Shivering on a cold day
Sweating on a hot day
Hibernation of some mammals
Vasodilation of skin capillaries
Basking by some reptiles
They pass directly through the cell membrane since they are cholesterol-based
They exert their actions directly on a cell's DNA
Steroid molecules all have a distinct four-ringed aspect to the structure of their molecules.
Once inside a cell, they must find a mobile receptor
Only a hormone-receptor complex is able to enter the nucleus.
Glomerulus & Bowman's Capsule
Loop of Henle
Distal Convoluted tubule
Proximal Convoluted tubule
Because they're made of amino acids, they readily enter the cell.
They attach themselves to a molecule of cAMP once they enter
They split in two, and only one half stimulates the target cell; this is the 'second messenger'
Their size requires them to bind to an external cell receptor protein.
Once inside the cell, they attach to a receptor on the nuclear membrane.
It is both an endocrine & exocrine gland, secreting both hormones & digestive enzymes.
It produces insulin in its alpha cells, and glucagon in its beta cells.
It was discovered by Canadian scientists.
The islets of Langerhans produce its digestive enzymes, while interstitial cells produce the hormones.
Makes glucose available by breaking down glycogen, which it stores as well.
Blood calcium will drop
Osteoclasts will absorb calcium from the blood
Osteoblasts will absorb calcium from the blood
Only A & B
Only A & C
Increased heart rate & blood pressure
Very low urine volume & an increase in blood pressure
Copious amounts of urine & a drop in blood pressure
Seizures due to high levels of calcium
A failure of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system
Frequent thirst & urination.
Stimulates ovarian granulosa cells to make estrogen.
Stimulates sertoli cells to enhance sperm maturation.
Causes release of testosterone in both male & female gonads.
All of these - A, B, C
Only A & B
Estrogen & Testosterone
Testosterone & Inhibin
Prolactin & Oxytocin
Progesterone & Estrogen
Prolactin & Progesterone
PYY from the small intestine helps suppress appetite
Ghrelins from the stomach help signal fullness/hunger
Leptins from fat tissue (adipose cells) help suppress appetite
Insulin can exert slight appetite suppression, while lowering blood glucose
Glucagon can influence the brain to stimulate a sensation of hunger.