This Is Probably The Hardest Geology Test!

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This Is Probably The Hardest Geology Test! - Quiz

This is probably the hardest geology test! The earth is an exciting place in our solar system, and through geology, we understand some of the rocks, minerals, volcanoes, and even shifts with the earth’s rocks. Do you think you can pass what has come to be known as the most challenging geology quiz? Take it up and get to share the score you get to see if you do understand the geology.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In order to produce a commercially viable oil deposit, there must be a source rock, a reservoir rock, a seal rock, and a ____________.

    • A.

      Trap—a geologic configuration that forces oil to pool up and denies it passage to the surface

    • B.

      Heater rock—an intrusive igneous rock beneath the source rock to heat the oil and give it buoyancy

    • C.

      Large fracture connecting the reservoir rock to the surface of the Earth, so the oil can move freely toward the surface

    • D.

      Filter rock—a rock of intermediate permeability located between the source and reservoir rocks to remove impurities

    Correct Answer
    A. Trap—a geologic configuration that forces oil to pool up and denies it passage to the surface
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a trap—a geologic configuration that forces oil to pool up and denies it passage to the surface. This explanation states that in order to produce a commercially viable oil deposit, a trap is necessary. A trap is a geologic configuration that prevents oil from escaping to the surface and instead causes it to accumulate and form a pool. This is important because without a trap, the oil would not be able to be extracted and utilized.

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  • 2. 

    Chemically, oil and gas are both ____________

    • A.

      Hydrocarbons

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Pure forms of carbon

    • D.

      Carbonate minerals

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrocarbons
    Explanation
    Oil and gas are both chemically classified as hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Oil and gas are formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals that have been subjected to high pressure and temperature over millions of years. These organic materials undergo a process called diagenesis, which converts them into hydrocarbons. Therefore, hydrocarbons are the correct answer as they accurately describe the chemical composition of oil and gas.

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  • 3. 

    Which fossil fuel, oil or natural gas, is found at greater depths within Earth, and why?

    • A.

      Gas, because it is more stable at high temperatures

    • B.

      Oil, because it is more stable at low pressures

    • C.

      Oil, because it is more stable at high temperatures

    • D.

      Gas, because it is more stable at low pressures

    Correct Answer
    A. Gas, because it is more stable at high temperatures
    Explanation
    Gas is found at greater depths within Earth compared to oil because it is more stable at high temperatures. As the Earth's temperature increases with depth, gas remains in a gaseous state due to its higher stability at high temperatures. On the other hand, oil is more stable at low pressures, which means it is found at shallower depths where the pressure is lower.

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  • 4. 

    Shale, salt, and fine-grained limestone that is not fractured are all good candidates to serve as ____________ within an oil field.

    • A.

      Either a source or reservoir rock

    • B.

      A seal rock

    • C.

      A reservoir rock

    • D.

      A source rock

    Correct Answer
    B. A seal rock
    Explanation
    Shale, salt, and fine-grained limestone that is not fractured can serve as seal rocks within an oil field. Seal rocks are impermeable formations that prevent the upward migration of oil and gas, acting as a barrier or cap to trap hydrocarbons within a reservoir rock. These types of rocks have low permeability and porosity, making them effective in trapping and preserving hydrocarbons underground.

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  • 5. 

    The oil window (temperature range wherein organic matter is converted to petroleum without destroying it) lies between ____________.

    • A.

      200 to 350 °C

    • B.

      100 to 250 °C

    • C.

      90 to 160 °C

    • D.

      30 to 60 °C

    Correct Answer
    C. 90 to 160 °C
    Explanation
    The oil window refers to the temperature range in which organic matter is converted into petroleum without being destroyed. In this case, the correct answer is 90 to 160 °C. This means that the conversion process occurs within this specific temperature range, indicating the conditions necessary for the formation of petroleum.

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  • 6. 

    Most coal is mined from ____________, which develop and preserve the thick sedimentary sequences necessary for deep burial.

    • A.

      Shields

    • B.

      domes

    • C.

      Basins

    • D.

      Active margins

    Correct Answer
    C. Basins
    Explanation
    Coal is primarily formed from the remains of plants that have been buried and subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years. These conditions are typically found in basins, which are large depressions in the Earth's surface where sediments accumulate. Basins provide the necessary environment for the formation and preservation of thick sedimentary sequences, which are essential for the deep burial required to create coal deposits. Therefore, most coal is mined from basins.

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  • 7. 

    U-235, the isotope of uranium commonly utilized in nuclear power plants, is ____________.

    • A.

