A Quiz On Market Research And Management.

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A Quiz On Market Research And Management. - Quiz

When a business brings a new product into the market it is important for them to ensure that they are able to reach the target market for the said product. This is made possible by doing perfect market research on the people who need the product and how well it will do. Take up this quiz on market research and management and see how well you understood the topic. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following characteristics is not true of attitudes?

    • A.

      Learned

    • B.

      Stable

    • C.

      Accessible

    • D.

      Enduring

    • E.

      Fluctuating

    Correct Answer
    E. Fluctuating
    Explanation
    Attitudes are typically learned, meaning they are acquired through experiences and socialization. They are also generally stable, meaning they tend to persist over time. Attitudes are accessible, meaning they can be easily brought to mind. Additionally, attitudes are enduring, meaning they can last for a long period of time. However, attitudes are not typically fluctuating, as they are relatively consistent and resistant to change.

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  • 2. 

    The adoption rate of cellular telephones continues to accelerate rapidly. This statement is an example of a _____ attitude.

    • A.

      Cognitive

    • B.

      Affective

    • C.

      Conative

    • D.

      Behavioral

    • E.

      Peripheral

    Correct Answer
    A. Cognitive
    Explanation
    The statement "The adoption rate of cellular telephones continues to accelerate rapidly" reflects a cognitive attitude because it pertains to the knowledge or beliefs about the adoption rate of cellular telephones. It does not involve emotions or intentions (affective or conative), actual behavior (behavioral), or peripheral factors.

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  • 3. 

    It is so annoying when people use their cellular telephones in restaurants. What is the basis of the attitude reflected in this statement?

    • A.

      Cognitive

    • B.

      Affective

    • C.

      Conative

    • D.

      Behavioral

    • E.

      Peripheral

    Correct Answer
    B. Affective
    Explanation
    The basis of the attitude reflected in this statement is affective. This is because the statement expresses annoyance towards people using their cellular telephones in restaurants, indicating an emotional response to this behavior.

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  • 4. 

    I turn my cellular telephone off when dining in restaurants. What is the basis of the attitude reflected in this statement?

    • A.

      Cognitive

    • B.

      Affective

    • C.

      Conative

    • D.

      Centrality

    • E.

      Peripheral

    Correct Answer
    C. Conative
    Explanation
    The basis of the attitude reflected in the statement "I turn my cellular telephone off when dining in restaurants" is conative. This is because the person's behavior of turning off their phone demonstrates their intention or inclination to prioritize their dining experience and show respect for the restaurant environment. The conative aspect refers to the individual's actions or behaviors driven by their attitudes or beliefs.

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  • 5. 

    A cognitive basis for an attitude means that the attitude is based on a _____.

    • A.

      Feeling

    • B.

      Behavior

    • C.

      Value

    • D.

      Culture

    • E.

      Belief

    Correct Answer
    E. Belief
    Explanation
    A cognitive basis for an attitude means that the attitude is based on a belief. This suggests that the individual's attitude is formed through their thoughts, opinions, and convictions about a particular subject. Beliefs can be influenced by personal experiences, social interactions, and cultural backgrounds, shaping one's perspective and influencing their attitudes towards certain ideas or behaviors.

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  • 6. 

    An affective basis for an attitude means that the attitude is based on a(n) _____.

    • A.

      Feeling

    • B.

      Behavior

    • C.

      Opinion

    • D.

      Culture

    • E.

      Belief

    Correct Answer
    A. Feeling
    Explanation
    An affective basis for an attitude means that the attitude is based on a feeling. This suggests that the individual's attitude is influenced by their emotions or personal experiences rather than objective facts or rational thinking. Feelings can play a significant role in shaping our attitudes and can lead to strong emotional responses towards certain people, events, or ideas.

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  • 7. 

    A conative basis for an attitude means that the attitude is based on a _____.

    • A.

      Feeling

    • B.

      Behavior

    • C.

      Value

    • D.

      Culture

    • E.

      Belief

    Correct Answer
    B. Behavior
    Explanation
    A conative basis for an attitude means that the attitude is based on behavior. This means that the attitude is formed as a result of the individual's actions or behaviors. It suggests that the person's attitude is influenced by their past experiences and interactions, and their behavior is a reflection of their attitude. In other words, their actions and behaviors are consistent with their attitude, and their attitude is shaped by their behavior.

