Macromolecules In Human Anatomy

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Macromolecules In Human Anatomy - Quiz

Welcome to the human anatomy and physiology electronic frontier classroom of the 21st century. This test "macromolecules" can be used to review the various organic compounds our bodies are composed. To best understand the characteristics of life, we must have a good grip on how the basic principles of chemistry apply to the life processes.
As "fill-in" questions appear in this test please enter your answer(s) using in all lower case letters. Unless question sites have specific directions printed for you to follow.
I wish you GOOD LUCK and a Read moreHIGH SCORE on this test!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What macromolecule is found in the composition of plasma membrane of cells?

    • A.

      Lipoproteins

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Proteoglycans

    • E.

      Phospholipids

    Correct Answer
    E. Phospholipids
    Explanation
    Phospholipids are the correct answer because they are the main component of the plasma membrane of cells. The plasma membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules. These molecules have a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail, which allows them to form a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the external environment. This phospholipid bilayer provides structural support to the cell, controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell, and helps maintain the integrity of the cell.

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  • 2. 

    What macromolecule is a basic component of  of nerve cell membranes?

    Correct Answer
    glycolipids
    Explanation
    Glycolipids are a type of macromolecule that are a basic component of nerve cell membranes. They are composed of a lipid portion and a carbohydrate portion. These molecules play a crucial role in cell signaling and recognition, as well as maintaining the integrity and fluidity of the nerve cell membrane. Glycolipids are particularly abundant in the myelin sheath, which surrounds and insulates nerve fibers, allowing for efficient transmission of electrical signals along the nerve cells.

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  • 3. 

    Th RNA molecule helps to decode hereditary information using messenger, ribosomal, and transfer RNA molecules.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The RNA molecule plays a crucial role in decoding hereditary information through the use of messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA. Messenger RNA carries the genetic instructions from DNA to the ribosomes, where protein synthesis occurs. Ribosomal RNA is a component of ribosomes, which are responsible for assembling amino acids into proteins. Transfer RNA carries specific amino acids to the ribosomes based on the instructions provided by messenger RNA. Therefore, the statement that the RNA molecule helps to decode hereditary information using these three types of RNA molecules is true.

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  • 4. 

    What macromolecule transfers energy from fuel molecules to working molecules?

    • A.

      ADP

    • B.

      AMP

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      DTP

    Correct Answer
    C. ATP
    Explanation
    ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the correct answer. ATP is a macromolecule that serves as the main energy currency of the cell. It transfers energy from fuel molecules, such as glucose, to working molecules, such as enzymes, by undergoing hydrolysis to release a phosphate group and form ADP (adenosine diphosphate). This release of a phosphate group results in the release of energy that can be utilized by the cell for various metabolic processes.

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  • 5. 

    These large proteins with small carbohydrate groups attached is similar to functional proteins found in some hormones and antibodies are termed structural proteins.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. Structural proteins are not similar to functional proteins found in hormones and antibodies. Structural proteins are responsible for providing support and strength to cells and tissues, while functional proteins have specific roles in biological processes such as signaling and immunity.

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  • 6. 

    Name this carbohydrate that stores energy and has six carbons atom known as a hexose.

    • A.

      Lipoproteins

    • B.

      Structural Proteins

    • C.

      Proteoglycans

    • D.

      Triglycerides

    • E.

      Glucose

    Correct Answer
    E. Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is a carbohydrate that stores energy and has six carbon atoms, making it a hexose. It is a primary source of energy for cells and is commonly found in the bloodstream. Glucose can be broken down through cellular respiration to release energy or stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles for later use. It is an essential component in many biological processes and is vital for maintaining proper bodily functions.

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  • 7. 

    Prostaglandins are used to regulate hormone action; enhance your immune system and affect inflammatory response.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Prostaglandins are indeed used to regulate hormone action, enhance the immune system, and affect inflammatory response. These lipid compounds play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood flow regulation, and the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles. By regulating hormone action, prostaglandins help maintain hormonal balance in the body. Additionally, they contribute to the immune system's response to infections and injuries, and they can either promote or reduce inflammation depending on the specific circumstances. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 8. 

    Cholesterol is what type of macromolecule?

    Correct Answer
    steroid, steroids
    Explanation
    Cholesterol is classified as a steroid, which is a type of macromolecule. Steroids are a class of lipids that have a specific structure consisting of four interconnected carbon rings. Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and is also involved in the synthesis of hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the body. Therefore, cholesterol is correctly identified as a steroid.

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  • 9. 

    Name this carbohydrate that functions as an important in expression of hereditary information.

    Correct Answer
    ribose
    Explanation
    Ribose is a carbohydrate that plays a crucial role in the expression of hereditary information. It is a component of RNA (ribonucleic acid), which is responsible for the transmission of genetic information from DNA to proteins. Ribose forms the backbone of RNA molecules, providing stability and structure. It is also involved in the synthesis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the primary energy molecule in cells. Overall, ribose is essential for the proper functioning of genetic processes and the maintenance of cellular energy levels.