      The most common of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element

    • B.

      Rare even in uranium oxide deposits, and thus usable reactor fuel must be enriched with respect to this isotope

    • C.

      Heavier than the other well-known isotope of uranium

    Correct Answer
    B. Rare even in uranium oxide deposits, and thus usable reactor fuel must be enriched with respect to this isotope
    Explanation
    U-235, the isotope of uranium commonly utilized in nuclear power plants, is rare even in uranium oxide deposits, and thus usable reactor fuel must be enriched with respect to this isotope. This means that U-235 is not commonly found in nature in large quantities. To use U-235 as fuel in nuclear reactors, it needs to be enriched, which involves increasing the concentration of U-235 in the uranium fuel. This enrichment process is necessary because U-235 is not naturally abundant enough to sustain a nuclear reaction on its own.

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  • 8. 

    The first ores which were widely smelted by humans to produce metal were those of ____________.

    • A.

      Bronze

    • B.

      Copper

    • C.

      Gold

    • D.

      Iron

    Correct Answer
    B. Copper
    Explanation
    Copper was the first metal to be widely smelted by humans. Smelting is the process of extracting metal from its ore by heating and melting it. Copper was easily accessible and had desirable properties such as malleability and conductivity, making it an ideal metal for early human civilizations. It was used to create tools, weapons, and decorative items. While other metals like bronze, gold, and iron were also smelted later on, copper was the first metal to be extensively utilized by humans.

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  • 9. 

    Commercial ore deposits are most likely to be found associated with ____________.

    • A.

      Thick basinal sandstones and shales

    • B.

      Blueschists

    • C.

      Evaporite sequences

    • D.

      Igneous rocks

    Correct Answer
    D. Igneous rocks
    Explanation
    Commercial ore deposits are most likely to be found associated with igneous rocks. This is because igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten material, which can contain concentrated minerals and metals. As the molten material cools and solidifies, these minerals and metals can crystallize and accumulate, forming valuable ore deposits. In contrast, thick basinal sandstones and shales, blueschists, and evaporite sequences are not typically associated with the formation of commercial ore deposits.

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  • 10. 

    Mineral-rich veins within plutons, deposited by hot groundwater into fractures within the rock, characterize ____________.

    • A.

      Residual mineral deposits

    • B.

      Hydrothermal deposits

    • C.

      Placer deposits

    • D.

      Sedimentary deposits

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydrothermal deposits
    Explanation
    Hydrothermal deposits are characterized by mineral-rich veins within plutons that are formed when hot groundwater deposits minerals into fractures within the rock. This process occurs in areas where there is intense heat and water circulation, such as near volcanic activity or deep underground. The minerals in hydrothermal deposits are often valuable and can include metals such as gold, silver, and copper.

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  • 11. 

    Which ore minerals are commonly found in ancient sedimentary deposits that are 2 billion years old?

    • A.

      Aluminum oxides

    • B.

      iron oxides

    • C.

      Copper sulfides

    • D.

      Copper oxides

    Correct Answer
    B. iron oxides
    Explanation
    Iron oxides are commonly found in ancient sedimentary deposits that are 2 billion years old. This is because iron is a highly reactive element and readily combines with oxygen in the presence of water to form iron oxides. Over time, these iron oxides can accumulate and become concentrated in sedimentary deposits. Additionally, iron oxides are often associated with ancient banded iron formations, which are sedimentary rocks that contain alternating layers of iron-rich minerals and silica. These formations are commonly found in rocks that were deposited during the Precambrian era, which spans from about 4.6 billion to 541 million years ago.

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  • 12. 

    Which mineral resources are considered renewable?

    • A.

      Nonmetallic minerals only

    • B.

      Iron and aluminum ores

    • C.

      Base metals only

    • D.

      No mineral resources are renewable

    Correct Answer
    D. No mineral resources are renewable
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that no mineral resources are renewable. This means that once mineral resources are extracted and used, they cannot be replenished or replaced. Unlike renewable resources, such as solar or wind energy, mineral resources are finite and can be depleted over time. Therefore, it is important to use mineral resources responsibly and explore alternative options for sustainable resource management.

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  • 13. 

    The United States has active mines within its boundaries that are sufficient to maintain a steady supply of all strategically important metals.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the United States does not have active mines within its boundaries that are sufficient to maintain a steady supply of all strategically important metals. The country relies on imports for many of these metals, which are crucial for various industries and national security.

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  • 14. 

