Ultimate Respiratory Pathology Quiz

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Ultimate Respiratory Pathology Quiz - Quiz

What do you know about pathology? Take this quiz on respiratory pathology MCQs to check your knowledge. Diseases enter the body through different paths. Therefore, diagnosing a patient well means working backward through the paths to identify the source. The pathology quiz below tests your knowledge of the respiratory system niche. All the best for a perfect score on this quiz! Do share the quiz with others and help others enhance their knowledge on this topic.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which gas below is not involved in internal gas exchange  

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      O2

    • C.

      CO

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. CO
    Explanation
    CO (carbon monoxide) is not involved in internal gas exchange. In the process of internal gas exchange, oxygen (O2) is taken in by the body and carbon dioxide (CO2) is expelled. However, carbon monoxide is a toxic gas that binds strongly to hemoglobin in red blood cells, preventing them from carrying oxygen effectively. Therefore, CO is not involved in the normal gas exchange process within the body.

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  • 2. 

    Which gas below is a product of cellular metabolism  

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      O2

    • C.

      CO

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. CO2
    Explanation
    CO2 is a product of cellular metabolism. During cellular respiration, glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce energy, carbon dioxide, and water. The carbon dioxide produced is then transported to the lungs where it is exhaled. Therefore, CO2 is a byproduct of the metabolic processes happening within cells.

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  • 3. 

    Which structure is posterior to the trachea  

    • A.

      Esophagus

    • B.

      Thyroid

    • C.

      Thymus

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Esophagus
    Explanation
    The esophagus is located posterior to the trachea. This means that the esophagus is positioned behind the trachea when looking from the front of the body. The other options, including the thyroid and thymus, are not located posterior to the trachea.

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  • 4. 

    The structure is commonly called the throat  

    • A.

      Larynx

    • B.

      Pharynx

    • C.

      Epiglottis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Pharynx
    Explanation
    The structure commonly referred to as the throat is called the pharynx. The pharynx is a muscular tube that connects the nasal cavity and mouth to the esophagus and larynx. It plays a crucial role in both the respiratory and digestive systems, serving as a pathway for air and food. The larynx, on the other hand, is commonly known as the voice box and is located just below the pharynx. The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing. Therefore, the correct answer is pharynx.

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  • 5. 

    When swallowing, this structure covers the larynx (top of trachea)

    • A.

      Soft palate

    • B.

      Glottis

    • C.

      Epiglottis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Epiglottis
    Explanation
    The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that covers the larynx (top of the trachea) during swallowing. Its main function is to prevent food and liquid from entering the airway and instead direct them towards the esophagus. This helps to protect the respiratory system from potential aspiration and choking hazards. The soft palate is involved in closing off the nasal passages during swallowing, while the glottis is the opening between the vocal cords in the larynx. Therefore, the correct answer is the epiglottis.

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  • 6. 

    The trachea and bronchi are held open by

    • A.

      Epiglottis

    • B.

      Glottis

    • C.

      Cartilage

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Cartilage
    Explanation
    The trachea and bronchi are held open by cartilage. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue that provides support and structure to various parts of the body. In the case of the trachea and bronchi, the rings of cartilage surrounding them prevent their collapse and maintain a clear pathway for air to pass through. This allows for efficient breathing and the transport of oxygen to the lungs. The epiglottis and glottis are not responsible for holding the trachea and bronchi open, and therefore, the correct answer is cartilage.

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  • 7. 

    Which structure connects to the alveoli

    • A.

      Trachea

    • B.

      Bronchioles

    • C.

      Bronchus

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Bronchioles
    Explanation
    Bronchioles are the small air passages in the lungs that connect to the alveoli. These tiny structures branch out from the bronchi and further divide into smaller bronchioles, ultimately leading to the alveoli. The bronchioles play a crucial role in the respiratory system by allowing air to flow into the alveoli, where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Therefore, the bronchioles are the correct answer as they directly connect to the alveoli.

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  • 8. 

    The formal name of the air sacs is the

    • A.

      Alveoli

    • B.

