Gastrointestinal Pathology MCQ With Answers

Reviewed by Farah Naz
Farah Naz, MBBS |
Medicine
Review Board Member
Farah holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) from Dow University of Health Sciences. She gained valuable experience through internships in Radiology, Cardiology, and Neurosurgery, and has contributed to two research publications in medical journals. Passionate about healthcare education, Farah excels in crafting medical content, including articles, literature reviews, and e-learning courses. Leveraging her expertise, she meticulously reviews medical science quizzes, ensuring accuracy and educational value for aspiring healthcare professionals.
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Gastrointestinal Pathology MCQ With Answers - Quiz


Are you looking forward to pursuing your career in pathology? This quiz about gastrointestinal pathology MCQ with answers will help you practice gastrointestinal pathology. The digestive system is charged with ensuring that the food we consume daily is broken down, all the essential nutrients are absorbed into the body, and waste is expelled from the body. Some disorders may cause this system to perform ineffectively, and this quiz will help review some of them. Give it a try! And see how well you will do!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    An abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure is

    • A.

      Atresia

    • B.

      Fistula

    • C.

      Stenosis

    • D.

      Varices

    Correct Answer
    C. Stenosis
    Explanation
    Stenosis refers to an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or any other tubular organ or structure. This narrowing can restrict or block the flow of blood or other fluids through the affected area. Atresia is a condition where there is a complete absence or closure of a normal opening or passage in the body. Fistula refers to an abnormal connection between two organs or structures. Varices are enlarged and twisted veins, commonly found in the legs. Therefore, stenosis is the most appropriate term to describe an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or tubular organ.

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  • 2. 

    The great majority of esophageal varices are associated with alcoholic cirrhosis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Esophageal varices are enlarged veins in the esophagus that occur due to increased pressure in the portal vein system, which carries blood from the intestines to the liver. Alcoholic cirrhosis is a condition in which long-term alcohol abuse leads to liver damage and scarring, causing increased pressure in the portal vein system. Therefore, it is true that the great majority of esophageal varices are associated with alcoholic cirrhosis.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following conditions is characterized by Longitudinal tear at GE junction after forceful vomiting?

    • A.

      Achalasia

    • B.

      Esophageal Hernia

    • C.

      Mallory Weiss Syndrome

    • D.

      Esophagitis

    Correct Answer
    C. Mallory Weiss Syndrome
    Explanation
    Mallory Weiss Syndrome is characterized by a longitudinal tear at the gastroesophageal (GE) junction after forceful vomiting. This condition typically occurs due to excessive pressure on the lining of the esophagus, leading to the tear. Symptoms may include vomiting blood, black or tarry stools, and upper abdominal pain. It is commonly seen in individuals with alcoholism or those who have undergone prolonged vomiting. Treatment involves supportive care, such as fluid replacement and blood transfusions if necessary, and in severe cases, endoscopic therapy or surgery may be required.

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  • 4. 

    Ulceration, bleeding, and rupture are possible complications of

    • A.

      Achalasia

    • B.

      Esophageal Hernia

    • C.

      Mallory Weiss Syndrome

    • D.

      Esophagitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Esophageal Hernia
    Explanation
    Esophageal hernia is a condition where part of the stomach protrudes into the chest through the diaphragm. This can lead to complications such as ulceration, bleeding, and rupture. The herniated portion of the stomach can cause irritation and damage to the esophagus, leading to ulceration. Additionally, the hernia can put pressure on blood vessels, causing them to bleed. In severe cases, the hernia can become incarcerated or strangulated, leading to rupture and potentially life-threatening complications. Therefore, esophageal hernia is the most likely cause of these complications.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following microscopical changes in GE epithelium is the result of Barrett’s Esophagus?

    • A.

      Ciliated Columnar appearance

    • B.

      Metaplastic glandular epithelium

    • C.

      Goblet cell type

    • D.

      Cuboidal cell-like

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Metaplastic glandular epithelium
    C. Goblet cell type
    Explanation
    The correct answer is metaplastic glandular epithelium and goblet cell type. Barrett's esophagus is a condition where the normal squamous epithelium lining of the lower esophagus is replaced by metaplastic glandular epithelium, which resembles the lining of the stomach or intestines. Goblet cells, which are typically found in the intestinal epithelium, are also present in Barrett's esophagus. These changes are considered precancerous and are associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

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  • 6. 

    Esophageal carcinoma is most commonly a result factor associated with a person’s lifestyle. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Esophageal carcinoma, or esophageal cancer, is indeed most commonly associated with a person's lifestyle. Certain lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet, and obesity have been found to increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Additionally, chronic acid reflux and Barrett's esophagus, which are often caused by lifestyle choices, can also increase the risk. Therefore, it is true that a person's lifestyle plays a significant role in the development of esophageal carcinoma.