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  • 10. 

    Ligaments, muscle filaments, and tendons are composed of this macromolecule?

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      Functional Proteins

    • C.

      Glycoproteins

    • D.

      Structural Proteins

    • E.

      Lipids

    Correct Answer
    D. Structural Proteins
    Explanation
    Structural proteins are composed of ligaments, muscle filaments, and tendons. These proteins provide support and structure to the body. Ligaments connect bones to other bones, muscle filaments make up the contractile units of muscles, and tendons connect muscles to bones. Therefore, structural proteins are the correct answer as they are the main component of these body structures.

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  • 11. 

    What macromolecule has a function for lubrication and increases the thickness of fluids within the human body?

    • A.

      Nucleic Acids

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Glycolipids

    • D.

      Steroids

    • E.

      Proteoglycans

    Correct Answer
    E. Proteoglycans
    Explanation
    Proteoglycans are macromolecules that have a function for lubrication and increasing the thickness of fluids within the human body. They consist of a protein core with attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, which are long, negatively charged sugar chains. These GAG chains attract water molecules, creating a gel-like substance that provides lubrication and helps to maintain the thickness of fluids such as synovial fluid in joints and mucus in the respiratory tract. Therefore, proteoglycans are the correct answer for this question.

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  • 12. 

    What class of macromolecules is used to regulate chemical reactions and produces antibodies, enzymes, and hemoglobin?

    • A.

      Lipds: Steroids

    • B.

      Proteins: Functional

    • C.

      Carbohydrates: Glycogen

    • D.

      Lipoproteins

    • E.

      Proteins: Structural

    Correct Answer
    B. Proteins: Functional
    Explanation
    Proteins are a class of macromolecules that are used to regulate chemical reactions and produce antibodies, enzymes, and hemoglobin. They have a wide range of functions in the body and are involved in various biological processes.

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  • 13. 

    Identify this type of carbohydrate that stores energy in the form of liver glycogen?

    Correct Answer
    glycogen
    Explanation
    Glycogen is a type of carbohydrate that is stored in the liver and muscles as a form of energy. It is a highly branched polysaccharide made up of glucose molecules. When the body needs energy, glycogen can be broken down into glucose and released into the bloodstream. The liver glycogen specifically plays a crucial role in maintaining blood sugar levels and providing energy to the body during periods of fasting or intense physical activity.

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  • 14. 

    What type of macromolecule helps code hereditary information in the form of chromosomes?

    • A.

      ADP

    • B.

      AMP

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      DNA

    • E.

      RNA

    Correct Answer
    D. DNA
    Explanation
    DNA is the correct answer because it is a macromolecule that carries and codes hereditary information in the form of chromosomes. DNA contains the genetic instructions that determine the development and functioning of all living organisms. It is composed of nucleotides and forms a double helix structure. DNA is responsible for passing on genetic traits from one generation to the next through the process of replication and transcription.

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  • 15. 

    What macromolecule aids in the transport of lipids in the blood and contains LDL (see image to the right) and HDL.

    Correct Answer
    lipoprotein, lipoproteins
    Explanation
    Lipoproteins are macromolecules that aid in the transport of lipids in the blood. They consist of a combination of proteins and lipids, including LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and HDL (high-density lipoprotein). LDL carries cholesterol from the liver to the cells, while HDL removes excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transports it back to the liver for disposal. Therefore, lipoproteins play a crucial role in maintaining lipid balance and preventing the buildup of cholesterol in the blood vessels.

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  • 16. 

    Glycolipids are lipid molecules with carbohydrate group attached to the structure.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glycolipids are indeed lipid molecules that have a carbohydrate group attached to their structure. This carbohydrate group can be found on the surface of cell membranes and plays a role in cell recognition and communication. Therefore, the statement "Glycolipids are lipid molecules with carbohydrate group attached to the structure" is true.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following macromolecules is NOT a member of the combined or altered forms?

    • A.

      Adenosine Triphosphate

    • B.

      Deooxyribonucleic Acid

    • C.

      Glycoproteins

    • D.

      Lipoproteins

    • E.

      Proteoglycans

    Correct Answer
    B. Deooxyribonucleic Acid
    Explanation
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is not a member of the combined or altered forms of macromolecules. DNA is a nucleic acid that contains genetic information and is composed of nucleotides. It is not typically found in combined or altered forms with other macromolecules. In contrast, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide that can be combined with other molecules to form nucleic acids, glycoproteins are proteins with attached carbohydrate chains, lipoproteins are complexes of lipids and proteins, and proteoglycans are proteins with attached glycosaminoglycan chains. Therefore, DNA is the correct answer as it does not fit the description of a combined or altered form of a macromolecule.