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  • 8. 

    All of the following may be used with graphic rating scales except _____.

    • A.

      Icons

    • B.

      Pictures

    • C.

      Words

    • D.

      Comparisons

    • E.

      Numbers

    Correct Answer
    D. Comparisons
    Explanation
    Graphic rating scales are a type of measurement tool used to assess subjective qualities or opinions. They typically involve a scale with different options or levels that respondents can choose from to indicate their preference or perception. In this context, "comparisons" refers to a type of rating scale that involves comparing different options or statements against each other. Therefore, it is not correct to say that "comparisons" cannot be used with graphic rating scales, as they are actually a common and integral part of this measurement method.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following statements is true concerning the applicability of attitudes in understanding behavior?

    • A.

      General attitudes are the best predictors of behavior

    • B.

      Behavior is affected equally by those attitudes formed via social learning and those formed via behavioral learning

    • C.

      Cognitive attitudes influence behavior better than affective-based attitudes

    • D.

      A single, global measure of attitude is necessary to predict behavior

    • E.

      All of the above are true

    Correct Answer
    C. Cognitive attitudes influence behavior better than affective-based attitudes
    Explanation
    Cognitive attitudes refer to attitudes that are based on thoughts, beliefs, and evaluations, while affective-based attitudes are based on emotions and feelings. The statement suggests that cognitive attitudes have a stronger influence on behavior compared to affective-based attitudes. This means that what a person thinks and believes about something is more likely to determine their behavior than their emotions or feelings towards it.

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  • 10. 

    The assignment of numbers or symbols to a property of objects according to value or magnitude is called _____.

    • A.

      Measurement

    • B.

      Scaling

    • C.

      Weighing

    • D.

      Sampling

    • E.

      Coding

    Correct Answer
    B. Scaling
    Explanation
    Scaling refers to the assignment of numbers or symbols to a property of objects based on their value or magnitude. It involves placing objects on a continuum or scale to determine their relative position or value. This process allows for the comparison and evaluation of different objects based on their assigned values. Weighing refers to the measurement of weight, sampling refers to the selection of a subset from a larger population, and coding refers to the process of assigning codes or labels to data.

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  • 11. 

    What term below refers to the process of assessing an attitudinal disposition using a number that represents a person's score on an attitudinal continuum ranging from an extremely favorable disposition to an extremely unfavorable one?

    • A.

      Attitudinal monitoring

    • B.

      Content analysis

    • C.

      Attitudinal scaling

    • D.

      Peripheral route processing

    • E.

      Attitudinal chain analysis

    Correct Answer
    D. Peripheral route processing
  • 12. 

    A _____ scale is a scale that scores an object or property without making a direct comparison to another object or property.

    • A.

      Ranking

    • B.

      Rating

    • C.

      Categorization

    • D.

      Sorting

    • E.

      Recording

    Correct Answer
    B. Rating
    Explanation
    A rating scale is a scale that scores an object or property without making a direct comparison to another object or property. It is a method of evaluating or assessing the quality or performance of something, typically using a numerical or descriptive scale. Ratings provide a way to measure and compare different objects or properties based on their individual characteristics or attributes, without the need for direct comparison to other objects or properties.

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  • 13. 

    A rating scale is a scale that _____.

    • A.

      Scores an object without making a direct comparison to another object

    • B.

      Scores an object by making a comparison and determining order among two or more objects

    • C.

      Groups participants

    • D.

      Groups concepts according to specific criteria

    • E.

      Establishes relationships between two variables

    Correct Answer
    A. Scores an object without making a direct comparison to another object
    Explanation
    A rating scale is a scale that scores an object without making a direct comparison to another object. This means that the object being rated is evaluated based on its own merits or characteristics, rather than being compared to other objects. The rating scale allows for a subjective assessment of the object's qualities or attributes, without the need for a comparative analysis.

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  • 14. 

    Which type of scale is used when participants score an object according to its comparative order among two or more objects?

    • A.

      Ranking

    • B.

      Rating

    • C.

      Categorization

    • D.

      Sorting

    • E.