      Capillaries

    • C.

      Corpuscles

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Alveoli
    Explanation
    The correct answer is alveoli. Alveoli are the small air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. They are responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the bloodstream.

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  • 9. 

    Which structure is part of the upper respiratory airway

    • A.

      Alveoli

    • B.

      Bronchioles

    • C.

      Pharynx

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Pharynx
    Explanation
    The pharynx is a structure that is part of the upper respiratory airway. It is a muscular tube that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx. It serves as a passage for air, as well as for food and liquids during swallowing. The alveoli are tiny air sacs located in the lungs where gas exchange occurs, while bronchioles are small branches of the bronchi that help in the transportation of air within the lungs. Therefore, the correct answer is pharynx.

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  • 10. 

    Allergic rhinitis is associated with the______ immunoglobulin

    • A.

      IgG

    • B.

      IgE

    • C.

      IgM

    • D.

      IgA

    Correct Answer
    B. IgE
    Explanation
    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory condition of the nasal passages caused by an allergic reaction to certain allergens. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is the specific immunoglobulin associated with allergic reactions. When a person with allergic rhinitis is exposed to an allergen, their immune system produces IgE antibodies, which bind to mast cells in the nasal tissues. This triggers the release of histamine and other chemicals, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, itching, nasal congestion, and runny nose. Therefore, IgE is the correct immunoglobulin associated with allergic rhinitis.

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  • 11. 

    Sinusitis would not affect this area of the face

    • A.

      Maxillary

    • B.

      Ethmoid

    • C.

      Lacrimal

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Lacrimal
    Explanation
    Sinusitis is the inflammation of the sinuses, which are air-filled spaces in the bones of the face. The maxillary, ethmoid, and lacrimal sinuses are all located in different areas of the face. The maxillary sinuses are located in the cheekbones, the ethmoid sinuses are located between the eyes, and the lacrimal sinuses are located near the tear ducts. Sinusitis can affect any of these sinuses, causing symptoms such as facial pain, pressure, and congestion. However, sinusitis would not typically affect the lacrimal sinuses, which is why the correct answer is lacrimal.

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  • 12. 

    Which condition below is a medical emergency

    • A.

      Epiglottisitis

    • B.

      Laryngitis

    • C.

      Pharyngitis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Epiglottisitis
    Explanation
    Epiglottisitis is a medical emergency because it is a severe inflammation of the epiglottis, which is a flap of tissue that covers the windpipe during swallowing to prevent food or liquid from entering the lungs. When the epiglottis becomes inflamed, it can obstruct the airway and cause difficulty breathing, stridor (a high-pitched sound during inhalation), and potentially lead to respiratory distress or even respiratory failure. Prompt medical attention is necessary to prevent airway obstruction and ensure proper treatment. Laryngitis and pharyngitis, on the other hand, are less severe conditions that do not typically require emergency intervention.

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  • 13. 

    Mononucleosis, the kissing disease, is caused by which virus?

    • A.

      Influenza

    • B.

      Epstein barr

    • C.

      Hpv

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Epstein barr
    Explanation
    Epstein Barr virus is the correct answer because it is the virus responsible for causing mononucleosis, also known as the kissing disease. This virus is commonly transmitted through saliva, hence the nickname "kissing disease". Influenza and HPV are not associated with causing mononucleosis.

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  • 14. 

    Pneumonia is a common complication of

    • A.

      Tuberculoisis

    • B.

      Influenza

    • C.

      Corynza

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Influenza
    Explanation
    Pneumonia is a common complication of influenza because the influenza virus can weaken the immune system and damage the respiratory tract, making it easier for bacteria to cause an infection in the lungs. This can lead to pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the air sacs in the lungs. Influenza can also cause severe respiratory symptoms, such as coughing and difficulty breathing, which can further increase the risk of developing pneumonia. Therefore, influenza is a known risk factor for pneumonia.

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  • 15. 

    Which condition below would most likely cause Legionnaire's disease?

    • A.

      Contaminated steamy water

    • B.

      Gastric aspiration

    • C.

