Immunology: Tcrs, Cytokines, Immunity Reactions At The Cellular Level

37 Questions

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Immunology Quizzes & Trivia

TEST 3 IMMUNOLOGY


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Cytokines involved in acquired immunity
    • A. 

      IL-1, IL-6, IL-18, IFN-A, IFN-B, AND TNF-A

    • B. 

      IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-G, TNF-B, AND TGF-B

    • C. 

      ONLY IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, AND TNF-A

    • D. 

      ONLY IFN-G, AND IL-10

  • 2. 
    CHEMOKINES ARE PRODUCED MOSTLY BY WHICH MOLECULES
    • A. 

      NK CELLS

    • B. 

      MACROPHAGES

    • C. 

      ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, EPITHELIAL CELLS, AND FIBROBLASTS

    • D. 

      TH1 AND TH2 CELLS

  • 3. 
    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING MOLECULES ARE MACROPHAGE DEACTIVATING FACTORS BLOCKING MACROPHAGE FUNCTIONS, INCLUDING TNF-A RELEASE:
    • A. 

      E SERIES PROSTAGLANDINS

    • B. 

      TGF-B

    • C. 

      IL-4 AND IL-10

  • 4. 
    IL-8 IS WHICH TYPE OF CHEMOKINE
    • A. 

      CC-CC

    • B. 

      CXC

    • C. 

      CXCX

    • D. 

      CXXC

  • 5. 
    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS TRUE REGARDING THE NUMBER OF SUBFAMILIES OF CHEMOKINES
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      0 SUBFAMILIES

  • 6. 
    THE INNATE IMMUNITY CYTOKINES ARE:
    • A. 

      IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 AND TNF-A ONLY

    • B. 

      IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IFN-G, TNF-B, AND TGF-B

    • C. 

      ONLY IFN-G AND IL-2

    • D. 

      IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18, IFN-A, IFN-B, AND TNF-A

  • 7. 
    THE SIGNATURE CYTOKINES PRODUCED BY TH1 CELLS 
    • A. 

      IL-10

    • B. 

      IFN-G AND SOMETIMES IL-2

    • C. 

      TNF-A

  • 8. 
    WHICH ARE THE SIGNATURE CYTOKINES PRODUCED BY TH2 CELLS
    • A. 

      IL-4

    • B. 

      IL-2

    • C. 

      IL-10

  • 9. 
    WHICH INTERLUEKIN IS ALSO LAF?
  • 10. 
    TRUE OR FALSE: A T CELL CAN RELEASE ITS RECEPTOR AND RECOGNIZE ANTIGEN IN ITS NATURAL STATE
    • A. 

      FALSE

    • B. 

      TRUE

  • 11. 
    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELLS
    • A. 

      MACROPHAGE

    • B. 

      DENDRITIC CELLS

    • C. 

      B CELLS

  • 12. 
    A/B TCRs HAVE A TOTAL DIVERSITY OF:
    • A. 

      ~ 1O^18

    • B. 

      ~ 10^13

    • C. 

      ~ 10^14

    • D. 

      ~ 10^15

  • 13. 
    COLIGATION OF TCR WITH MHC/PEPTIDE CTLA-4 WITH B7 LEADS TO 
    • A. 

      ARREST OF CELL-CYCLE AND TERMINATION OF T-CELL ACTIVATION

    • B. 

      ENABLES T CELL TO BE RECOGIZED BY BOTH CELL-CLL CONTACT AND CYTOKINES

    • C. 

      PROMOTES B-CELL PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION, PREVENTS APOPTOSIS OF GERMINAL CENTER B CELLS AND PROMOTES ANTIBODY CLASS SWITCHING

  • 14. 
    WHICH INTERACTIONS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DIALOGUE BETWEN B AND T CELLS?
    • A. 

      CD28-B7

    • B. 

      CD2-CD58

    • C. 

      CD40-CD40L

  • 15. 
    FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS
    • A. 