    As suggested by the name “earthquake” the release of seismic energy as waves is unique to our planet and has not been found to occur in any other body of our solar system.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given answer is that the statement is incorrect. Earthquakes are not unique to our planet and seismic activity has been observed on other celestial bodies in our solar system, such as the moon and certain moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Therefore, the statement that seismic energy release as waves only occurs on Earth is false.

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  • 15. 

    If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed ____________ if the fault is steep (closer to vertical than horizontal).

    • A.

      Thrust

    • B.

      Reverse

    • C.

      Normal

    • D.

      Abnormal

    Correct Answer
    B. Reverse
    Explanation
    If the hanging wall slides upward relative to the footwall during an earthquake and the fault is steep (closer to vertical than horizontal), it is termed as a "reverse" fault. In a reverse fault, the hanging wall moves up and over the footwall, which is the opposite of what happens in a normal fault where the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall. This type of faulting is commonly associated with compressional forces and is often found in areas of mountain building and tectonic collision.

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  • 16. 

    An earthquake occurs with an epicenter in the town of New Madrid, Missouri, in the interior of the North American Plate. Where might the hypocenter of this earthquake plausibly be found?

    • A.

      20 km beneath New Madrid

    • B.

      20 km south of New Madrid

    • C.

      200 km beneath New Madrid

    • D.

      In New Madrid ("hypocenter" and "epicenter" mean precisely the same thing)

    Correct Answer
    A. 20 km beneath New Madrid
    Explanation
    The hypocenter of the earthquake is likely to be found 20 km beneath New Madrid. The term "hypocenter" refers to the point within the Earth where the seismic energy is released during an earthquake. Since the epicenter is in New Madrid, it is plausible that the hypocenter would be located directly beneath it.

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  • 17. 

    Earthquake waves which pass through the interior of Earth are termed ____________.

    • A.

      Surface waves

    • B.

      Interior waves

    • C.

      R-waves

    • D.

      Body waves

    Correct Answer
    D. Body waves
    Explanation
    Body waves are seismic waves that travel through the interior of the Earth. They include two types: P-waves (primary waves) and S-waves (secondary waves). P-waves are compressional waves that travel faster and can pass through both solids and liquids, while S-waves are shear waves that travel slower and can only pass through solids. These body waves are responsible for the initial shaking felt during an earthquake and provide valuable information about the Earth's interior structure. Surface waves, on the other hand, travel along the Earth's surface and are responsible for the most destructive effects of an earthquake.

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  • 18. 

    Surface waves ____________.

    • A.

      Produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes

    • B.

      Travel more rapidly than body waves

    • C.

      Are the first waves initially produced in an earthquake

    • D.

      Are the first waves to arrive at a seismograph station after an earthquake

    Correct Answer
    A. Produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes
    Explanation
    Surface waves are a type of seismic waves that travel along the Earth's surface. These waves cause the most damage to buildings during earthquakes because they have a larger amplitude and longer duration compared to other types of seismic waves. The shaking caused by surface waves can cause buildings to collapse, leading to significant destruction and loss of life.

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  • 19. 

    Earthquakes that occur in a band called a ____________ can be used to track the motion of subducted oceanic lithosphere.

    • A.

      Seismic gap

    • B.

      Wadati-Benioff zone

    • C.

      Trench

    • D.

      Wegener belt

    Correct Answer
    B. Wadati-Benioff zone
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Wadati-Benioff zone. Earthquakes that occur in this zone, which is located beneath a subduction zone, can be used to track the motion of subducted oceanic lithosphere. The Wadati-Benioff zone is characterized by a steeply dipping band of earthquakes that extends from the surface down into the mantle. This zone provides valuable information about the subduction process and helps scientists understand the dynamics of plate tectonics.

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  • 20. 

    Long-term prediction of earthquake behavior ____________.

    • A.

      Is based on past earthquake activity

    • B.

      Works on the principle that zones of past seismicity will be active in the future

    • C.

      Includes the notion of seismic gaps—places where an earthquake is “overdue”

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Long-term prediction of earthquake behavior involves multiple factors and considerations. It is based on past earthquake activity, as studying historical seismic events can provide insights into patterns and trends. It also works on the principle that zones of past seismicity will be active in the future, as areas that have experienced earthquakes before are likely to experience them again. Additionally, long-term prediction includes the notion of seismic gaps, which are areas where an earthquake has not occurred for a significant period, suggesting that it may be "overdue." Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above" as all these factors are taken into account in long-term earthquake prediction.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the world’s major cities has suffered tremendous earthquake damage in the past not because it is located at a plate boundary (it is not), but rather because it is built atop a basin of ancient lakebed sediments that rhythmically rock back and forth when agitated by seismic waves of a characteristic frequency?

