in transparent specimens, while fluorescence microscopy uses fluorescent dyes to label specific molecules or structures of interest. Therefore, the correct answer is confocal microscopy.

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  • 26. 

    To magnify the surface of a specimen at 10,000x, you would use what?

    • A.

      Electron

    • B.

      Scanning acoustic

    • C.

      Tunneling prove

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Electron
    Explanation
    To magnify the surface of a specimen at 10,000x, an electron microscope would be used. Electron microscopes use a beam of electrons instead of light to magnify and visualize specimens. This allows for much higher magnification and resolution compared to traditional light microscopes. Therefore, the use of an electron microscope is the most suitable option for achieving a magnification of 10,000x.

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  • 27. 

    Which stain procedure uses a mordant to accentuate the size of the structure?

    • A.

      Endospore staining

    • B.

      Flagella staining

    • C.

      Acidfast staining

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Flagella staining
    Explanation
    Flagella staining is the correct answer because this staining procedure uses a mordant, which is a chemical that binds to the flagella, to accentuate the size of the structure. By using a mordant, the flagella become more visible and easier to observe under a microscope. Endospore staining is not the correct answer because it uses heat to drive the primary stain into endospores, not a mordant. Acid-fast staining is also not the correct answer because it uses heat and acid-alcohol to differentiate acid-fast bacteria from non-acid-fast bacteria, not a mordant. Therefore, the correct answer is flagella staining.

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  • 28. 

    What distinguishes prokaryotic cells from eukaryotic cells?

    • A.

      Larger size

    • B.

      Presence of a nucleus

    • C.

      Lack of a cell wall

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Presence of a nucleus
    Explanation
    Prokaryotic cells, belonging to domains Bacteria and Archaea, differ from eukaryotic cells in that they lack a true nucleus and organelles. They are characterized by smaller size and the presence of a cell wall, with some having a capsule or slime layer.

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  • 29. 

    A rod-shaped bacteria in chains would be called:

    • A.

      Streptococci

    • B.

      Diplocacilli

    • C.

      Streptobacilli

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Streptobacilli
    Explanation
    The term "streptobacilli" refers to a rod-shaped bacteria that forms chains. This is the correct answer because the question specifically asks for the term used to describe a rod-shaped bacteria in chains. "Streptococci" refers to spherical bacteria in chains, while "diplocacilli" refers to spherical bacteria in pairs. Therefore, neither of these options accurately describe a rod-shaped bacteria in chains. "None of the above" is also incorrect as there is a specific term for this type of bacteria.

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  • 30. 

    Which would be chains of round cells?

    • A.

      Streptococcus

    • B.

      Staphylococcus

    • C.

      Bacillus

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Streptococcus
    Explanation
    Streptococcus would be the chains of round cells. Streptococcus is a genus of bacteria that is characterized by the arrangement of its cells in chains or pairs. This arrangement is known as streptococci, where the cells are round and form a chain-like structure. Staphylococcus, on the other hand, is a genus of bacteria that forms clusters or grape-like arrangements, not chains. Bacillus is a genus of bacteria that is characterized by its rod-shaped cells, not round cells. Therefore, the correct answer is streptococcus.

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  • 31. 

    Which describes a bacteria with 1 flagellum on each end?

    • A.

      Monotrichous

    • B.

      Amphitrichous

    • C.

      Lophotrichous

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Amphitrichous
    Explanation
    Amphitrichous describes a bacteria with one flagellum on each end. This means that the bacteria has two flagella, one at each pole of the cell. This arrangement allows the bacteria to move in a corkscrew-like motion, enabling it to navigate through its environment efficiently. Monotrichous refers to a bacteria with a single flagellum at one end, lophotrichous refers to multiple flagella at one end, and none of the above means that none of the other options accurately describe a bacteria with one flagellum on each end.

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  • 32. 

    A bacteria cell in a hypertonic solution will

    • A.

      Shrivel

    • B.

      Burst

    • C.

      Be the most healthy

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Shrivel
    Explanation
    When a bacteria cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, it means that the concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than inside the cell. As a result, water molecules will move out of the cell through osmosis, causing the cell to lose water and shrink. This process is known as shriveling. Therefore, the correct answer is "shrivel."

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  • 33. 

    Detergents and alcohols act by damaging which part of the bacterial cell?

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      Plasma membrane

    • C.

      Nucleoid region

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Plasma membrane
    Explanation
    Detergents and alcohols act by damaging the plasma membrane of the bacterial cell. The plasma membrane is a crucial component of the cell that regulates the movement of molecules in and out of the cell. When detergents and alcohols come into contact with the plasma membrane, they disrupt its structure and integrity, leading to the leakage of cellular contents and ultimately causing cell death. This mode of action makes detergents and alcohols effective in killing bacteria and disinfecting surfaces.

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  • 34. 

    Bleach kills bacteria by damaging

    • A.

      Cell wall

    • B.

      Plasma membrane

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Nucleus

    Correct Answer
    B. Plasma membrane
    Explanation
    Bleach kills bacteria by damaging the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is a vital component of bacterial cells, as it regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. When the plasma membrane is damaged, it disrupts the cell's ability to maintain its internal environment and transport necessary molecules. This ultimately leads to the death of the bacteria.

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  • 35. 

    How does cranberry juice affect UTI microbes?

    • A.

      It doesn't allow those microbes to stick together

    • B.

      It kills those cells by osmotic pressure

    • C.