      Below zero conditions

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Contaminated steamy water
    Explanation
    Contaminated steamy water would most likely cause Legionnaire's disease. Legionnaire's disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by the Legionella bacteria. This bacteria thrives in warm water environments, such as hot tubs, cooling towers, and plumbing systems. When contaminated water is aerosolized, such as through steam or mist, and then inhaled, it can lead to infection and the development of Legionnaire's disease. Therefore, being exposed to contaminated steamy water is the most likely condition to cause Legionnaire's disease.

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  • 16. 

    Which disorder is not a COPD?

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • C.

      Pneumonia

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Pneumonia
    Explanation
    Pneumonia is not a disorder that falls under the category of COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). COPD primarily includes conditions such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis, which are characterized by airflow limitation and difficulty in breathing. Pneumonia, on the other hand, is an infection that causes inflammation in the lungs and can affect people with or without COPD. Therefore, pneumonia is the correct answer as it is not classified as COPD. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease in which mucus in the respiratory tract is very thick and hard to clear by coughing.

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  • 17. 

    Which gas below absorbs into the cells

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      O2

    • C.

      CO

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. O2
    Explanation
    Oxygen (O2) is the gas that absorbs into the cells. It is essential for cellular respiration, where it is used by cells to produce energy. Oxygen is transported through the bloodstream and diffuses into cells, where it participates in various metabolic processes. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced as a waste product during cellular respiration and is released from cells into the bloodstream to be transported back to the lungs for exhalation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas that can interfere with oxygen transport in the body. Therefore, only oxygen (O2) is the gas that absorbs into the cells.

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  • 18. 

    Loss of alveolar elasticity is characteristic of COPD.

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Tuberculosis

    • C.

      Pneumoconiosis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Emphysema
    Explanation
    Emphysema is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) characterized by the destruction of the alveoli in the lungs. This destruction leads to a loss of elasticity in the alveoli, which are responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. As a result, the lungs become less efficient at oxygenating the blood and removing waste gases. This loss of alveoli elasticity is a key characteristic of emphysema, making it the correct answer in this case. Tuberculosis and pneumoconiosis are not specifically associated with a loss of alveoli elasticity.

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  • 19. 

    Which condition below has increased the numbers of RBC's

    • A.

      Polycythemia

    • B.

      Anemia

    • C.

      Leukemia

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Polycythemia
    Explanation
    Polycythemia is a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the bloodstream. This can occur due to various factors such as bone marrow disorders, genetic mutations, or exposure to high altitudes. The increased number of RBCs in polycythemia leads to an increase in the total blood volume and viscosity, which can have implications for blood flow and oxygen delivery. Anemia, on the other hand, is a condition characterized by a decrease in the number of RBCs, while leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the production of white blood cells, not RBCs. Therefore, polycythemia is the correct answer as it directly corresponds to an increased number of RBCs.

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  • 20. 

    Bronchiectasis is associated with a disorder

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • C.

      Tuberculosis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Cystic fibrosis
    Explanation
    Bronchiectasis is a condition characterized by the widening and scarring of the airways in the lungs. It is often associated with a disorder called cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the production of mucus, leading to the build-up of thick, sticky mucus in the lungs and other organs. This mucus can block the airways and cause inflammation, leading to the development of bronchiectasis. Emphysema, on the other hand, is a separate condition that involves the destruction of the air sacs in the lungs, while tuberculosis is a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs. Therefore, the correct answer is cystic fibrosis.

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  • 21. 

    Which disorder has the characteristic dilated bronchi

    • A.

      Chronic bronchitis

    • B.

      Emphysema

    • C.

      Bronchiectasis

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Bronchiectasis
    Explanation
    Bronchiectasis is a disorder characterized by the permanent widening and scarring of the bronchi, which are the airways in the lungs. This leads to the accumulation of mucus and bacteria, making it difficult for the body to clear the airways. As a result, individuals with bronchiectasis often experience chronic cough, frequent infections, and shortness of breath. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are both types of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that also involve inflammation and damage to the airways, but they do not specifically cause the dilation of the bronchi seen in bronchiectasis. Therefore, the correct answer is bronchiectasis.