      Recording

    Correct Answer
    A. Ranking
    Explanation
    Ranking is the correct answer because it refers to the process of participants scoring an object based on its comparative order among two or more objects. In ranking, participants assign a position or rank to each object based on their perceived order or preference. This type of scale allows for the comparison and ordering of objects based on their characteristics or attributes, rather than assigning numerical values or categories to them.

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  • 15. 

    A ranking scale is a scale that _____.

    • A.

      Scores an object without making a direct comparison to another object

    • B.

      Scores an objecting by making a comparison and determining order among two or more objects

    • C.

      Groups participants

    • D.

      Groups concepts according to specific criteria

    • E.

      Establishes relationships between two variables

    Correct Answer
    B. Scores an objecting by making a comparison and determining order among two or more objects
    Explanation
    A ranking scale is a scale that scores an object by making a comparison and determining the order among two or more objects. This means that the scale assigns a numerical value or rank to each object based on their relative position or level of a certain attribute or characteristic. It allows for the comparison and ordering of objects based on specific criteria, enabling a clear understanding of their relative importance or performance.

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  • 16. 

    Participants are grouped using _____ scales.

    • A.

      Ranking

    • B.

      Rating

    • C.

      Categorization

    • D.

      Sorting

    • E.

      Recording

    Correct Answer
    C. Categorization
    Explanation
    Participants are grouped using categorization scales. Categorization involves dividing participants into distinct groups based on specific criteria or characteristics. This allows for easier analysis and comparison of data within each group. Categorization scales help researchers organize and classify participants into different categories, which can then be used to draw conclusions or make comparisons between groups.

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  • 17. 

    A categorization scale is a scale that _____.

    • A.

      Scores an object without making a direct comparison to another object

    • B.

      Scores an objecting by making a comparison and determining order among two or more objects

    • C.

      Groups participants

    • D.

      Groups concepts according to specific criteria

    • E.

      Establishes relationships between two variables

    Correct Answer
    C. Groups participants
    Explanation
    A categorization scale is a scale that groups participants. This means that it is used to classify or categorize individuals into different groups based on specific criteria. It does not involve comparing or ordering objects, establishing relationships between variables, or scoring an object without comparing it to another object. The purpose of a categorization scale is to organize participants into distinct groups for analysis or study purposes.

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  • 18. 

    Which type of scale is used when participants place cards into piles using criteria established by the researcher?

    • A.

      Ranking

    • B.

      Rating

    • C.

      Categorization

    • D.

      Sorting

    • E.

      Recording

    Correct Answer
    D. Sorting
    Explanation
    Sorting is the correct answer because it involves participants placing cards into piles based on specific criteria set by the researcher. This process allows for the organization and arrangement of items into different groups or categories based on their characteristics or attributes. Sorting is a common method used in research studies to gather and analyze data, particularly when dealing with qualitative or categorical data.

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  • 19. 

    When a scale seeks to measure only one attribute of the participant or object it is said to be _____.

    • A.

      Conative

    • B.

      Affective

    • C.

      Undimensional

    • D.

      Multidimensional

    • E.

      Balanced

    Correct Answer
    C. Undimensional
    Explanation
    When a scale seeks to measure only one attribute of the participant or object, it is referred to as undimensional. This means that the scale focuses on capturing and quantifying a single specific characteristic or quality, rather than multiple dimensions or aspects.

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  • 20. 

    The SERVQUAL scale seeks to describe perceptions of service quality with five dimensions. This scale is _____.

    • A.

      Unidimensional

    • B.

      Multidimensional

    • C.

      Balanced

    • D.

      Unbalanced

    • E.

      Valid

    Correct Answer
    B. Multidimensional
    Explanation
    The SERVQUAL scale is described as multidimensional because it seeks to measure service quality across five dimensions. This means that it takes into account multiple aspects of service quality, such as reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles. By considering these different dimensions, the scale provides a more comprehensive and accurate assessment of service quality compared to a unidimensional or balanced approach.

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  • 21. 

    A(n) _____ scale seeks to simultaneously measure more than one attribute of the participant or object.

    • A.

      Multidimensional

    • B.

      Unidimensional

    • C.

      Balanced

    • D.

      Unbalanced

    • E.