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  • 7. 

    Identify the disease seen in the image below.

    • A.

      Chronic gastritis

    • B.

      Acute gastritis

    • C.

      Esophagitis

    • D.

      Esophageal Hernia

    Correct Answer
    A. Chronic gastritis
    Explanation
    The image shows inflammation of the stomach lining, which is characteristic of chronic gastritis. This condition is caused by long-term irritation of the stomach lining, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, indigestion, and nausea. It can be caused by factors such as infection, prolonged use of NSAIDs, excessive alcohol consumption, and autoimmune disorders. The image likely shows the presence of inflammation and possibly erosion or ulceration of the stomach lining, which are common findings in chronic gastritis.

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  • 8. 

    Ulcers are common in which region of the GI tract.

    • A.

      Jejunum

    • B.

      Illium

    • C.

      Duodenum

    • D.

      Caecum

    Correct Answer
    C. Duodenum
    Explanation
    Ulcers are common in the duodenum. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine and is responsible for receiving partially digested food from the stomach and further breaking it down with the help of digestive enzymes. The acidic gastric juices from the stomach can sometimes damage the protective lining of the duodenum, leading to the formation of ulcers. These ulcers can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and indigestion. Treatment for duodenal ulcers may involve medications to reduce stomach acid production and promote healing of the ulcer.

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  • 9. 

    What’s the most common complication of a peptic ulcer?

    • A.

      Acid reflux

    • B.

      Vomiting

    • C.

      Bleeding

    • D.

      Burning sensation

    Correct Answer
    C. Bleeding
    Explanation
    Bleeding is the most common complication of a peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcers are open sores that develop on the lining of the stomach, small intestine, or esophagus. When these ulcers become severe, they can erode blood vessels, leading to bleeding. This can result in symptoms such as blood in the stool or vomit, anemia, and weakness. If left untreated, severe bleeding from a peptic ulcer can be life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if any symptoms of bleeding occur in individuals with peptic ulcers.

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  • 10. 

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a type of.

    • A.

      Hypertrophic Gastropathy

    • B.

      Gastric hyperplasia

    • C.

      Gastric tumors

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypertrophic Gastropathy
    Explanation
    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the presence of gastrin-secreting tumors called gastrinomas in the pancreas or duodenum. These tumors cause excessive production of gastric acid, leading to the development of hypertrophic gastropathy. Hypertrophic gastropathy refers to the thickening of the stomach lining due to increased acid secretion. While gastric hyperplasia and gastric tumors may also be associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, hypertrophic gastropathy is the most specific and characteristic feature of this condition.

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  • 11. 

    Most common cancer of the stomach.

    • A.

      Lymphomas

    • B.

      Carcinoids

    • C.

      Hyperplastic

    • D.

      Adenocarcinoma

    Correct Answer
    D. Adenocarcinoma
    Explanation
    Adenocarcinoma is the correct answer because it is the most common type of stomach cancer. Adenocarcinoma originates in the glandular cells lining the stomach and accounts for about 90-95% of all stomach cancers. It typically develops slowly over many years and is often associated with factors such as chronic inflammation, infection with Helicobacter pylori, and certain dietary and lifestyle habits. Adenocarcinoma can cause symptoms like abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, and blood in the stool. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes in patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach.

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  • 12. 

    What is the right pattern of the advancement of gastric carcinoma?

    • A.

      Depressed-exophytic-excavated

    • B.

      Depressed-excavated-exophytic

    • C.

      Exophytic-Depressed-excavated

    Correct Answer
    C. Exophytic-Depressed-excavated
    Explanation
    The correct pattern of the advancement of gastric carcinoma is exophytic to depressed to excavated. This means that initially, the tumor grows outward, forming a raised mass (exophytic). As the tumor progresses, it starts to invade and infiltrate the surrounding tissues, causing a depression or ulceration (depressed). Finally, the tumor can deepen and erode into the surrounding tissues, resulting in an excavated appearance. This pattern reflects the stages of tumor growth and invasion in gastric carcinoma.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is/are benign tumor(S) of the small intestine?

    • A.

      Adenocarcinoma

    • B.

      Polyps

    • C.

      MALT

    Correct Answer
    B. Polyps
    Explanation
    Polyps are benign tumors that can occur in the small intestine. Adenocarcinoma, on the other hand, is a malignant tumor and not a benign tumor. MALT (Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue) refers to a type of lymphoma, which is also a malignant tumor. Therefore, the correct answer is Polyps.

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  • 14. 

    Segmental disorder of the large intestine.

    • A.

      Chron’s disease

    • B.

      Ulcerative colitis

    • C.

      Diverticulosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Chron’s disease
    Explanation
    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the digestive tract, including the large intestine. It is characterized by segmental disorder, meaning that it can involve multiple segments of the intestine with healthy areas in between. This disorder causes inflammation, ulcers, and thickening of the intestinal wall, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. Unlike ulcerative colitis, which only affects the colon and rectum, Crohn's disease can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. Diverticulosis, on the other hand, is the presence of small pouches called diverticula in the colon, which is not related to segmental disorder or chronic inflammation like Crohn's disease.

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  • 15. 

    Adenomatous colon is a result of dysfunction of which of these genes?

    • A.

      Oncogenes

    • B.

      Proto-oncogenes

    • C.

      Rb gene

    • D.

      P53

    Correct Answer
    B. Proto-oncogenes
    Explanation
    Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that regulate cell growth and division. When these genes undergo mutations or become overactive, they can transform into oncogenes, which promote the development of tumors. Adenomatous colon, also known as adenomatous polyps, is a precancerous condition of the colon that can progress to colorectal cancer. Dysfunctions in protooncogenes can lead to the development of an adenomatous colon, making it the correct answer in this case.

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  • 16. 

    What is the most common location for carcinoid tumors?

    • A.

      Esophagus

    • B.

      Appendix

    • C.

      Stomach

    • D.

      Colon

    Correct Answer
    B. Appendix
    Explanation
    Carcinoid tumors are most commonly found in the appendix. Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing neuroendocrine tumors that can arise in various parts of the body, but the appendix is the most common location. These tumors usually do not cause any symptoms until they have spread to other organs, making them difficult to diagnose. Surgical removal of the appendix is the primary treatment for carcinoid tumors in this location.

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  • 17. 

    End-stage of chronic liver disease is called

    • A.

      Cirrhosis

    • B.

      Alcoholic Hepatitis

    • C.

      Steatosis

    • D.

      Necrosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Cirrhosis
    Explanation
    Cirrhosis is the end-stage of chronic liver disease. It is characterized by the progressive scarring and damage to the liver tissue, leading to impaired liver function. This condition is often caused by long-term alcohol abuse, hepatitis B or C infection, or other underlying liver diseases. Cirrhosis can result in various complications such as portal hypertension, liver failure, and an increased risk of liver cancer. Therefore, cirrhosis is the correct answer as it accurately represents the advanced stage of chronic liver disease.

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  • 18. 

    Non-specific manifestations of liver cirrhosis.

    • A.

      Anorexia

    • B.

      Weight loss

    • C.

      Anemia

    • D.

      weakness

    • E.

      Lethargy

    • F.

      Mood swings

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Anorexia
    B. Weight loss
    D. weakness
    Explanation
    The given answer includes common non-specific manifestations of liver cirrhosis, such as anorexia, weight loss, and weakness. Anorexia refers to a loss of appetite, which is a common symptom in liver cirrhosis due to changes in metabolism. Weight loss is also commonly observed in liver cirrhosis due to malnutrition and decreased nutrient absorption. Weakness is a result of liver dysfunction leading to muscle wasting and fatigue. These symptoms are often seen in patients with liver cirrhosis and can be indicative of the condition.

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  • 19. 

    The most common primary malignancy of the liver is Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hepatocellular carcinoma is indeed the most common primary malignancy of the liver. This type of cancer originates in the hepatocytes, which are the main type of cells in the liver. It is typically associated with underlying liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B or C, cirrhosis, or alcohol-related liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice. It is important to diagnose and treat this cancer early, as it can be aggressive and have a poor prognosis if not caught in its early stages.

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  • 20. 

    Complications  of Diabetes Mellitus

    • A.

      Microvascular damage

    • B.

      AMI

    • C.

      Weight loss

    • D.

      Blindness

    • E.

      Hypertension

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Microvascular damage
    B. AMI
    D. Blindness
    Explanation
    The answer includes three complications of Diabetes Mellitus: Microvascular damage, AMI (Acute Myocardial Infarction), and Blindness. These complications are commonly associated with diabetes. Microvascular damage refers to the damage to small blood vessels, which can lead to complications in various organs. AMI is a heart attack caused by a blockage in the blood vessels supplying the heart. Blindness can occur due to diabetic retinopathy, a condition that affects the blood vessels in the retina. These complications highlight the importance of managing diabetes effectively to prevent long-term damage to various organs.

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Farah Naz |MBBS |
Medicine
Farah holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) from Dow University of Health Sciences. She gained valuable experience through internships in Radiology, Cardiology, and Neurosurgery, and has contributed to two research publications in medical journals. Passionate about healthcare education, Farah excels in crafting medical content, including articles, literature reviews, and e-learning courses. Leveraging her expertise, she meticulously reviews medical science quizzes, ensuring accuracy and educational value for aspiring healthcare professionals.

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  • Feb 28, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team

    Expert Reviewed by
    Farah Naz
  • May 01, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Skyblue24
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