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  • 22. 

    Which disorder affects the respiratory and digestive system

    • A.

      Emphysema

    • B.

      Asthma

    • C.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Cystic fibrosis
    Explanation
    Cystic fibrosis is the correct answer because it is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the respiratory and digestive systems. It causes the production of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways and obstructs the pancreas, leading to difficulties in breathing and digestion. Emphysema is a lung condition characterized by damage to the air sacs in the lungs, while asthma is a chronic respiratory condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Therefore, neither emphysema nor asthma affect the digestive system, making cystic fibrosis the only disorder that fits the given description.

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  • 23. 

    Individuals with asthma have 3 classic complications, which one is not

    • A.

      Excessive mucus

    • B.

      Ascites

    • C.

      Bronchoconstriction

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Ascites
    Explanation
    Individuals with asthma commonly experience excessive mucus production and bronchoconstriction, which are two classic complications of the condition. However, ascites is not typically associated with asthma. Ascites refers to the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, which is not a direct complication of asthma. Therefore, the correct answer is ascites.

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  • 24. 

    This disorder is also known as the consumption disease

    • A.

      Tuberculosis

    • B.

      Emphysema

    • C.

      Cystic fibrosis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Tuberculosis
    Explanation
    Tuberculosis is commonly referred to as the "consumption disease" due to its historical association with wasting away and severe weight loss. This infectious disease primarily affects the lungs and is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, fatigue, and night sweats. If left untreated, it can be life-threatening. Therefore, tuberculosis is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 25. 

    This procedure is used for screening potential TB-exposed individuals prior to employment

    • A.

      Alveoli biopsy

    • B.

      Mantoux test

    • C.

      O2 and CO2 biopsy

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Mantoux test
    Explanation
    The mantoux test is a procedure used to screen potential TB-exposed individuals prior to employment. It involves injecting a small amount of tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) into the skin and observing the reaction. A positive reaction indicates exposure to the TB bacteria, while a negative reaction suggests no exposure. This test helps identify individuals who may be at risk of developing active TB and allows for appropriate follow-up and treatment if necessary. Alveoli biopsy and O2 and CO2 biopsy are not relevant to screening for TB exposure.

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  • 26. 

    A condition brought on by prolonged inhalation of grit and abrasive particulate

    • A.

      Pneumoconiosis

    • B.

      Tuberculosis

    • C.

      Pneumomia

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Pneumoconiosis
    Explanation
    Pneumoconiosis is a condition caused by prolonged inhalation of grit and abrasive particulate. It refers to a group of lung diseases that are caused by the inhalation of dust or mineral particles, such as coal dust, silica, or asbestos. These particles can accumulate in the lungs and cause inflammation, scarring, and damage to lung tissue over time. This condition is commonly seen in individuals who work in industries such as mining, construction, and manufacturing, where they are exposed to high levels of dust and particulate matter in the air.

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  • 27. 

    Inhaling asbestos can cause

    • A.

      Alveolar adenoma

    • B.

      Bronchosarcoma

    • C.

      Mesothelioma

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesothelioma
    Explanation
    Inhaling asbestos fibers can lead to the development of mesothelioma, which is a type of cancer that affects the lining of the lungs, abdomen, or heart. This cancer is directly linked to asbestos exposure and can take several years or even decades to develop. Alveolar adenoma and bronchosarcoma are not specifically associated with asbestos exposure, and the option "none of the above" is incorrect as mesothelioma is a known consequence of inhaling asbestos.

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  • 28. 

    Air trapped between the lung tissue and thoracic cavity is

    • A.

      Atelectasis

    • B.

      Pneumothorax

    • C.

      Pneumoconiosis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Pneumothorax
    Explanation
    Pneumothorax is the correct answer because it refers to the condition where air gets trapped between the lung tissue and the thoracic cavity. This can happen due to a variety of reasons, such as a punctured lung or a chest injury. When air accumulates in the pleural space, it can cause the lung to collapse partially or completely, leading to symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain, and decreased oxygen levels. Therefore, pneumothorax is the most appropriate term to describe this specific condition.