      Valid

    Correct Answer
    A. Multidimensional
    Explanation
    A multidimensional scale is a type of scale that aims to measure multiple attributes of a participant or object simultaneously. Unlike a unidimensional scale, which only measures one attribute, a multidimensional scale allows for a more comprehensive assessment by considering multiple dimensions or aspects of the participant or object. This can provide a more nuanced understanding and evaluation of the subject being measured.

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  • 22. 

    A scale that uses the response options "very bad, bad, average, good, very good" is a(n) _____ rating scale.

    • A.

      Unidimensional

    • B.

      Multidimensional

    • C.

      Balanced

    • D.

      Unbalanced

    • E.

      Valid

    Correct Answer
    C. Balanced
    Explanation
    A scale that uses the response options "very bad, bad, average, good, very good" is a balanced rating scale because it provides an equal number of positive and negative response options. This allows respondents to express a range of opinions and avoids bias towards one extreme or the other.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is true of the following response scale: poor – fair – good – very good – excellent?

    • A.

      It is a balanced rating scale

    • B.

      It is a unforced-choice rating scale

    • C.

      It does not allow for expressions of intensity among participants with unfavorable opinions

    • D.

      It will result in an asymmetrical distribution

    • E.

      It will minimize halo effects

    Correct Answer
    C. It does not allow for expressions of intensity among participants with unfavorable opinions
    Explanation
    The given response scale of poor – fair – good – very good – excellent does not allow for expressions of intensity among participants with unfavorable opinions. This means that participants who have unfavorable opinions cannot express the degree of their dissatisfaction or disapproval using this scale. The scale only provides options for positive responses, ranging from fair to excellent, without allowing participants to indicate the extent of their negative opinions.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following situations favors the use of unbalanced rating scales rather than balanced rating scales?

    • A.

      Participants' scores lean in one direction

    • B.

      Object being rating is familiar to participants

    • C.

      Participants are known to be easy raters

    • D.

      Participants are known to be hard raters

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Unbalanced rating scales are favored in situations where participants' scores lean in one direction, the object being rated is familiar to participants, and participants are known to be either easy or hard raters. In these situations, unbalanced rating scales allow for a greater differentiation between responses and provide a more accurate reflection of participants' opinions or evaluations.

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  • 25. 

    All of the following questions must be answered prior to designing a questionnaire except _____.

    • A.

      What type of scale is needed to perform the desired analysis to answer the management question?

    • B.

      Should the question be structured, unstructured, or some combination?

    • C.

      What data collection mode will be used?

    • D.

      Should the questioning be disguised or undisguised?

    • E.

      How will the results be translated into managerial recommendations?

    Correct Answer
    E. How will the results be translated into managerial recommendations?
    Explanation
    The question is asking about the questions that need to be answered prior to designing a questionnaire. The given answer, "How will the results be translated into managerial recommendations?" is not one of those questions. The other questions listed in the explanation are all relevant to designing a questionnaire, as they involve determining the type of scale needed, the structure of the questions, the data collection mode, and whether the questioning should be disguised or undisguised. However, translating results into managerial recommendations is a step that occurs after the questionnaire has been designed and data has been collected.

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  • 26. 

    A(n) _____ question is one designed to conceal the question's and the study's true purpose.

    • A.

      Undisguised

    • B.

      Disguised

    • C.

      Unstructured

    • D.

      Structured

    • E.

      Projective

    Correct Answer
    B. Disguised
    Explanation
    A disguised question is one that is intentionally designed to hide or conceal the true purpose of the question and the study. This can be done by phrasing the question in a way that does not reveal the true intention or by using misleading language or context to divert attention from the actual purpose. By disguising the question, researchers can gather more genuine and unbiased responses from participants, as they may not be aware of the true purpose and therefore provide more honest answers.

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  • 27. 

    In which of the following situations should a study's objective be disguised?

    • A.

      When the study's objective is unlikely to affect the participants' responses

    • B.

      When requesting willingly shared, conscious-level information

    • C.

      When requesting reluctantly shared, conscious-level information

    • D.

      When requesting knowable, conscious-level information

    • E.

      When requesting willingly shared, knowable information

    Correct Answer
    C. When requesting reluctantly shared, conscious-level information
    Explanation
    When requesting reluctantly shared, conscious-level information, it may be necessary to disguise the study's objective in order to obtain accurate and unbiased responses from the participants. If the participants are aware of the true objective, they may be hesitant or reluctant to provide honest information, leading to skewed results. Disguising the objective can help create a more neutral and unbiased environment, encouraging participants to share their true thoughts and experiences.

