Trap—a geologic configuration that forces oil to pool up and denies it passage to the surface
Heater rock—an intrusive igneous rock beneath the source rock to heat the oil and give it buoyancy
Large fracture connecting the reservoir rock to the surface of the Earth, so the oil can move freely toward the surface
Filter rock—a rock of intermediate permeability located between the source and reservoir rocks to remove impurities
Pure forms of carbon
Gas, because it is more stable at high temperatures
Oil, because it is more stable at low pressures
Oil, because it is more stable at high temperatures
Gas, because it is more stable at low pressures
Either a source or reservoir rock
A seal rock
A reservoir rock
A source rock
200 to 350 °C
100 to 250 °C
90 to 160 °C
30 to 60 °C
The most common of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element
Rare even in uranium oxide deposits, and thus usable reactor fuel must be enriched with respect to this isotope
Heavier than the other well-known isotope of uranium
Thick basinal sandstones and shales
Residual mineral deposits
Nonmetallic minerals only
Iron and aluminum ores
Base metals only
No mineral resources are renewable
20 km beneath New Madrid
20 km south of New Madrid
200 km beneath New Madrid
In New Madrid ("hypocenter" and "epicenter" mean precisely the same thing)
Produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes
Travel more rapidly than body waves
Are the first waves initially produced in an earthquake
Are the first waves to arrive at a seismograph station after an earthquake
Is based on past earthquake activity
Works on the principle that zones of past seismicity will be active in the future
Includes the notion of seismic gaps—places where an earthquake is “overdue”
All of the above
The influence of abrupt changes in density associated with major contrasts in rock type at depth
The arcuate nature of trenches at subduction zones, where most earthquakes are generated
The spheroidal nature of the Earth itself
Gradual changes in density with depth beneath the surface
a high-velocity zone for seismic waves traveling in the outer core
A P-wave "shadow" zone for seismometers situated between 104° and 140° from earthquake hypocenters
A low-velocity zone (LVZ) at a depth of 200 km where about 2% of the rock may be melted
A S-wave "shadow" zone for seismometers situated on the far side of the Earth from earthquake hypocenters
Both D and B
A concept in existential philosophy.
Change in the chemical composition of a rock.
Moving toward the middle.
The original minerals are recrystallized in the solid state, and they are sometimes replaced by a new set of minerals.
They always develop a strong foliation.
They always melt and then recrystallize upon cooling.
They always turn green, which is why they are called greenschists.
Is made up primarily of quartz.
Most commonly forms in contact metamorphic environments.
Has platty mineral grains (like micas) aligned parallel to each other, causing the rock to break into flat slabs.
Is most likely to form in response to falling temperature and pressure.
Amphibolite : greenschist : blueschist
Marble : greenschist : quartzite
Granite : gabbro : phyllite
Greenschist : amphibolite
Blueschist : greenschist : amphibolite cooler → hotter
Slate : phyllite : schist : gneiss cooler → hotter
Gneiss : schist : phyllite : slate cooler → hotter
Lapilli : lahar :tuff : ignimbrite cooler → hotter
Sediments on a subducting slab are heated and deformed.
Basalt is erupted under seawater.
Magma is emplaced adjacent to relatively cool sedimentary rocks.
Magma is emplaced into very deeply buried and already-hot igneous rocks.
Gneisses have more feldspar and less mica than schists.
Gneisses form from sedimentary rocks and schists form from igneous rocks.
Gneisses are generally older than schists.
Gneisses form in subduction zones and schists form in batholiths.
Occurs when seawater reacts with hot seafloor rocks.
Generates metamorphic rocks that usually lack foliation.
occurs mainly at or near mid-ocean ridges and transform faults.
All of the above.
Physical weathering breaks boulders directly into spherical cobbles and pebbles
Chemical weathering attacks corners and edges of rock more rapidly than its interior
Physical weathering predominates and there is little chemical weathering
Chemical weathering works at a uniform rate throughout the rock
Tropical rain forests
Tropical rain forests
Be well sorted
Have angular grains
Include coarse grains, such as cobbles
Include fine grains, such as clay
Velocity of the water at the moment the sediment settled to the bottom
Geographic extent of the weathering source rock at outcrop
average velocity of the water from the time of erosion until deposition
Possesses more angular grains than breccia
Is finer grained than breccia
Possesses more rounded grains than breccia
Is coarser grained than breccia
Pyroclastic blocks that acquire aerodynamic shapes during flight out of the volcanic vent
Explosive bodies of lava with high volatile content
Cinders that explode upon impact with the ground
Used in highly hazardous volcanoes to mitigate volcanic hazards via small controlled eruptions
Normal mid-ocean ridge activity
A submarine hot-spot located along a mid-ocean ridge
A submarine hot-spot located within the interior of a plate
Subduction of an oceanic plate underneath the continental Eurasian Plate
Great Smoky Mountains
Mars / shield
Io (a moon of Jupiter) / shield
Mars / cinder cone
Venus / stratovolcano
Earth / shield
The viscosity of the lava
The composition of the lava
The proportion of volatiles within the lava
All of the above
Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and oxygen
Oxygen, hydrogen, and neon
Oxygen, ozone, and water vapor
Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide
Stale water within the magma chamber
Hydrogen sulfide gas
Iron and magnesium within lava
Carbon dioxide gas