      It doesn't help

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. It doesn't allow those microbes to stick together
    Explanation
    Cranberry juice prevents UTI microbes from sticking together. This is because cranberry juice contains certain compounds that inhibit the ability of the microbes to adhere to the walls of the urinary tract. As a result, the microbes are unable to form a biofilm and are more easily flushed out of the body through urination.

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  • 36. 

    What is the first step of the gram stain?

    Correct Answer
    Pour crystal violet on a heat fixed smear
    Explanation
    The first step of the gram stain is to pour crystal violet on a heat fixed smear. This is done to stain the bacterial cells in the smear. The crystal violet is a purple dye that binds to the peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall of bacteria. By pouring the crystal violet on the smear, the bacterial cells will take up the dye and become stained purple. This step is important as it helps to differentiate between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which have different cell wall structures and therefore react differently to the crystal violet stain.

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  • 37. 

    What is the second step of the gram stain?

    Correct Answer
    Wash off the crystal violet. Pour Iodine on the smear Gram positive and negative will be purple.
    Explanation
    The second step of the gram stain is to wash off the crystal violet and then pour iodine on the smear. This step is important because it helps to differentiate between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. After the crystal violet is washed off, the iodine is added to form a complex with the crystal violet in gram-positive bacteria, causing them to retain the purple color. In contrast, gram-negative bacteria do not retain the crystal violet-iodine complex and appear colorless. Therefore, this step is crucial in determining the gram reaction of bacteria.

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  • 38. 

    What is the third step of the gram stain?

    Correct Answer
    Wash with alcohol, a decolorizing agent., decolorization, decolorising, washing with alcohol
    Explanation
    The third step of the gram stain is to wash with alcohol, a decolorizing agent. This step is crucial in the gram staining process as it helps to differentiate between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The alcohol acts as a decolorizing agent by removing the crystal violet stain from the gram-negative bacteria, causing them to appear colorless. On the other hand, gram-positive bacteria retain the crystal violet stain and appear purple. This step is important in identifying and classifying bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

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  • 39. 

    The fourth step of gram stain:

    Correct Answer
    Pour safranin, red dye, on the smear., Pour safranin, red dye, on the smear , Counterstaining with safranin, safranin
    Explanation
    The fourth step of the gram stain procedure is to pour safranin, a red dye, on the smear. This step is crucial as safranin acts as a counterstain, allowing the visualization of gram-negative bacteria. Gram-negative bacteria do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the earlier steps, so the safranin helps to differentiate them from gram-positive bacteria. By pouring safranin on the smear, the gram-negative bacteria will appear red while the gram-positive bacteria will remain purple.

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  • 40. 

    Prokaryotes can divide by binary fission.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Prokaryotes can divide by binary fission, which is a form of asexual reproduction. During binary fission, the prokaryotic cell replicates its genetic material and then divides into two identical daughter cells. This process allows prokaryotes, such as bacteria, to rapidly reproduce and increase their population size. Unlike eukaryotic cells, prokaryotes do not undergo mitosis or meiosis, making binary fission their primary method of reproduction. Therefore, the statement that prokaryotes can divide by binary fission is true.

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  • 41. 

    Eukaryotes have one circular arranged chromosome.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes do not have circular arranged chromosomes. Instead, they have linear chromosomes that are organized and contained within a nucleus. This is a defining characteristic of eukaryotic cells, which are more complex than prokaryotic cells that do have circular chromosomes.

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  • 42. 

    Prokaryotes lack membrane-enclosed organelles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, lack membrane-enclosed organelles. This means that their genetic material, ribosomes, and other cellular components are not enclosed within membrane-bound structures like those found in eukaryotic cells. Instead, prokaryotes have a simpler structure with genetic material floating freely in the cytoplasm. This fundamental difference in cellular organization is one of the defining characteristics of prokaryotic cells.

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  • 43. 

    Eukaryotes sometimes lack cell walls.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Eukaryotes sometimes lack cell walls because not all eukaryotic cells possess a cell wall. While many eukaryotic organisms, such as plants and fungi, have cell walls, others, like animal cells, do not have a cell wall. This is because the presence or absence of a cell wall varies among different eukaryotic species and is not a universal feature.

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  • 44. 

    Prokaryotes' cells' DNA is found in multiple chromosomes and has histones.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because prokaryotes do not have multiple chromosomes or histones. Prokaryotes have a single circular chromosome that is not associated with histones. The DNA in prokaryotes is found in the nucleoid region of the cell, which is not enclosed within a nucleus.

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  • 45. 

    What are the six structures of a bacterial cell?

    Correct Answer
    cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, nucleiod, flagella
    Explanation
    The six main structures of a bacterial cell are:
    Cell Wall: A rigid outer layer that provides structural support and protection to the cell.
    Plasma Membrane: A semi-permeable membrane that regulates the passage of substances in and out of the cell.
    Cytoplasm: The gel-like substance inside the cell where cellular processes take place.
    Ribosomes: Molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis.
    Nucleoid: The region of the bacterial cell containing the chromosome (genetic material).
    Flagella: Long, whip-like appendages that allow bacteria to move. Some bacteria may have pili or fimbriae, which are shorter, hair-like structures involved in adherence to surfaces or other cells.

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Stephen Reinbold |PhD, Biological Sciences |
Biology Expert
Stephen Reinbold has a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences with a particular interest in teaching. He taught General Biology, Environmental Science, Zoology, Genetics, and Anatomy & Physiology for almost thirty years at Metropolitan Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. He particularly enjoyed emphasizing scientific methodology and student research projects. Now, enjoying retirement, he works part-time as an editor while also engaging in online activities.

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