Trap—a geologic configuration that forces oil to pool up and denies it passage to the surface
Heater rock—an intrusive igneous rock beneath the source rock to heat the oil and give it buoyancy
Large fracture connecting the reservoir rock to the surface of the Earth, so the oil can move freely toward the surface
Filter rock—a rock of intermediate permeability located between the source and reservoir rocks to remove impurities
Pure forms of carbon
Gas, because it is more stable at high temperatures
Oil, because it is more stable at low pressures
Oil, because it is more stable at high temperatures
Gas, because it is more stable at low pressures
Either a source or reservoir rock
A seal rock
A reservoir rock
A source rock
200 to 350 °C
100 to 250 °C
90 to 160 °C
30 to 60 °C
The most common of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element
Rare even in uranium oxide deposits, and thus usable reactor fuel must be enriched with respect to this isotope
Heavier than the other well-known isotope of uranium
Thick basinal sandstones and shales
Residual mineral deposits
Nonmetallic minerals only
Iron and aluminum ores
Base metals only
No mineral resources are renewable
20 km beneath New Madrid
20 km south of New Madrid
200 km beneath New Madrid
In New Madrid ("hypocenter" and "epicenter" mean precisely the same thing)
Produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes
Travel more rapidly than body waves
Are the first waves initially produced in an earthquake
Are the first waves to arrive at a seismograph station after an earthquake
Is based on past earthquake activity
Works on the principle that zones of past seismicity will be active in the future
Includes the notion of seismic gaps—places where an earthquake is “overdue”
All of the above
The influence of abrupt changes in density associated with major contrasts in rock type at depth
The arcuate nature of trenches at subduction zones, where most earthquakes are generated
The spheroidal nature of the Earth itself
Gradual changes in density with depth beneath the surface
a high-velocity zone for seismic waves traveling in the outer core
A P-wave "shadow" zone for seismometers situated between 104° and 140° from earthquake hypocenters
A low-velocity zone (LVZ) at a depth of 200 km where about 2% of the rock may be melted
A S-wave "shadow" zone for seismometers situated on the far side of the Earth from earthquake hypocenters
Both D and B
A concept in existential philosophy.
Change in the chemical composition of a rock.
Moving toward the middle.
The original minerals are recrystallized in the solid state, and they are sometimes replaced by a new set of minerals.
They always develop a strong foliation.
They always melt and then recrystallize upon cooling.
They always turn green, which is why they are called greenschists.