    • A.

      New Madrid

    • B.

      Los Angeles

    • C.

      Tokyo

    • D.

      Mexico City

    Correct Answer
    D. Mexico City
    Explanation
    Mexico City has suffered tremendous earthquake damage in the past not because it is located at a plate boundary, but rather because it is built atop a basin of ancient lakebed sediments. These sediments have the ability to rhythmically rock back and forth when agitated by seismic waves of a characteristic frequency. This phenomenon, known as liquefaction, can amplify the shaking during an earthquake and cause significant damage to buildings and infrastructure.

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  • 22. 

    Seismic rays follow curve paths in Earth's interior due to ____________.

    • A.

      The influence of abrupt changes in density associated with major contrasts in rock type at depth

    • B.

      The arcuate nature of trenches at subduction zones, where most earthquakes are generated

    • C.

      The spheroidal nature of the Earth itself

    • D.

      Gradual changes in density with depth beneath the surface

    Correct Answer
    D. Gradual changes in density with depth beneath the surface
    Explanation
    Seismic rays follow curved paths in Earth's interior due to gradual changes in density with depth beneath the surface. As seismic waves travel through the Earth, they encounter different layers of rock with varying densities. These density variations cause the waves to refract or bend, leading to curved paths. This phenomenon is known as seismic refraction. The gradual changes in density with depth play a significant role in determining the path of seismic rays as they travel through the Earth's interior.

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  • 23. 

    Seismologist know that the outer core is liquid due to the presence of ______________.

    • A.

      a high-velocity zone for seismic waves traveling in the outer core

    • B.

      A P-wave "shadow" zone for seismometers situated between 104° and 140° from earthquake hypocenters

    • C.

      A low-velocity zone (LVZ) at a depth of 200 km where about 2% of the rock may be melted

    • D.

      A S-wave "shadow" zone for seismometers situated on the far side of the Earth from earthquake hypocenters

    • E.

      Both D and B

    Correct Answer
    E. Both D and B
    Explanation
    The presence of a S-wave "shadow" zone for seismometers situated on the far side of the Earth from earthquake hypocenters and a P-wave "shadow" zone for seismometers situated between 104° and 140° from earthquake hypocenters suggests that the outer core is liquid. This is because S-waves cannot travel through liquids, so the presence of a S-wave shadow zone indicates that there must be a liquid layer in the outer core. Similarly, the P-wave shadow zone suggests the presence of a liquid layer as well. Therefore, both D and B provide evidence for the outer core being liquid.

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  • 24. 

    The word "metamorphism" literally refers to

    • A.

      A concept in existential philosophy.

    • B.

      Change in the chemical composition of a rock.

    • C.

      Moving toward the middle.

    • D.

      Change.

    Correct Answer
    D. Change.
    Explanation
    The word "metamorphism" literally refers to change. This term is commonly used in geology to describe the process of transformation that rocks undergo due to heat, pressure, and other environmental factors. It does not refer to any specific philosophical concept or physical movement towards the middle. Instead, it simply signifies a general alteration or modification.

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  • 25. 

    When rocks are metamorphosed,

    • A.

      The original minerals are recrystallized in the solid state, and they are sometimes replaced by a new set of minerals.

    • B.

      They always develop a strong foliation.

    • C.

      They always melt and then recrystallize upon cooling.

    • D.

      They always turn green, which is why they are called greenschists.

    Correct Answer
    A. The original minerals are recrystallized in the solid state, and they are sometimes replaced by a new set of minerals.
    Explanation
    When rocks undergo metamorphism, the original minerals within the rock undergo recrystallization while remaining in the solid state. This means that the minerals rearrange and reform into new crystal structures without melting. Additionally, during metamorphism, the original minerals can be replaced by a new set of minerals, which can result in changes in the composition and appearance of the rock. This process is known as metasomatism. Therefore, the given answer accurately describes the changes that occur during rock metamorphism.

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  • 26. 

    A rock with a well-developed foliation

    • A.

      Is made up primarily of quartz.

    • B.

      Most commonly forms in contact metamorphic environments.

    • C.

      Has platty mineral grains (like micas) aligned parallel to each other, causing the rock to break into flat slabs.

    • D.

      Is most likely to form in response to falling temperature and pressure.