      HOLD PROCESSED ANTIGEN ON SURFACE IN THE FORM OF SHORT-LIVED IMMUNE COMPLEXES

    • B. 

      HOLD UNPROCESSED, INTACT, ANTIGEN ON THEIR SURFACE INT HE FORM OF SHORT LIVED IMMUNE COMPLEXES

    • C. 

      HOLD INTACT, UNPROCESSED LONG LIVED IMMUNE COMPLEXES ON THEIR SURFACE

    • D. 

      HOLD PROCESSED, INTACT LONG LIVED ANTIGEN IN THE FORM OF LONG LIVED IMMUNE COMPLEXES ON THEIR SURFACE

  • 16. 
    THYMUS IS ROUGHLY DIVIDED INTO
    • A. 

      4 REGIONS

    • B. 

      2 REGIONS

    • C. 

      3 REGIONS

    • D. 

      5 REGIONS

  • 17. 
    CELLS ENTERING THE CORTICO-MEDULLARY JUNCTION EXPRESS CD3 ON THEIR CELL SURFACE
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    WHERE MIGHT ONE FIND CD25+CD44+CD4-CD8-
    • A. 

      REGION 1 OF THE THYMUS

    • B. 

      REGION 2 OF THE THYMUS

    • C. 

      REGION 3 OF THE THYMUS

    • D. 

      REGION 4 THE THYMUS

  • 19. 
    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CORRESPOND TO THE DN1 PHASE OF T CELL DEVELOPMENT
    • A. 

      UNCOMMITTED PROGENITORS; CD44+CD25-CD4-CD8-

    • B. 

      CLONAL EXPANSION

    • C. 

      LOSE POTENTIAL TO BECOME B CELLS OR NK CELLS

    • D. 

      CELLS COMMIT TO T CELL LINEAGE AND TCR B-CHAIN REARRANGEMENT OCCURS

  • 20. 
    DOUBLE POSITIVE CD44-CD25-CD4+CD8+ CELLS ARE FOUND 
    • A. 

      IN REGION 1 OF THE THYMUS

    • B. 

      IN REGION 2 OF THE THYMUS

    • C. 

      IN REGION 3 OF THE THYMUS

    • D. 

      IN REGION 4 OF THE THYMUS

  • 21. 
    AT WHICH STAGE IS THE T CELL'S FATE DETERMINED 
    • A. 

      STAGE 1

    • B. 

      STAGE 2

    • C. 

      STAGE 3

    • D. 

      STAGE 4

  • 22. 
    WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DN3 PHASE OR REGION 3 OF T CELL DEVELOPMENT?
    • A. 

      CELLS COMMIT TO T CELL LINEAGE

    • B. 

      TCR B-CHAIN REARRANGEMENT OCCURS

    • C. 

      T CELL LINEAGES ALPHA/BETA OR GAMMA/DELTA DIVERGE

    • D. 

      CD44-CD25+CD4-CD8-

    • E. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • 23. 
    POSITIVE SELECTION OCCURS MAINLY
    • A. 

      IN THE MEDULLA

    • B. 

      IN THE SUBCAPSULAR EPITHELIUM

    • C. 

      IN THE CORTEX

    • D. 

      IN THE CORTICO-MEDULLARY JUNTION

  • 24. 
    NEGATIVE SELECTION OCCURS MAINLY 
    • A. 

      IN THE CORTEX

    • B. 

      IN THE SUBCAPSULAR EPITHELIUM

    • C. 

      IN THE MEDULLA

    • D. 

      IN THE CORTICO-MEDULLARY JUNCTION

  • 25. 
    WHICH CELLS MEDIATE NEGATIVE SELECTION
    • A. 

      THYMIC EPITHELIAL CELLS

    • B. 

      THYMIC DENDRITIC CELLS

    • C. 

      THYMIC MACROPHAGES

    • D. 

      CD3+TCR+ T CELLS

    • E. 

