Chapter 5 Test - AP Biology

40 Questions | Total Attempts: 128

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Chapter 5 Test - AP Biology

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following is not one of the four major groups of macromolecules found in living organisms?
    • A. 

      Glucose

    • B. 

      Carbohydrates

    • C. 

      Lipids

    • D. 

      Proteins

    • E. 

      Nucleic acids

  • 2. 
    Polymers of polysaccharides, fats, and proteins are all synthesized from monomers by which process?
    • A. 

      Connecting monosaccharides together (condensation reactions)

    • B. 

      The addition of water to each monomer (hydrolysis)

    • C. 

      The removal of water (dehydration reactions)

    • D. 

      Ionic bonding of the monomers

    • E. 

      The formation of disulfide bridges between monomers

  • 3. 
    Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?
    • A. 

      Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis breaks down polymers.

    • B. 

      Hydrolysis only occurs in the urinary system, and dehydration reactions only occur in the digestive tract.

    • C. 

      Dehydration reactions can occur only after hydrolysis.

    • D. 

      Hydrolysis creates monomers, and dehydration reactions break down polymers.

    • E. 

      A and C are correct.

  • 4. 
    A molecule with the chemical formula C16H32O16 is probably a
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate.

    • B. 

      Lipid.

    • C. 

      Protein.

    • D. 

      Nucleic acid.

    • E. 

      Hydrocarbon.

  • 5. 
    Consider a polysaccharide consisting of 576 glucose molecules. The total hydrolysis of the polysaccharide would result in the production of
    • A. 

      575 glucose molecules.

    • B. 

      575 water molecules.

    • C. 

      576 glucose molecules.

    • D. 

      A and B only

    • E. 

      B and C only

  • 6. 
    Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?
    • A. 

      As a pentose

    • B. 

      As a hexose

    • C. 

      As a monosaccharide

    • D. 

      As a disaccharide

    • E. 

      As a polysaccharide

  • 7. 
    Which of the following are polysaccharides?
    • A. 

      Glycogen

    • B. 

      Starch

    • C. 

      Chitin

    • D. 

      A and B only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C

  • 8. 
    Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?
    • A. 

      They are both polymers of glucose.

    • B. 

      They are geometric isomers of each other.

    • C. 

      They can both be digested by humans.

    • D. 

      They are both used for energy storage in plants.

    • E. 

      They are both structural components of the plant cell wall.

  • 9. 
    Which of the following is true of cellulose?
    • A. 

      It is a polymer composed of sucrose monomers.

    • B. 

      It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in plant cells.

    • C. 

      It is a storage polysaccharide for energy in animal cells.

    • D. 

      It is a major structural component of plant cell walls.

    • E. 

      It is a major structural component of animal cell plasma membranes.

  • 10. 
    Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
    • A. 

      The monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose.

    • B. 

      Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the beta (β) glycosidic linkages of starch but not the alpha (α) glycosidic linkages of cellulose.

    • C. 

      Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha (α) glycosidic linkages of starch but not the beta (β) glycosidic linkages of cellulose.

    • D. 

      Humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract.

    • E. 

      The monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is maltose.

  • 11. 
    Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because
    • A. 

      ) the monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is galactose.

    • B. 

      Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the beta (β) glycosidic linkages of starch but not the alpha (α) glycosidic linkages of cellulose.

    • C. 

      Humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha (α) glycosidic linkages of starch but not the beta (β) glycosidic linkages of cellulose.

    • D. 

      Humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract.

    • E. 

      The monomer of starch is glucose, while the monomer of cellulose is maltose.

  • 12. 
    A molecule with the formula C18H36O2 is probably a
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate.

    • B. 

      Lipid.

    • C. 

      Protein.

    • D. 

      Nucleic acid.

    • E. 

      Hydrocarbon.

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is (are) true for the class of large biological molecules known as lipids?
    • A. 

      They are insoluble in water.

    • B. 

      They are an important constituent of cell membranes.