    Correct Answer
    C. Has platty mineral grains (like micas) aligned parallel to each other, causing the rock to break into flat slabs.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that a rock with a well-developed foliation has platty mineral grains (like micas) aligned parallel to each other, causing the rock to break into flat slabs. This is because foliation is the alignment of minerals or mineral bands in a rock, and the presence of platty minerals like micas can cause this alignment. As a result, the rock exhibits a layered or slab-like structure, making it prone to breaking into flat slabs.

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  • 27. 

    If a basalt is metamorphosed, the following rock types could develop in this order in response to increasing temperature:

    • A.

      Amphibolite : greenschist : blueschist

    • B.

      Marble : greenschist : quartzite

    • C.

      Granite : gabbro : phyllite

    • D.

      Greenschist : amphibolite

    Correct Answer
    D. Greenschist : amphibolite
    Explanation
    The given correct answer states that greenschist would develop before amphibolite in response to increasing temperature during the metamorphism of basalt. This implies that greenschist is the lower grade metamorphic rock and amphibolite is the higher grade metamorphic rock. This order is consistent with the progressive metamorphic sequence in which rocks undergo increasing levels of heat and pressure.

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  • 28. 

    If a shale is metamorphosed, the following rock types develop in this order in response to increasing temperature:

    • A.

      Blueschist : greenschist : amphibolite cooler → hotter

    • B.

      Slate : phyllite : schist : gneiss cooler → hotter

    • C.

      Gneiss : schist : phyllite : slate cooler → hotter

    • D.

      Lapilli : lahar :tuff : ignimbrite cooler → hotter

    Correct Answer
    B. Slate : phyllite : schist : gneiss cooler → hotter
    Explanation
    As the temperature increases, the shale undergoes metamorphism and transforms into different rock types. The process starts with the formation of slate, which is a low-grade metamorphic rock. As the temperature continues to rise, the slate transforms into phyllite, which has a slightly higher metamorphic grade. Further increase in temperature leads to the formation of schist, which is a medium-grade metamorphic rock. Finally, with the highest temperature, the schist transforms into gneiss, which is a high-grade metamorphic rock. Therefore, the correct order of rock types in response to increasing temperature is slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss.

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  • 29. 

    You have discovered an outcrop of mica schist, and you know that this is a metamorphic rock. Which of the following rocks could have been metamorphosed to form this mica schist?

    • A.

      Limestone

    • B.

      Ignimbrite

    • C.

      Basalt

    • D.

      Shale

    Correct Answer
    D. Shale
    Explanation
    Shale could have been metamorphosed to form mica schist. Shale is a sedimentary rock composed of clay minerals, and under high temperature and pressure conditions, it can undergo metamorphism and transform into mica schist. This process involves recrystallization of the clay minerals and the formation of mica minerals, giving the rock its characteristic foliated texture. Limestone, ignimbrite, and basalt are not likely to be the parent rocks of mica schist as they have different mineral compositions and textures.

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  • 30. 

    Contact metamorphism would occur when

    • A.

      Sediments on a subducting slab are heated and deformed.

    • B.

      Basalt is erupted under seawater.

    • C.

      Magma is emplaced adjacent to relatively cool sedimentary rocks.

    • D.

      Magma is emplaced into very deeply buried and already-hot igneous rocks.

    Correct Answer
    C. Magma is emplaced adjacent to relatively cool sedimentary rocks.
    Explanation
    Contact metamorphism occurs when magma is emplaced adjacent to relatively cool sedimentary rocks. This process involves the heat from the magma being transferred to the surrounding rocks, causing them to undergo metamorphic changes. The temperature increase and the chemical reactions between the magma and the rocks lead to the formation of new minerals and the alteration of the existing ones. This type of metamorphism typically occurs in localized areas around the igneous intrusion and can result in the formation of characteristic metamorphic rocks such as hornfels.

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  • 31. 

    The best plate-tectonic environment for making blueschists (high pressure, lower temperature) metamorphic rocks is

    • A.

      Hot spots.

    • B.

      Himalayan-type orogens.

    • C.

      Subduction zones.

    • D.

      Mid-ocean ridges.

    Correct Answer
    C. Subduction zones.
    Explanation
    Blueschists are high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic rocks that form when oceanic crust is subducted beneath another tectonic plate. Subduction zones are the best plate-tectonic environment for the formation of blueschists because they involve the collision of two plates, with one being forced beneath the other. This process subjects the oceanic crust to extreme pressure and lower temperatures, which are ideal conditions for the formation of blueschists. Hot spots, himalayan-type orogens, and mid-ocean ridges do not typically have the same combination of high pressure and low temperature required for the formation of blueschists.

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  • 32. 

    One of the main differences between a gneiss and a schist is that

    • A.