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  • 29. 

    Loss of alveolar pressure can cause a collapsed lung known as

    • A.

      Atelectasis

    • B.

      Pneumothorax

    • C.

      Bronchiectasis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Atelectasis
    Explanation
    Atelectasis is the correct answer because it refers to the collapse of the lung or a portion of it. This collapse occurs when the alveoli, which are tiny air sacs in the lungs, deflate or become filled with fluid or mucus. Loss of alveolar pressure can lead to atelectasis as it causes the alveoli to collapse and prevents proper lung inflation. Pneumothorax refers to the presence of air in the pleural space, while bronchiectasis is a condition characterized by the widening and scarring of the airways.

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  • 30. 

    Infected fluid build-up between the visceral and parietal membrane layers leads to a painful respiratory disorder called

    • A.

      Angina pectoris

    • B.

      Aspiration

    • C.

      Pleurisy

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Pleurisy
    Explanation
    Pleurisy is a respiratory disorder characterized by the inflammation of the pleura, which is the membrane that surrounds the lungs. This inflammation can be caused by various factors, including infections, such as pneumonia, or other medical conditions like autoimmune disorders. The build-up of infected fluid between the visceral and parietal membrane layers of the pleura leads to the painful symptoms experienced in pleurisy, such as chest pain and difficulty breathing. Angina pectoris refers to chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart, while aspiration refers to the inhalation of foreign substances into the lungs. Therefore, neither of these conditions is the correct answer.

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  • 31. 

    _____effusion is excess fluid between the parietal and visceral ____ membrane

    • A.

      Peritoneum

    • B.

      Pleural

    • C.

      Pericardial

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Pleural
    Explanation
    Excess fluid between the parietal and visceral pleural membrane is known as pleural effusion. The pleural membrane surrounds the lungs and lines the chest cavity, creating a space called the pleural cavity. When there is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in this cavity, it can lead to pleural effusion. This condition can be caused by various factors such as infections, heart failure, lung diseases, or trauma. Pleural effusion can cause symptoms like shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include draining the fluid and addressing the underlying condition.

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  • 32. 

    A type of edema considered to be a medical emergency is

    • A.

      Pulmonary

    • B.

      Coronary

    • C.

      Systemic

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Pulmonary
    Explanation
    Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of fluid in the lungs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as heart failure, pneumonia, or kidney problems. It is considered a medical emergency because it can severely compromise the ability to breathe and oxygenate the body. Prompt medical intervention is necessary to alleviate the fluid buildup and ensure adequate oxygenation to prevent further complications or even death.

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  • 33. 

    Cor pulmonale is hypertrophy and failure of the

    • A.

      Right atria

    • B.

      Left atrium

    • C.

      Right ventricle

    • D.

      Left ventricle

    Correct Answer
    C. Right ventricle
    Explanation
    Cor pulmonale refers to the hypertrophy (enlargement) and failure of the right ventricle of the heart. This condition typically occurs as a result of chronic pulmonary hypertension, which places increased pressure on the right side of the heart. Chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary embolism, or long-term exposure to high altitudes can lead to pulmonary hypertension and subsequent cor pulmonale. The increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation causes the right ventricle to work harder to pump blood into the lungs, leading to hypertrophy (thickening) of the right ventricle muscle.

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  • 34. 

    Bulbous swelling of the tips of the fingers and toes is called

    • A.

      Cyanosis

    • B.

      Asphyxiation

    • C.

      Clubbing

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Clubbing
    Explanation
    Clubbing is a condition characterized by the bulbous swelling of the tips of the fingers and toes. It is commonly associated with underlying medical conditions such as lung diseases, heart diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. The exact cause of clubbing is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to decreased oxygen levels in the blood. Cyanosis refers to a bluish discoloration of the skin due to low oxygen levels, while asphyxiation refers to the inability to breathe, neither of which specifically describe the bulbous swelling seen in clubbing.