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  • 28. 

    A _____ describes how the analysis will be structured once the data have been collected.

    • A.

      Dummy table

    • B.

      Analysis table

    • C.

      Analysis flowchart

    • D.

      Dummy variable

    • E.

      Branching design

    Correct Answer
    A. Dummy table
    Explanation
    A dummy table is a tool used in data analysis to outline the structure and organization of the analysis once the data have been collected. It serves as a placeholder or template for organizing and presenting the collected data in a systematic manner. The dummy table helps researchers plan and visualize the analysis process, ensuring that all relevant data are included and properly analyzed.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following goals should a good survey instrument accomplish?

    • A.

      Encourage each participant to provide accurate responses

    • B.

      Encourage participants to be succinct in their responses

    • C.

      Encourage participants to answer only those questions they are comfortable answering

    • D.

      Encourage participants to end the survey when they feel they have contributed enough information

    • E.

      Ask as much as possible from the respondents

    Correct Answer
    A. Encourage each participant to provide accurate responses
    Explanation
    A good survey instrument should encourage each participant to provide accurate responses. This ensures that the data collected from the survey is reliable and can be used for analysis and decision-making. By emphasizing the importance of accuracy, participants are more likely to take the survey seriously and provide honest and truthful answers. This helps in obtaining valid and meaningful results from the survey.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following terms is used to refer to questionnaires used in personal interviews?

    • A.

      Administrative questions

    • B.

      Interview schedules

    • C.

      Moderator guides

    • D.

      Survey schedules

    • E.

      Interview guides

    Correct Answer
    B. Interview schedules
    Explanation
    The term "interview schedules" is used to refer to questionnaires used in personal interviews. This term is commonly used to describe the structured set of questions that are asked during an interview. These schedules help to ensure that all participants are asked the same questions in the same order, allowing for consistency and comparability in the data collected.

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  • 31. 

    What type of questions identifies the participant, interviewer, interview location, and conditions?

    • A.

      Classification questions

    • B.

      Target questions

    • C.

      Administrative questions

    • D.

      Structured questions

    • E.

      Supervisory questions

    Correct Answer
    C. Administrative questions
    Explanation
    Administrative questions are a type of questions that aim to gather basic information about the participants, interviewers, interview location, and conditions. These questions help in organizing and managing the interview process effectively. They provide essential details about the logistics and administrative aspects of the interview, ensuring that all necessary arrangements are in place. By asking administrative questions, interviewers can ensure that the interview runs smoothly and that all relevant information is collected.

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  • 32. 

    All of the following question types are asked of the survey participant except _____.

    • A.

      Classification questions

    • B.

      Target questions

    • C.

      Supervisory questions

    • D.

      Administrative questions

    • E.

      Disguised questions

    Correct Answer
    D. Administrative questions
    Explanation
    Administrative questions are not asked of the survey participants. These questions typically pertain to the logistics and organization of the survey, such as the participant's contact information, demographic details, or consent to participate. While classification, target, supervisory, and disguised questions are all types of questions that may be asked to gather specific information or opinions from participants, administrative questions are not directly related to the purpose of the survey itself.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following types of data are collected using a classification question?

    • A.

      Gender

    • B.

      Purchase behavior

    • C.

      Attitude toward the brand

    • D.

      Personality

    • E.

      Behavioral intent

    Correct Answer
    A. Gender
    Explanation
    A classification question is used to categorize or classify data into different groups or categories. Gender is a type of data that can be easily classified as it falls into distinct categories such as male or female. Therefore, it is collected using a classification question.

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  • 34. 

    What type of question seeks to group participants' answers so that patterns can be revealed and studied?

    • A.

      Classification questions

    • B.

      Target questions

    • C.

      Supervisory questions

    • D.

      Administrative questions

    • E.

      Disguised questions

    Correct Answer
    A. Classification questions
    Explanation
    Classification questions seek to group participants' answers so that patterns can be revealed and studied. This type of question is used to categorize responses based on certain criteria or characteristics, allowing researchers to identify similarities and differences among the participants' answers. By organizing the data into groups or categories, researchers can analyze the patterns that emerge and gain insights into the underlying trends or relationships within the data.