      Gneisses have more feldspar and less mica than schists.

    • B.

      Gneisses form from sedimentary rocks and schists form from igneous rocks.

    • C.

      Gneisses are generally older than schists.

    • D.

      Gneisses form in subduction zones and schists form in batholiths.

    Correct Answer
    A. Gneisses have more feldspar and less mica than schists.
    Explanation
    Gneisses and schists are both types of metamorphic rocks, but they have different mineral compositions. Gneisses have more feldspar and less mica compared to schists. This difference in mineral content is one of the main distinguishing factors between the two rock types.

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  • 33. 

    Seafloor metamorphism

    • A.

      Occurs when seawater reacts with hot seafloor rocks.

    • B.

      Generates metamorphic rocks that usually lack foliation.

    • C.

      occurs mainly at or near mid-ocean ridges and transform faults.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    Seafloor metamorphism is a process where seawater interacts with hot seafloor rocks, resulting in the formation of metamorphic rocks. These rocks typically do not have foliation. This process primarily takes place at or near mid-ocean ridges and transform faults. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above" as it encompasses all the statements mentioned.

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  • 34. 

    The breakdown of exposed rock into small fragments and dissolved ions is termed

    • A.

      Deposition

    • B.

      Erosion

    • C.

      Weathering

    • D.

      Sedimentation

    Correct Answer
    C. Weathering
    Explanation
    Weathering is the correct answer because it refers to the process of breaking down exposed rock into smaller fragments and dissolved ions. This can occur through various mechanisms such as physical weathering (e.g. freeze-thaw cycles, abrasion) and chemical weathering (e.g. oxidation, hydrolysis). Weathering is an important step in the overall process of erosion and sedimentation, as it prepares the rock material to be transported and deposited by other geological processes.

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  • 35. 

    Frost wedging, root wedging, and salt wedging are all examples of ____________.

    • A.

      Deposition

    • B.

      Physical weathering

    • C.

      Chemical weathering

    • D.

      Erosion

    Correct Answer
    B. Physical weathering
    Explanation
    Frost wedging, root wedging, and salt wedging are all examples of physical weathering. Physical weathering refers to the breakdown of rocks and minerals into smaller pieces without any chemical change. Frost wedging occurs when water seeps into cracks in rocks, freezes, and expands, causing the rock to break apart. Root wedging happens when plant roots grow into cracks in rocks, exerting pressure and causing them to break. Salt wedging occurs when saltwater seeps into rocks, evaporates, and leaves behind salt crystals that expand and break the rock. These processes all involve physical forces that break down rocks without altering their chemical composition, making them examples of physical weathering.

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  • 36. 

    Hydrolysis, oxidation, and hydration are all examples of ____________.

    • A.

      Chemical weathering

    • B.

      Physical weathering

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      Deposition

    Correct Answer
    A. Chemical weathering
    Explanation
    Hydrolysis, oxidation, and hydration are all processes that involve the chemical breakdown of rocks and minerals. Chemical weathering refers to the alteration and decomposition of rocks through chemical reactions, such as the reaction of water with minerals (hydrolysis), the reaction of minerals with oxygen (oxidation), and the reaction of minerals with water (hydration). These processes result in the weakening and disintegration of rocks over time. Therefore, the correct answer is chemical weathering.

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  • 37. 

    Spheroidal weathering occurs when ____________.

    • A.

      Physical weathering breaks boulders directly into spherical cobbles and pebbles

    • B.

      Chemical weathering attacks corners and edges of rock more rapidly than its interior

    • C.

      Physical weathering predominates and there is little chemical weathering

    • D.

      Chemical weathering works at a uniform rate throughout the rock

    Correct Answer
    B. Chemical weathering attacks corners and edges of rock more rapidly than its interior
    Explanation
    Spheroidal weathering occurs when chemical weathering attacks corners and edges of rock more rapidly than its interior. This process causes the rock to gradually round off and form spherical shapes. It is a type of weathering that occurs in areas with high moisture and temperature fluctuations. The chemical reactions weaken the corners and edges of the rock, making them more susceptible to erosion. Over time, the rock erodes and takes on a rounded shape.

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  • 38. 

    Caliche is most commonly found in which type of environments?

    • A.

      Temperate forests

    • B.

      Deserts

    • C.

      Grasslands

    • D.

      Tropical rain forests

    Correct Answer
    B. Deserts
    Explanation
    Caliche is most commonly found in deserts. Caliche is a type of soil or sediment that is formed through the accumulation of calcium carbonate in arid environments. Deserts have a lack of water and high evaporation rates, which leads to the concentration of minerals like calcium carbonate in the soil. This accumulation over time results in the formation of caliche. Therefore, deserts provide the ideal conditions for the development of caliche.