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  • 35. 

    A type of embolus that results from a thrown (broken free) clot moving to the lungs

    • A.

      Aortic

    • B.

      Pulmonary

    • C.

      Carotid

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonary
    Explanation
    A pulmonary embolus refers to a type of embolus that occurs when a clot breaks free and travels to the lungs. This can happen when a clot forms in a vein, usually in the legs, and then dislodges and travels through the bloodstream to the lungs. This can block blood flow in the lungs, leading to serious complications. The term "pulmonary" specifically refers to the lungs, making it the correct answer in this context. The other options, aortic and carotid, do not specifically relate to emboli in the lungs.

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  • 36. 

    A  condition brought on by lowered pH of systemic blood, causing increased respiration is

    • A.

      Acidosis

    • B.

      Alkalosis

    • C.

      Cyanosis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Acidosis
    Explanation
    Acidosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in the pH level of the blood, leading to increased respiration. This occurs as the body tries to compensate for the acidic environment by increasing the elimination of carbon dioxide through rapid breathing. Acidosis can be caused by various factors such as metabolic disorders, respiratory disorders, or kidney dysfunction. It can have detrimental effects on the body's normal functioning and may require medical intervention to restore the pH balance.

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  • 37. 

    A breathing disorder that occurs when an individual lies down to rest

    • A.

      Snoring (apnea)

    • B.

      Dysphagia

    • C.

      Dysorthopnea

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Snoring (apnea)
    Explanation
    Snoring (apnea) is a breathing disorder that occurs when an individual lies down to rest. Apnea refers to the temporary cessation of breathing, which can happen repeatedly during sleep. This condition often leads to snoring, as the airway becomes partially or completely blocked, causing the person to make loud, snorting sounds as they struggle to breathe. Therefore, snoring (apnea) is the correct answer as it accurately describes the breathing disorder that occurs when someone lies down to rest.

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  • 38. 

    Enlargement of the nasopharynx (adenoids) tonsils is called

    • A.

      Sublinguitis

    • B.

      Adenoid hyperplasia

    • C.

      Tonsilitis

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Adenoid hyperplasia
    Explanation
    Adenoid hyperplasia refers to the enlargement of the nasopharynx, specifically the adenoids. The adenoids are a mass of lymphoid tissue located at the back of the throat, near the opening of the Eustachian tubes. When these adenoids become enlarged, it can lead to various symptoms such as nasal congestion, difficulty breathing, snoring, and recurrent ear infections. Adenoid hyperplasia is a common condition, especially in children, and can be treated through medications or, in severe cases, surgical removal of the adenoids. Therefore, the correct answer is adenoid hyperplasia.

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  • 39. 

    An oral infection caused by an infection of the Candida fungus

    • A.

      Herpes

    • B.

      Thrush

    • C.

      Reye syndrome

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Thrush
    Explanation
    Thrush is the correct answer because it is an oral infection caused by an infection of the Candida fungus. Herpes and Reye syndrome are unrelated conditions, so they are not the correct answer. "None of the above" is also not the correct answer because thrush is a specific condition that matches the given description.

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  • 40. 

    Larynx infection in adults is laryngitis in children. It is called

    • A.

      Hoop cough

    • B.

      Sids

    • C.

      Croup

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Croup
    Explanation
    Croup is a condition characterized by inflammation of the larynx and trachea, typically affecting children. It causes a barking cough, hoarseness, and difficulty breathing. The given statement suggests that larynx infection in adults is equivalent to laryngitis in children, which is incorrect. However, it also states that it is called croup, which is the correct answer. Croup is the term used to describe the larynx infection in children, not laryngitis.

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Stephen Reinbold |PhD, Biological Sciences |
Biology Expert
Stephen Reinbold has a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences with a particular interest in teaching. He taught General Biology, Environmental Science, Zoology, Genetics, and Anatomy & Physiology for almost thirty years at Metropolitan Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. He particularly enjoyed emphasizing scientific methodology and student research projects. Now, enjoying retirement, he works part-time as an editor while also engaging in online activities.

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