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  • 18. 

    A(n) _____ has large proteins with small carbohydrate groups attached.

    Correct Answer
    glycoprotein, glycoproteins
    Explanation
    Glycoproteins are proteins that have small carbohydrate groups attached to them. These carbohydrate groups can be attached to the protein through a process called glycosylation. The addition of these carbohydrate groups can significantly impact the structure and function of the protein. Glycoproteins are found in various biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, immune response, and hormone signaling. They play essential roles in maintaining cell structure and function, as well as mediating interactions between cells and their environment.

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  • 19. 

    What macromolecule  stores energy in the form of fat and is observed in the image below?

    • A.

      Ribose

    • B.

      Lipoprotein

    • C.

      Glycolipids

    • D.

      Triglycerides

    • E.

      Adenosine Triphosphate

    Correct Answer
    D. Triglycerides
    Explanation
    Triglycerides are a type of macromolecule that store energy in the form of fat. They are composed of glycerol and three fatty acid chains. Triglycerides are commonly found in adipose tissue and are an important source of energy for the body. They provide insulation and protection to organs, as well as serving as a long-term energy storage molecule. The image below might show the structure or representation of triglycerides.

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  • 20. 

    What is the name of this macromolecule?

    • A.

      Steroids

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      Proteoglycans

    Correct Answer
    A. Steroids
    Explanation
    Steroids are a type of macromolecule. They are organic compounds that have a specific structure consisting of four interconnected carbon rings. Steroids are known for their various biological functions, including acting as hormones, regulating metabolism, and serving as structural components of cell membranes. Glucose, ATP, and proteoglycans are also macromolecules, but they are not specifically referred to as steroids.

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  • 21. 

    What is the name of this macromolecule?

    • A.

      Steroids

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      Proteoglycans

    Correct Answer
    B. Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is the correct answer because it is a macromolecule. It is a simple sugar and a carbohydrate that plays a crucial role in providing energy to the body. Glucose is the primary source of energy for cellular processes and is essential for the proper functioning of the brain and muscles. It is also a component of larger macromolecules such as glycogen and starch.

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  • 22. 

    What is the name of this macromolecule?

    • A.

      Steroids

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      Proteoglycans

    • E.

      Phospholipids

    Correct Answer
    E. Phospholipids
    Explanation
    Phospholipids are a type of macromolecule that make up the cell membrane. They consist of a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails, which allow them to form a bilayer structure in water. This structure is essential for the cell membrane's function as a selective barrier. Phospholipids also play a role in cell signaling and transport.

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  • 23. 

    What is the name of this macromolecule?

    • A.

      Steroids

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      Proteoglycans

    • E.

      Phospholipids

    Correct Answer
    C. ATP
    Explanation
    ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the correct answer. ATP is a macromolecule that serves as the main energy currency of the cell. It is composed of adenosine and three phosphate groups. ATP releases energy when the bond between the second and third phosphate groups is broken, forming ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and inorganic phosphate. This energy release is used to fuel various cellular processes, such as muscle contraction, active transport, and synthesis of macromolecules.

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  • 24. 

    Ribose has a simple sugar called pentose.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Ribose is indeed a simple sugar called a pentose. Pentose refers to a sugar molecule that contains five carbon atoms. Ribose is a pentose sugar that is an essential component of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of RNA (ribonucleic acid). It plays a crucial role in the structure and function of RNA, as well as in various cellular processes such as energy metabolism and enzyme reactions. Therefore, the statement "Ribose has a simple sugar called pentose" is true.

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  • 25. 

    ATP is present in every cell of the human body.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is a molecule that serves as the primary energy source for cellular processes. It is generated in the mitochondria of cells and is involved in various metabolic reactions. Since every cell in the human body requires energy to function, it follows that ATP is present in every cell. Therefore, the statement "ATP is present in every cell of the human body" is true.

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  • 26. 

    Identify those macromolecules which makeup cell membranes.

    • A.

      Phospholipids

    • B.

      Steroids

    • C.

      Glycolipids

    • D.

      Structural Proteins

    • E.

      Triglycerides

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Phospholipids
    B. Steroids
    C. Glycolipids
    Explanation
    Phospholipids, steroids, and glycolipids are the macromolecules that make up cell membranes. Phospholipids are the main component, forming a lipid bilayer that provides a barrier for the cell. Steroids, such as cholesterol, are embedded within the lipid bilayer and help regulate the fluidity of the membrane. Glycolipids, which have a carbohydrate group attached to a lipid, are found on the outer surface of the membrane and play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Therefore, these three macromolecules are essential for the structure and function of cell membranes.

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  • 27. 

    This group of macromolecules aids in lubrication and increases thickness of fluid.

    • A.

      Proteoglycans

    • B.