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  • 35. 

    Classification questions seek to _____.

    • A.

      Identify the participant, interviewer, interview locations, and conditions

    • B.

      Measure the core investigative questions

    • C.

      Measure sociological-demographic variables that allow participants' answers to be grouped

    • D.

      Frame the context of target questions

    • E.

      Address the primary management issue being studied

    Correct Answer
    C. Measure sociological-demographic variables that allow participants' answers to be grouped
    Explanation
    Classification questions seek to measure sociological-demographic variables that allow participants' answers to be grouped. This means that these questions are designed to gather information about certain characteristics or factors that can be used to categorize or group participants' responses. By doing so, researchers can analyze and interpret the data more effectively, identify patterns or trends, and draw meaningful conclusions from the grouped data.

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  • 36. 

    What type of question seeks to address the investigative questions of a specific study?

    • A.

      Classification questions

    • B.

      Target questions

    • C.

      Supervisory questions

    • D.

      Administrative questions

    • E.

      Disguised questions

    Correct Answer
    B. Target questions
    Explanation
    Target questions seek to address the investigative questions of a specific study. These questions are focused on the main objective or goal of the research and help guide the research process. They are designed to target specific information or outcomes that the study aims to achieve or understand. Target questions are essential for clarifying the purpose of the study and ensuring that the research is conducted effectively and efficiently.

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  • 37. 

    When target questions present the participants with a fixed set of choices, they are _____.

    • A.

      Unstructured

    • B.

      Undisguised

    • C.

      Structured

    • D.

      Disguised

    • E.

      Open-ended

    Correct Answer
    C. Structured
    Explanation
    When target questions present the participants with a fixed set of choices, they are considered structured. This means that the options provided to the participants are predetermined and limited, allowing for a more organized and controlled approach to gathering information or opinions. This type of question format is often used in surveys or assessments where specific answers are desired.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following statements is not a disadvantage of unstructured questions?

    • A.

      Unstructured questions are not suitable for self-administered questionnaires

    • B.

      Coding of responses is costly and time consuming

    • C.

      Unstructured questions tend to be less biasing influence on response than structured questions

    • D.

      Implicitly, unstructured questions give extra weight to respondents who are more articulate

    • E.

      Unstructured questions require the use of content analysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Unstructured questions tend to be less biasing influence on response than structured questions
    Explanation
    Unstructured questions tend to be less biasing influence on response than structured questions because they allow respondents to provide open-ended and unrestricted answers. This means that respondents have the freedom to express their thoughts and opinions without being limited by pre-determined response options. In contrast, structured questions often provide response options that can unintentionally guide or influence respondents towards certain answers. Therefore, unstructured questions offer a more unbiased and comprehensive understanding of respondents' perspectives.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following questions is not useful for the instrument designer when selecting appropriate question content and writing questions?

    • A.

      Should this question be asked?

    • B.

      Is the question of proper scope and coverage?

    • C.

      Can the participant answer this question as asked?

    • D.

      Will the participant willingly answer this question as asked?

    • E.

      What data collection mode will be used?

    Correct Answer
    E. What data collection mode will be used?
    Explanation
    The question "What data collection mode will be used?" is not useful for the instrument designer when selecting appropriate question content and writing questions because it pertains to the method of collecting data, rather than the content and structure of the questions themselves. The instrument designer's focus should be on creating clear, relevant, and effective questions, rather than determining the data collection mode.

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  • 40. 

    A study of donor behavior for the Tsunami Relief Fund seeks to identify participation from consumers through indirect gifts such as purchasing items of which a portion of proceeds will benefit Tsunami victims. Because such purchases do not record whether an individual made the purchase decision as a form of donation, a survey will be used to identify this behavior. In writing the target questions for the study, the instrument designer should be aware of errors arising from the issue of _____.

    • A.

      Precision

    • B.

      Time for though

    • C.

      Sensitive information

    • D.

      Recall and memory decay

    • E.