      A, B, AND C

  • 26. 
    POSITIVE SELECTION INVOLVES WHICH INTERACTIONS BETWEEN WHICH CELLS
    • A. 

      CD3+TCR+ T CELLS AND CORTICAL TECs

    • B. 

      CD3+TCR+ T CELLS AND IL-7

    • C. 

      CD3+TCR+ T CELLS AND CD40L

    • D. 

      CD3+TCR+ T CELLS AND CD4LOWCD8+ T CELLS

  • 27. 
    THE TCR B LOCUS CONTAINS V-D-J SEGMENTS LIKE THE IgH LOCUS AND THE TCR ALPHA LOCUS CONTAINS
    • A. 

      D SEGMENTS

    • B. 

      V-J SEGMENTS LIKE Ig LIGHT CHAIN LOCI

    • C. 

      SOMATIC MUTATION

    • D. 

      DIVERSITY SEGMENTS

  • 28. 
    ALPHA AND DELTA TCRs HAVE D REGIONS
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    CD3 EXISTS AS
    • A. 

      ONLY DIMERIC MOLECULES

    • B. 

      HOMODIMERIC ZETA-ZETA, OR ZETA-NU COMBINATION

    • C. 

      HETERODIMERIC NON-COVALENTLY ASSOCIATED GAMMA AND EPSILON COMBINATION

    • D. 

      HETERODIMERIC NON-COVALENTLY ASSOCIATED EPSILON AND DELTA

    • E. 

      NONE OF THE ABOVE

    • F. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

    • G. 

      A, B, C,

    • H. 

      C, AND D ONLY

  • 30. 
    Granzyme fxn
    • A. 

      -enzymes that cleave and activate enzymes called caspases, which induce apoptosis

    • B. 

      -enhances leukocyte recruitment and inflammation

    • C. 

      -inhibiting phagolysosome fusion -escaping from the vesicles of phagocytes -inhibiting the assembly of class I MHC-peptide complexes -producing inhibitory cytokines or decoy cytokine receptors

    • D. 

      -when macrophages are not activated by the microbes themselves -when pathogenic microbes have evolved to resist the defense mechanisms of innate immunity

  • 31. 
    2 types of T cell-mediated immune rxns
    • A. 

      -recognize the antigens of microbes that have been ingested by macrophages -expresses CD40 ligand and secrete IFN-gamma, which fxn cooperatively to activate macrophages -stimulates defense against intracellular microbes

    • B. 

      -macrophages encounter microbe and produce IL-12 -IL-12 stimulates CD4+ T cells to the TH1 subset, which produces IFN-gamma on encountering antigen from microbe ingested by macrophage -IFN-gamma activates the phagocytes to kill ingested microbes and it stimulates more IL-12 production, which amplifies the response -ex of innat and adaptive immunity working together

    • C. 

      -stimulate eosinophilic inflammation and inhibit the microbicidal fxns of activated macrophages -eosinophils are important against helminthic parasites -suppresses defense against intracellular microbes; also limits injurious consequences of macrophage activation (aka alternative macrophage activation)

    • D. 

      -CD4+ T cell response: activate macrophages to kill ingested microbes that are able to survive in the vesicles of phagocytes -CD8+ T cell response: kills cells that are harboring microbes in their cytoplasm, which eliminates reservoires of infection

  • 32. 
    Mechanisms whereby intracellular microbes resist cell-mediated immune responses
    • A. 

      -enzymes that cleave and activate enzymes called caspases, which induce apoptosis

    • B. 

      -secrete cytokines TNF, IL-1 and chemokines, and platelet-derived growth factor which stimulates growth of and activities of fibroblasts, which helps to repair tissue when the infection is gone -leads to increased expression of class II MHC molecules and costimulators, thereby enhancing APC fxn, which promtoes T cell activation

    • C. 

      -inhibiting phagolysosome fusion -escaping from the vesicles of phagocytes -inhibiting the assembly of class I MHC-peptide complexes -producing inhibitory cytokines or decoy cytokine receptors

    • D. 