      Functional Proteins

    • C.

      Lipoproteins

    • D.

      Glycolipids

    Correct Answer
    A. Proteoglycans
    Explanation
    Proteoglycans are a group of macromolecules that help in lubrication and increase the thickness of fluid. They consist of a protein core with attached glycosaminoglycan chains, which are long chains of repeating sugar units. These chains attract water molecules, creating a gel-like substance that acts as a lubricant and provides viscosity to fluids. Therefore, proteoglycans are responsible for lubricating and thickening fluids in various biological processes.

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  • 28. 

    Functional proteins are component of body support tissue such muscle filaments, ligaments, and tendons.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Functional proteins are not components of body support tissues such as muscle filaments, ligaments, and tendons. Instead, functional proteins are involved in various biological processes and perform specific functions in the body, such as enzymes, antibodies, and transport proteins. Body support tissues are primarily made up of structural proteins like collagen and elastin. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 29. 

    Prostaglandins have _____ carbon  unsaturated fatty acid containing 5-carbon ring.

    • A.

      20

    • B.

      30

    • C.

      15

    • D.

      10

    • E.

      5

    Correct Answer
    A. 20
    Explanation
    Prostaglandins are a type of lipid molecule that contains a 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid with a 5-carbon ring. This structure is important for the biological activity of prostaglandins, as it allows them to bind to specific receptors and regulate various physiological processes in the body.

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  • 30. 

    Select various component subunits for phospholipids.

    • A.

      Glycerol

    • B.

      Phosphate

    • C.

      2- fatty acids

    • D.

      3-fatty acids

    • E.

      5-fatty acids

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Glycerol
    B. Phosphate
    C. 2- fatty acids
    Explanation
    Phospholipids are composed of three main components: glycerol, phosphate, and fatty acids. Glycerol forms the backbone of the phospholipid molecule, while phosphate is attached to one end of the glycerol molecule. The fatty acids are attached to the other end of the glycerol molecule. Therefore, in order to form a phospholipid, all three components - glycerol, phosphate, and fatty acids - are necessary. The options "3-fatty acids" and "5-fatty acids" are incorrect because phospholipids typically have only two fatty acids attached to the glycerol molecule.

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  • 31. 

    Which macromolecule is NOT a combined or altered form?

    • A.

      Triglycerides

    • B.

      Adenosine triphosphate

    • C.

      Lipoproteins

    • D.

      Glycoproteins

    • E.

      Proteoglycans

    Correct Answer
    A. Triglycerides
    Explanation
    Triglycerides are not a combined or altered form of any macromolecule. They are a type of lipid composed of glycerol and three fatty acid chains. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide and a combined form of ribose sugar, adenine base, and three phosphate groups. Lipoproteins are combinations of proteins and lipids, while glycoproteins are proteins with attached carbohydrate chains. Proteoglycans are macromolecules composed of proteins and long chains of polysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans.

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  • 32. 

    As a group, carbohydrates are divided into three classes, which are characterized by the length of  their carbon chains. _____ (is/are) a double sugar.(HINT: please enter your answer in plural.)

    Correct Answer
    disaccharides
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are classified into three classes based on the length of their carbon chains. Disaccharides, which are double sugars, are one of these classes. Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide units linked together by a glycosidic bond. Examples of disaccharides include sucrose, lactose, and maltose.

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  • 33. 

    Sucrose (table sugar) is composed of which two monosaccharides?

    • A.

      Glucose and Fructose

    • B.

      Fructose and Maltose

    • C.

      Maltose and Fructose

    • D.

      Glucose and Maltose

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucose and Fructose
    Explanation
    Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. These two monosaccharides are bonded together through a glycosidic linkage to form a disaccharide molecule. Glucose and fructose are both simple sugars that provide energy to the body when broken down during digestion.

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  • 34. 

    Which one of the following carbohydrates is not a disaccharide?

    • A.

      Sucrose

    • B.

      Maltose

    • C.

      Lactose

    • D.

      Fructose

    Correct Answer
    D. Fructose
    Explanation
    Fructose is not a disaccharide because it is a monosaccharide, specifically a simple sugar. Disaccharides are formed by the bonding of two monosaccharides, whereas fructose exists as a single molecule. Sucrose, maltose, and lactose are all examples of disaccharides, as they are composed of two monosaccharides bonded together.

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  • 35. 

    Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides. Glycogen is sometimes referred to as _____  _____. It is the main polysaccharide in the body.(HINT: Please enter your answers in all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    animal starch
    Explanation
    Glycogen is sometimes referred to as "animal starch" because it is the main polysaccharide found in animals. It is similar in structure to starch, which is the main polysaccharide found in plants. Glycogen serves as a storage form of glucose in animals and is primarily stored in the liver and muscles. It can be broken down into glucose when energy is needed by the body.

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