    • C. 

      They contain twice as much energy as an equivalent weight of polysaccharide.

    • D. 

      Only A and B are correct.

    • E. 

      A, B, and C are correct.

  • 14. 
    Triacylglycerol is a
    • A. 

      Protein with tertiary structure.

    • B. 

      Lipid made with three fatty acids and glycerol.

    • C. 

      Lipid that makes up much of the plasma membrane.

    • D. 

      Molecule formed from three alcohols by dehydration reactions.

    • E. 

      Carbohydrate with three sugars joined together by glycosidic linkages.

  • 15. 
    Saturated fatty acids
    • A. 

      Are the predominant fatty acid in corn oil.

    • B. 

      Have double bonds between carbon atoms of the fatty acids.

    • C. 

      Have a higher ratio of hydrogen to carbon than do unsaturated fatty acids.

    • D. 

      Are usually liquid at room temperature.

    • E. 

      Are usually produced by plants.

  • 16. 
    The hydrogenation of vegetable oil would result in which of the following?
    • A. 

      A decrease in the number of carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil (fat) molecules

    • B. 

      An increase in the number of hydrogen atoms in the oil (fat) molecule

    • C. 

      The oil (fat) being a solid at room temperature

    • D. 

      A and C only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C

  • 17. 
    A polypeptide can best be described as a
    • A. 

      Monomer of a protein polymer.

    • B. 

      Polymer containing 20 amino acid molecules.

    • C. 

      Polymer containing 19 peptide bonds.

    • D. 

      Polymer containing 20 peptide bonds.

    • E. 

      Polymer of amino acids.

  • 18. 
    The 20 different amino acids found in polypeptides exhibit different chemical and physical properties because of different
    • A. 

      Carboxyl groups attached to an alpha (α) carbon

    • B. 

      Amino groups attached to an alpha (α) carbon

    • C. 

      Side chains (R groups).

    • D. 

      Alpha (α) carbons.

    • E. 

      Asymmetric carbons.

  • 19. 
    The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires which of the following?
    • A. 

      Removal of a water molecule

    • B. 

      Addition of a water molecule

    • C. 

      Formation of an ionic bond

    • D. 

      Formation of a hydrogen bond

    • E. 

      Both A and C

  • 20. 
    Polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins are similar in that they
    • A. 

      Are synthesized from monomers by the process of hydrolysis.

    • B. 

      Are synthesized from monomers by dehydration reactions.

    • C. 

      Are synthesized as a result of peptide bond formation between monomers.

    • D. 

      Are decomposed into their subunits by dehydration reactions.

    • E. 

      All contain nitrogen in their monomer building blocks.

  • 21. 
    Dehydration reactions are used in forming which of the following compounds?
    • A. 

      Triacylglycerides

    • B. 

      Polysaccharides

    • C. 

      Proteins

    • D. 

      A and C only

    • E. 

      A, B, and C

  • 22. 
    Upon chemical analysis, a particular protein was found to contain 556 amino acids. How many peptide bonds are present in this protein?
    • A. 

      139

    • B. 

      554

    • C. 

      555

    • D. 

      556

    • E. 

      558

  • 23. 
    Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein?
    • A. 

      Peptide bonds

    • B. 

      Hydrogen bonds

    • C. 

      Disulfide bonds

    • D. 

      Phosphodiester bonds

    • E. 

      A, B, and C

  • 24. 
    What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?
    • A. 

      Peptide bonds

    • B. 

      Hydrogen bonds

    • C. 

      Disulfide bonds

    • D. 

      Ionic bonds

    • E. 

      Phosphodiester bonds

  • 25. 
    Which type of interaction stabilizes the alpha (α) helix and the beta (β) pleated sheet structures of proteins?
    • A. 

      Hydrophobic interactions

    • B. 

      Nonpolar covalent bonds

    • C. 

      Ionic bonds

    • D. 

      Hydrogen bonds

    • E. 

      Peptide bonds

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