Diseases Of Infancy And Childhood

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| By MaddieShirley
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Quizzes Created: 6 | Total Attempts: 10,486
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Diseases Of Infancy And Childhood - Quiz

Based on chapter 10 of Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease 7th edition.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Flattened facies, positional anomalies of the hands and feet, dislocated hips and hypoplastic lungs are features that can be caused by which of the following?

    • A.

      Oligohydramnios sequence

    • B.

      Holoprosencephaly

    • C.

      Turner Syndrome

    • D.

      Cystic Fibrosis

    • E.

      Edward's Syndrome

    • F.

      Down'd Syndrome

    Correct Answer
    A. Oligohydramnios sequence
    Explanation
    Also called Potter sequence, and can result from rupture of the amnion with chronic leakage, renal agenesis of the fetus or maternal hypertension giving rise to uroplacental insufficiency.

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  • 2. 

    What does Agenesis mean?

    • A.

      The complete absence of an organ and its associated primordium.

    • B.

      The absence of an organ owing to the failure of development of the primordium.

    • C.

      The absence of an opening - usually of a hollow, visceral organ.

    • D.

      The incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ with decreased numbers of cells

    • E.

      An abnormal organisation of cells.

    • F.

      An abnormality in an organ or tissue as a result of a decrease in the size of individual cells.

    Correct Answer
    A. The complete absence of an organ and its associated primordium.
    Explanation
    Agenesis refers to the complete absence of an organ and its associated primordium. This means that the organ is completely missing and never developed in the first place. It is not just a failure of development, but a complete absence.

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  • 3. 

    What does Aplasia mean?

    • A.

      The complete absence of an organ and its associated primordium.

    • B.

      The absence of an organ owing to the failure of development of the primordium.

    • C.

      The absence of an opening - usually of a hollow, visceral organ.

    • D.

      The incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ with decreased numbers of cells

    • E.

      An abnormal organisation of cells.

    • F.

      An abnormality in an organ or tissue as a result of a decrease in the size of individual cells.

    Correct Answer
    B. The absence of an organ owing to the failure of development of the primordium.
    Explanation
    Aplasia refers to the absence of an organ due to the failure of the development of its primordium. This means that the organ does not form or develop properly during embryonic development, resulting in its complete absence in the individual.

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  • 4. 

    What does Atresia mean?

    • A.

      The complete absence of an organ and its associated primordium.

    • B.

      The absence of an organ owing to the failure of development of the primordium.

    • C.

      The absence of an opening - usually of a hollow, visceral organ.

    • D.

      The incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ with decreased numbers of cells

    • E.

      An abnormal organisation of cells.

    • F.

      An abnormality in an organ or tissue as a result of a decrease in the size of individual cells.

    Correct Answer
    C. The absence of an opening - usually of a hollow, visceral organ.
    Explanation
    Atresia refers to the absence of an opening, typically in a hollow, visceral organ. It does not necessarily indicate the complete absence of the organ itself, but rather the absence of an opening or passage within the organ. This can lead to various complications and blockages within the affected organ.

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  • 5. 

    What does Hypoplasia mean?

    • A.

      The complete absence of an organ and its associated primordium.

    • B.

      The absence of an organ owing to the failure of development of the primordium.

    • C.

      The absence of an opening - usually of a hollow, visceral organ.

    • D.

      The incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ with decreased numbers of cells

    • E.

      An abnormal organisation of cells.

    • F.

      An abnormality in an organ or tissue as a result of a decrease in the size of individual cells.

    Correct Answer
    D. The incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ with decreased numbers of cells
    Explanation
    Hypoplasia refers to the incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ with decreased numbers of cells. This means that the organ has not fully formed and has fewer cells than it should have.

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  • 6. 

    What does Hypotrophy mean?

    • A.

      The complete absence of an organ and its associated primordium.

    • B.

      The absence of an organ owing to the failure of development of the primordium.

    • C.

      The absence of an opening - usually of a hollow, visceral organ.

    • D.

      The incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ with decreased numbers of cells

    • E.

      An abnormal organisation of cells.

    • F.

      An abnormality in an organ or tissue as a result of a decrease in the size of individual cells.

    Correct Answer
    F. An abnormality in an organ or tissue as a result of a decrease in the size of individual cells.
    Explanation
    Hypotrophy refers to an abnormality in an organ or tissue where there is a decrease in the size of individual cells. This can lead to a decrease in the overall size and function of the organ or tissue. It is different from the absence of an organ or its primordium, the absence of an opening in a hollow organ, or the incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ. Hypotrophy specifically refers to the decrease in cell size, resulting in an abnormality in the affected organ or tissue.

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  • 7. 

    What does Dysplasia in the context of malformations mean?

    • A.

      The complete absence of an organ and its associated primordium.

    • B.

      The absence of an organ owing to the failure of development of the primordium.

    • C.

      The absence of an opening - usually of a hollow, visceral organ.

    • D.

      The incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ with decreased numbers of cells

    • E.

      An abnormal organisation of cells.

    • F.

      An abnormality in an organ or tissue as a result of a decrease in the size of individual cells.

    Correct Answer
    E. An abnormal organisation of cells.
    Explanation
    Dysplasia in the context of malformations refers to an abnormal organization of cells. This means that there is a disruption in the normal arrangement and structure of cells within a particular organ or tissue. It is characterized by the presence of cells that are disordered, varying in size, shape, and appearance. Dysplasia can be a precursor to the development of cancer, as the abnormal cell organization can lead to uncontrolled growth and potential malignancy.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is the most common developmental defect of the forebrain and midface in humans?

    • A.

      Oligohydramnios sequence

    • B.

      Holoprosencephaly

    • C.

      Patau Syndrome

    • D.

      Klinefelter Syndrome

    • E.

      Rubella Embryopathy

    • F.

      Cystic Fibrosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Holoprosencephaly
    Explanation
    Mutations in sonic hedgehog play a role in some cases.

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  • 9. 

    Cytomegalovirus infection in which trimester poses the greatest risk to the fetus?

    • A.

      First

    • B.

      Second

    • C.

      Third

    Correct Answer
    B. Second
    Explanation
    Involvement of the central nervous system is a major feature. Prominent clinical changes are mental retardation, microencephaly, deafness and hepatosplenomegaly.

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  • 10. 

    The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a highly conserved,180 nucleotide motif with DNA binding properties on HOX genes.  In vertebrates, these genes have been implicated in the patterning of limbs, vertebrae and craniofacial structures.

    Correct Answer
    homeobox
    Explanation
    The highly conserved, 180 nucleotide motif with DNA binding properties on HOX genes is called the homeobox. Homeobox genes are found in vertebrates and play a role in the development and patterning of limbs, vertebrae, and craniofacial structures.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is caused by a mutation in the PAX2 gene, which causes developmental defects of the eyes, kidneys ears and brain?

    • A.

      Oligohydramnios sequence

    • B.

      Holoprosencephaly

    • C.

      Patau Syndrome

    • D.

      Klinefelter Syndrome

    • E.

      Renal-Coloboma Syndrome

    • F.

      Cystic Fibrosis

    Correct Answer
    E. Renal-Coloboma Syndrome
    Explanation
    PAX genes are highly conserved throughout evolution. Mutations can cause malformations and they may also function as oncogenes as their overexpression is associated with tumorigenesis.

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