      Presumed knowledge

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensitive information
    Explanation
    In designing the survey questions for the study on donor behavior, the instrument designer should be aware of errors arising from the issue of sensitive information. Since the study aims to identify participation through indirect gifts, it is important to ensure that the questions do not ask for personal or sensitive information that participants may be unwilling to share. Asking for sensitive information could lead to bias or incomplete responses, affecting the accuracy and reliability of the study's findings.

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  • 41. 

    In a question related to approval of President George W. Bush's plan to save social security, the interviewer asks, "Don't you agree that something must be done to save social security?" This question suffers from _____.

    • A.

      Sensitive information

    • B.

      Double-barreled question

    • C.

      Biased wording

    • D.

      Frame of reference

    • E.

      Recall and memory decay

    Correct Answer
    C. Biased wording
    Explanation
    The question suffers from biased wording because it assumes that something must be done to save social security without considering alternative perspectives or solutions. The interviewer's use of the phrase "don't you agree" also implies that there is a correct answer and pressures the interviewee to conform to the interviewer's viewpoint. This biased wording can influence the interviewee's response and limit the exploration of different opinions on the matter.

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  • 42. 

    Choosing between the questions "Do you think the distribution of soft drinks is adequate?" (Incorrect) and "Do you think soft drinks are readily available when you want to buy them?" (Correct) are examples of situations that pertain to _____.

    • A.

      Avoiding leading questions

    • B.

      B. Avoiding biased words

    • C.

      Presuming knowledge

    • D.

      Ensuring the right frame of reference

    • E.

      Providing time for thought

    Correct Answer
    D. Ensuring the right frame of reference
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ensuring the right frame of reference. This is because the incorrect question is asking about the distribution of soft drinks, which may not necessarily be related to their availability when someone wants to buy them. The correct question ensures that the frame of reference is focused on the availability of soft drinks when desired, which is more relevant to the situation being discussed.

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  • 43. 

    Which issue related to the design of measurement questions addresses whether it is reasonable to assume that the participant can frame an answer to the question?

    • A.

      Precision

    • B.

      Frame of reference

    • C.

      Time for thought

    • D.

      Biased wording

    • E.

      Adequate alternatives

    Correct Answer
    C. Time for thought
    Explanation
    The issue related to the design of measurement questions that addresses whether it is reasonable to assume that the participant can frame an answer to the question is "Time for thought". This refers to the amount of time given to the participant to process the question and come up with a thoughtful response. It considers whether the participant has enough time to think about the question and provide an accurate answer, without feeling rushed or pressured.

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  • 44. 

    When developing a questionnaire, if the researcher is asking him/herself if the word means what he/she intended; if it has any other meanings; if the word has more than one pronunciation; or if a simpler phrase is suggested then, he/she is probably concerned with _____.

    • A.

      Avoiding leading questions

    • B.

      Avoiding double-barreled questions

    • C.

      Choosing shared vocabulary

    • D.

      Personalizing the questionnaire

    • E.

      Providing a frame of reference

    Correct Answer
    C. Choosing shared vocabulary
    Explanation
    The researcher's concerns about whether the word means what they intended, if it has other meanings, if it has multiple pronunciations, or if a simpler phrase is suggested all indicate that they are focused on choosing shared vocabulary. This means they want to ensure that the words used in the questionnaire are clear, unambiguous, and easily understood by the participants, promoting effective communication and accurate responses.

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  • 45. 

    The issue of frame of reference in the design of questions and questionnaires asks _____.

    • A.

      Does the question contain wording that implies the researcher's desire for the participant to respond in one way rather than another?

    • B.

      Is the question worded from the researcher's perspective or the participant's perspective?

    • C.

      Does the question ask the participant for information that relates to thoughts or activity too far in the participant's past to be remembered?

    • D.

      Does the question use words that have no meaning or a different meaning for the participant?

    • E.

      Is it reasonable to assume that the participant can frame an answer to the question?

    Correct Answer
    B. Is the question worded from the researcher's perspective or the participant's perspective?
    Explanation
    The question is asking whether the question is worded from the researcher's perspective or the participant's perspective. This is important because the frame of reference can influence how the participant interprets and responds to the question. If the question is worded from the researcher's perspective, it may introduce bias and lead to inaccurate responses. On the other hand, if the question is worded from the participant's perspective, it is more likely to elicit accurate and meaningful responses.

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  • 46. 