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  • 39. 

    Laterite soils are most commonly found in which type of environments?

    • A.

      Deserts

    • B.

      Grasslands

    • C.

      Temperate forests

    • D.

      Tropical rain forests

    Correct Answer
    D. Tropical rain forests
    Explanation
    Laterite soils are most commonly found in tropical rain forests. This is because the high temperatures and heavy rainfall in tropical rainforest environments cause the rapid weathering of rocks and minerals. As a result, the soil becomes rich in iron and aluminum oxides, giving it a reddish color. The intense weathering also leads to the leaching of nutrients, making the soil relatively infertile. These conditions are ideal for the formation of laterite soils, which are characteristic of tropical rainforest environments.

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  • 40. 

    Because the velocity of sediment settling (deposition) is positively related to grain size for waterborne sediments, fluvial deposits are more likely than glacial deposits to ____________.

    • A.

      Be well sorted

    • B.

      Have angular grains

    • C.

      Include coarse grains, such as cobbles

    • D.

      Include fine grains, such as clay

    Correct Answer
    A. Be well sorted
    Explanation
    Fluvial deposits, which are formed by flowing water, are more likely to be well sorted because the velocity of sediment settling is positively related to grain size. This means that smaller grains settle more slowly than larger grains. As a result, when sediment is transported by water, the larger grains settle first and the smaller grains settle later. This sorting process leads to well-sorted deposits where grains of similar sizes are grouped together. Therefore, fluvial deposits are more likely to be well sorted compared to glacial deposits, which are formed by ice and do not undergo the same sorting process.

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  • 41. 

    It is unusual for ____________ to carry grains larger than sand.

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Wind

    • C.

      ice

    Correct Answer
    B. Wind
    Explanation
    Wind is the correct answer because it is unusual for wind to carry grains larger than sand. Wind is not typically strong enough to carry larger grains, such as rocks or pebbles. Water, on the other hand, can carry larger grains, such as gravel or boulders, depending on its speed and force. Ice can also carry larger grains, as it can freeze around larger objects and transport them. Therefore, wind stands out as the most unlikely candidate for carrying grains larger than sand.

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  • 42. 

    If water is the transport medium of sediment, the grain size of sedimentary deposits most closely indicates the ____________.

    • A.

      Velocity of the water at the moment the sediment settled to the bottom

    • B.

      Geographic extent of the weathering source rock at outcrop

    • C.

      average velocity of the water from the time of erosion until deposition

    Correct Answer
    A. Velocity of the water at the moment the sediment settled to the bottom
    Explanation
    The grain size of sedimentary deposits most closely indicates the velocity of the water at the moment the sediment settled to the bottom. This is because the size of the sediment particles is directly related to the energy of the water that transported them. Higher velocity water can carry larger and heavier particles, while lower velocity water can only carry smaller and lighter particles. Therefore, by examining the grain size of sedimentary deposits, we can infer the velocity of the water at the time of deposition.

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  • 43. 

    The difference between breccia and conglomerate is that conglomerate ____________.

    • A.

      Possesses more angular grains than breccia

    • B.

      Is finer grained than breccia

    • C.

      Possesses more rounded grains than breccia

    • D.

      Is coarser grained than breccia

    Correct Answer
    C. Possesses more rounded grains than breccia
    Explanation
    Conglomerate possesses more rounded grains than breccia. This is because conglomerate is formed from rounded pebbles and rocks that have been transported and deposited by water, resulting in the rounding of the grains. On the other hand, breccia is formed from angular fragments that have been cemented together, which gives it a more angular appearance. Therefore, the main difference between the two is the shape of the grains, with conglomerate having more rounded grains than breccia.

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  • 44. 

    Ash, cinders, and blocks are all types of _________.

    • A.

      Volcanoclastic debris

    • B.

      Lava flows

    • C.

      Volcanoes

    • D.

      Pele's hair

    Correct Answer
    A. Volcanoclastic debris
    Explanation
    Ash, cinders, and blocks are all types of volcanic materials that are produced during volcanic eruptions. These materials are known as volcanoclastic debris, which refers to the fragments of rock and other materials that are ejected from a volcano during an eruption. These fragments can vary in size and composition, and they can be carried by volcanic gases, lava flows, or explosive eruptions. Volcanoclastic debris is an important component of volcanic activity and can provide valuable information about the eruptive history and behavior of a volcano.