      -recognize the antigens of microbes that have been ingested by macrophages -expresses CD40 ligand and secrete IFN-gamma, which fxn cooperatively to activate macrophages -stimulates defense against intracellular microbes

  • 33. 
    Role of TH17
    • A. 

      -recognize the antigens of microbes that have been ingested by macrophages -expresses CD40 ligand and secrete IFN-gamma, which fxn cooperatively to activate macrophages -stimulates defense against intracellular microbes

    • B. 

      -occurs 24-48 hrs after exposure to immunization or microbial protein -these rxns are manifested by infiltrates of T cells and monocytes into tissues -the increased vascular permeability is caused by CD4+ T cells secreting cytokines -macrophages are activate by the T cells

    • C. 

      -when macrophages are not activated by the microbes themselves -when pathogenic microbes have evolved to resist the defense mechanisms of innate immunity

    • D. 

      -enhances leukocyte recruitment and inflammation

  • 34. 
    What are the mechanisms by which CD8+ T cells activate macrophages?
    • A. 

      -macrophages encounter microbe and produce IL-12 -IL-12 stimulates CD4+ T cells to the TH1 subset, which produces IFN-gamma on encountering antigen from microbe ingested by macrophage -IFN-gamma activates the phagocytes to kill ingested microbes and it stimulates more IL-12 production, which amplifies the response -ex of innat and adaptive immunity working together

    • B. 

      -recognize the antigens of microbes that have been ingested by macrophages -expresses CD40 ligand and secrete IFN-gamma, which fxn cooperatively to activate macrophages -stimulates defense against intracellular microbes

    • C. 

      -sometimes the macrophages express class I MHC molecules -when this recognititon occurs, the CD8+ T cells can activate the macrophages the exact same way as the CD4+ T cells did; however, this activation is not useful; macrophages cannot digest intracellular microbes

    • D. 

      -CD4+ T cell response: activate macrophages to kill ingested microbes that are able to survive in the vesicles of phagocytes -CD8+ T cell response: kills cells that are harboring microbes in their cytoplasm, which eliminates reservoires of infection

  • 35. 
    What is the role of perforin?
    • A. 

      -stimulates mast cell activation, which releases mediators that are toxic against parasites

    • B. 

      -mainly by inducing DNA fragmentation and apoptosis -TCR and CD8 co-receptor necessary of CD8+ T cell recognition -CTLs kill target cell by releasing granule proteins granzyme and perforin

    • C. 

      -when macrophages are not activated by the microbes themselves -when pathogenic microbes have evolved to resist the defense mechanisms of innate immunity

    • D. 

      -necessary for delivery of granzymes into cytoplasm

  • 36. 
    Role of CD4+ TH1 cells
    • A. 

      -IL-4: stimulates production of IgE, inhibits microbicidal macrophage activation -IL-5: activates eosinophils -IL-10, IL-13: also inhibit macrophage microbicidal activation

    • B. 

      -recognize the antigens of microbes that have been ingested by macrophages -expresses CD40 ligand and secrete IFN-gamma, which fxn cooperatively to activate macrophages -stimulates defense against intracellular microbes

    • C. 

      -secrete cytokines TNF, IL-1 and chemokines, and platelet-derived growth factor which stimulates growth of and activities of fibroblasts, which helps to repair tissue when the infection is gone -leads to increased expression of class II MHC molecules and costimulators, thereby enhancing APC fxn, which promtoes T cell activation

    • D. 

      -occurs 24-48 hrs after exposure to immunization or microbial protein -these rxns are manifested by infiltrates of T cells and monocytes into tissues -the increased vascular permeability is caused by CD4+ T cells secreting cytokines -macrophages are activate by the T cells

  • 37. 
    T cell-mediated killing involves:
    • A. 

      Activation of TH cell

    • B. 

      Activation of TC cell

    • C. 

      A calcium-dependent reaction

    • D. 

      Destruction of the T cell

    • E. 

      All of the above

    • F. 

      A and b