    The issue of biased wording in the design of questions asks _____.

    • A.

      Does the question contain wording that implies the researcher's desire for the participant to respond in one way rather than another?

    • B.

      Is the question worded from the researcher's perspective or the participant's perspective?

    • C.

      Does the question ask the participant for information that relates to thoughts or activity too far in the participant's past to be remembered?

    • D.

      Does the question use words that have no meaning or a different meaning for the participant?

    • E.

      Is it reasonable to assume that the participant can frame an answer to the question?

    Correct Answer
    A. Does the question contain wording that implies the researcher's desire for the participant to respond in one way rather than another?
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the issue of biased wording in the design of questions is related to whether the question contains wording that implies the researcher's desire for the participant to respond in a specific way. Biased wording can influence the participant's response and compromise the validity of the research findings.

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  • 47. 

    The issue of time for thought in the design of questions asks _____.

    • A.

      Does the question contain wording that implies the researcher's desire for the participant to respond in one way rather than another?

    • B.

      Is the question worded from the researcher's perspective or the participant's perspective?

    • C.

      Does the question ask the participant for information that relates to thoughts or activity too far in the participant's past to be remembered?

    • D.

      Does the question use words that have no meaning or a different meaning for the participant?

    • E.

      Is it reasonable to assume that the participant can frame an answer to the question?

    Correct Answer
    E. Is it reasonable to assume that the participant can frame an answer to the question?
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the issue of time for thought in the design of questions asks whether it is reasonable to assume that the participant can frame an answer to the question. This means that the question should be designed in a way that allows the participant enough time and information to provide a meaningful response. It is important to consider the participant's perspective and ensure that the question is clear and understandable to them, without using confusing or unfamiliar words. Additionally, the question should not ask for information that is too far in the past for the participant to remember.

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  • 48. 

    The issue of memory decay in the design of questions asks _____.

    • A.

      Does the question contain wording that implies the researcher's desire for the participant to respond in one way rather than another?

    • B.

      Is the question worded from the researcher's perspective or the participant's perspective?

    • C.

      Does the question ask the participant for information that relates to thoughts or activity too far in the participant's past to be remembered?

    • D.

      Does the question use words that have no meaning or a different meaning for the participant?

    • E.

      Is it reasonable to assume that the participant can frame an answer to the question?

    Correct Answer
    C. Does the question ask the participant for information that relates to thoughts or activity too far in the participant's past to be remembered?
    Explanation
    The correct answer is: Does the question ask the participant for information that relates to thoughts or activity too far in the participant's past to be remembered?

    This answer is correct because it addresses the issue of memory decay in the design of questions. Memory decay refers to the fading or loss of memories over time. If a question asks for information that is too far in the past to be remembered, it can lead to inaccurate or unreliable responses. Therefore, considering the temporal aspect of the information being asked is important in designing effective questions.

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  • 49. 

    The issue of shared vocabulary in the design of questions asks _____.

    • A.

      Does the question contain wording that implies the researcher's desire for the participant to respond in one way rather than another?

    • B.

      Is the question worded from the researcher's perspective or the participant's perspective?

    • C.

      Does the question ask the participant for information that relates to thoughts or activity too far in the participant's past to be remembered?

    • D.

      Does the question use words that have no meaning or a different meaning for the participant?

    • E.

      Is it reasonable to assume that the participant can frame an answer to the question?

    Correct Answer
    D. Does the question use words that have no meaning or a different meaning for the participant?
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the issue of shared vocabulary in the design of questions asks whether the question uses words that have no meaning or a different meaning for the participant. This means that the question may contain terms or language that the participant does not understand or interprets differently, which can lead to confusion and inaccurate responses. It emphasizes the importance of using clear and understandable language in research questions to ensure that participants can provide meaningful and accurate answers.

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  • 50. 

    Which term below refers to the individual participant or object on which a measurement is taken?

    • A.

      Population

    • B.

      Target population

    • C.

      Population element

    • D.

      Sampling frame

    • E.

      Sample

    Correct Answer
    C. Population element
    Explanation
    The term "population element" refers to the individual participant or object on which a measurement is taken. It represents the specific unit within a population that is being studied or observed. This term is used in research and sampling techniques to identify the specific entities that are being analyzed or measured.

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