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  • 45. 

    Volcanic Bombs are ________.

    • A.

      Pyroclastic blocks that acquire aerodynamic shapes during flight out of the volcanic vent

    • B.

      Explosive bodies of lava with high volatile content

    • C.

      Cinders that explode upon impact with the ground

    • D.

      Used in highly hazardous volcanoes to mitigate volcanic hazards via small controlled eruptions

    Correct Answer
    A. Pyroclastic blocks that acquire aerodynamic shapes during flight out of the volcanic vent
    Explanation
    Volcanic bombs are pyroclastic blocks that acquire aerodynamic shapes during flight out of the volcanic vent. This means that as they are ejected from the volcano, they are shaped by the air resistance and gravity, giving them a streamlined and often elongated form. This process occurs due to the high velocity at which the volcanic material is expelled from the vent. The term "pyroclastic" refers to the fragments of rock and lava that are ejected during volcanic eruptions.

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  • 46. 

    Used in highly hazardous volcanoes to mitigate volcanic hazards via small controlled eruptions

    • A.

      Normal mid-ocean ridge activity

    • B.

      A submarine hot-spot located along a mid-ocean ridge

    • C.

      A submarine hot-spot located within the interior of a plate

    • D.

      Subduction of an oceanic plate underneath the continental Eurasian Plate

    Correct Answer
    B. A submarine hot-spot located along a mid-ocean ridge
    Explanation
    A submarine hot-spot located along a mid-ocean ridge can be used in highly hazardous volcanoes to mitigate volcanic hazards via small controlled eruptions. This is because mid-ocean ridges are areas where tectonic plates are moving apart, allowing magma to rise to the surface and form underwater volcanoes. By intentionally inducing small eruptions at these hot-spots, the pressure and buildup of magma can be released in a controlled manner, reducing the risk of larger and more destructive eruptions.

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  • 47. 

    Which national park is home to a large volcanic caldera formed through a very large explosive eruption 640,000 years ago?

    • A.

      Great Smoky Mountains

    • B.

      Carlsbad Caverns

    • C.

      Acadia

    • D.

      Yellowstone

    Correct Answer
    D. Yellowstone
    Explanation
    Yellowstone is the correct answer because it is home to a large volcanic caldera formed through a very large explosive eruption 640,000 years ago. The eruption resulted in the formation of the Yellowstone Caldera, which is one of the largest active volcanic systems in the world. The caldera is characterized by its geothermal features such as geysers, hot springs, and mud pots, making Yellowstone a unique and geologically significant national park.

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  • 48. 

    Olympus Mons, the largest known volcano in the Universe, is found on ____________, and is an example of a ____________.

    • A.

      Mars / shield

    • B.

      Io (a moon of Jupiter) / shield

    • C.

      Mars / cinder cone

    • D.

      Venus / stratovolcano

    • E.

      Earth / shield

    Correct Answer
    A. Mars / shield
    Explanation
    Olympus Mons, the largest known volcano in the Universe, is found on Mars. It is an example of a shield volcano. Shield volcanoes are characterized by their broad, gently sloping sides and large basaltic lava flows. Olympus Mons fits this description as it has a wide base and a low profile, with lava flows that extend for hundreds of kilometers.

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  • 49. 

    Whether an eruption will primarily produce lava flows or pyroclastic debris is influenced by __________.

    • A.

      The viscosity of the lava

    • B.

      The composition of the lava

    • C.

      The proportion of volatiles within the lava

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above". The viscosity of the lava, the composition of the lava, and the proportion of volatiles within the lava all play a role in determining whether an eruption will primarily produce lava flows or pyroclastic debris. The viscosity of the lava affects how easily it can flow, with more viscous lava tending to form lava flows. The composition of the lava can determine its explosiveness, with more silica-rich lava being more explosive and producing pyroclastic debris. The proportion of volatiles, such as water vapor and gases, can also influence the explosiveness of the eruption.

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  • 50. 

    Explosive or voluminous eruptions may cause the volcano to collapse on the floor of the (now empty) magma chamber, producing a broad depression termed a ____________.

    • A.

      Fissure

    • B.

      Lahar

    • C.

      Crater

    • D.

      Caldera

    Correct Answer
    D. Caldera
    Explanation
    Explosive or voluminous eruptions can release a significant amount of magma and gases from the volcano, causing the volcano to collapse. This collapse forms a large depression called a caldera. A caldera is typically much larger than a crater and is formed when the magma chamber beneath the volcano is emptied, resulting in the collapse of the volcano's surface.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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