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Management Quizzes & Trivia

Midterm


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which term below refers to a study involving the manipulation of one or more variables to determine the effect on another variable?
    • A. 

      Ex post facto

    • B. 

      Experiment

    • C. 

      Monitoring study

    • D. 

      Communication study

    • E. 

      Descriptive study

  • 2. 
    Which variable in an experiment is manipulated by the researcher?
    • A. 

      Dependent variable

    • B. 

      Extraneous variable

    • C. 

      Moderating variable

    • D. 

      Independent variable

    • E. 

      Mediating variable

  • 3. 
    Which variable in an experiment is the variable expected to be affected by the manipulation?
    • A. 

      Dependent variable

    • B. 

      Extraneous variable

    • C. 

      Moderating variable

    • D. 

      Independent variable

    • E. 

      Mediating variable

  • 4. 
    All of the following are terms used to refer to an independent variable except _____.
    • A. 

      Predictor

    • B. 

      Explanatory

    • C. 

      Criterion

    • D. 

      All of the above refer to an independent variable

    • E. 

      None of the above refer to an independent variable

  • 5. 
    In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.In the bystanders and thieves study, what is the independent variable?
    • A. 

      The store environment

    • B. 

      Exposure to a robbery

    • C. 

      State of being alone or with another person

    • D. 

      Act of reporting the robbery or not

    • E. 

      Reaction of the accosted shopper following the robbery

  • 6. 
    In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.What is the dependent variable in the bystanders and thieves study?
    • A. 

      The store environment

    • B. 

      Exposure to a robbery

    • C. 

      State of being alone or with another person

    • D. 

      Act of reporting the robbery or not

    • E. 

      Reaction of the accosted shopper following the robbery

  • 7. 
    In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.The actors playing the role of the accosted shopper and thief in the bystanders and thieves study are known as _____.
    • A. 

      Confederates

    • B. 

      Assistants

    • C. 

      Criterions

    • D. 

      Affiliates

    • E. 

      Accomplices

  • 8. 
    In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.What type of research design is used in the bystanders and thieves study?
    • A. 

      Descriptive

    • B. 

      Causal

    • C. 

      Exploratory

    • D. 

      Monitoring

    • E. 

      Communication

  • 9. 
    In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.Which of the following statements best represents the hypothesis in the bystanders and thieves study?
    • A. 

      People exposed to a robbery will judge the seriousness of the situation according to the response of the victim

    • B. 

      Bystanders will perceive a robbery as less frightening when in the company of another person

    • C. 

      Reports of a robbery are more likely among victims of a robbery when a witness is present

    • D. 

      Bystanders are more likely to report a theft if they view the theft alone than in another person's company

    • E. 

      Bystanders to a theft will be less likely to shop at the store in which the theft occurred

  • 10. 
    The district attorney's office wants further evidence of the results found in the bystanders and thieves study. It decides to conduct a study using data from reported thefts over the past 5 year period. Police records indicate whether bystanders who report a crime are alone when the crime is observed or are accompanied by one or more people. The district attorney's office will assess whether more theft reports indicate that the witness was alone or with other people.Which type of study is being conducted by the district attorney's office?
    • A. 

      Survey

    • B. 

      Experiment

    • C. 

      Ex post facto

    • D. 

      Interview

    • E. 

      Observation

  • 11. 
    The district attorney's office wants further evidence of the results found in the bystanders and thieves study. It decides to conduct a study using data from reported thefts over the past 5 year period. Police records indicate whether bystanders who report a crime are alone when the crime is observed or are accompanied by one or more people. The district attorney's office will assess whether more theft reports indicate that the witness was alone or with other people.Which of the following statements best represents the hypothesis in the district attorney's study?
    • A. 

      People exposed to a robbery will judge the seriousness of the situation according to the response of the victim

    • B. 

      Bystanders will perceive a robbery as less frightening when in the company of another person

    • C. 

      More robberies are reported by bystanders who view the theft alone than by bystanders who view the theft in the company of others

    • D. 

      Reports of a robbery are more likely among victims of a robbery when a witness is present

    • E. 

      Bystanders to a theft will be less likely to shop at the store in which the theft occurred

  • 12. 
    Which research design listed below is most appropriate for establishing causality?
    • A. 

      Focus group

    • B. 

      Individual depth interview

    • C. 

      Experiment

    • D. 

      Survey

    • E. 

      Behavioral observation

  • 13. 
    The use of a(n) _____ serves as a comparison to assess the existence and potency of the manipulation.
    • A. 

      Experimental group

    • B. 

      Control group

    • C. 

      Criterion variable

    • D. 

      Explanatory variable

    • E. 

      Field experiment

  • 14. 
    • A. 

      Replication

    • B. 

      Simulation

    • C. 

      Field

    • D. 

      Extraneous

    • E. 

      Test market

  • 15. 
    Which source of evidence to support experimental results is most threatened by the use of a field experiment?
    • A. 

      Agreement between the IV and DV

    • B. 

      Time order of the occurrence of the variables

    • C. 

      Control of contamination from extraneous variables

    • D. 

      Use of a control group

    • E. 

      Manipulation of the IV

  • 16. 
    The process of repeating an experiment with different participant groups and conditions to determine the average effect of the IV across people, situations, and times is known as _____.
    • A. 

      Replication

    • B. 

      Evaluation

    • C. 

      Repetition

    • D. 

      Norming

    • E. 

      Multi-model

  • 17. 
    The use of a control group in experimentation _____.
    • A. 

      Provides for the manipulation of the IV

    • B. 

      Serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation

    • C. 

      Minimizes the cost of experimentation

    • D. 

      Allows for discovery of the average effect of the IV in different situations

    • E. 

      Increases generalizability of results

  • 18. 
    The use of a replication in experimentation _____.
    • A. 

      Provides for the manipulation of the IV

    • B. 

      Serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation

    • C. 

      Minimizes the cost of experimentation

    • D. 

      Allows for discovery of the average effect of the IV in different situations

    • E. 

      Increases generalizability of results

  • 19. 
    The use of a field setting in experimentation _____.
    • A. 

      Provides for the manipulation of the IV

    • B. 

      Serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation

    • C. 

      Minimizes the cost of experimentation

    • D. 

      Allows for discovery of the average effect of the IV in different situations

    • E. 

      Increases generalizability of results

  • 20. 
    Which of the following is a threat to a researcher's ability to generalize the results of an experiment?
    • A. 

      Artificiality of a laboratory

    • B. 

      Use of a field setting

    • C. 

      Use of a probability sample

    • D. 

      Control of extraneous variables

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 21. 
    A tentative descriptive statement of the relationship between the variables is called a(n) _____.
    • A. 

      Research question

    • B. 

      Postulation

    • C. 

      Hypothesis

    • D. 

      Educated guess

    • E. 

      Theory

  • 22. 
    Which term refers to the process of transforming concepts and constructs into measurable variables suitable for testing?
    • A. 

      Generalization

    • B. 

      Control

    • C. 

      Hypothetical

    • D. 

      Operationalization

    • E. 

      Transformation

  • 23. 
    What is the first step in conducting an experiment?
    • A. 

      Specify the level(s) of the treatment

    • B. 

      Choose the experimental design

    • C. 

      Control the experimental environment

    • D. 

      Select and assign participants

    • E. 

      Select relevant variables

  • 24. 
    • A. 

      Blind

    • B. 

      Deceived

    • C. 

      Concealed

    • D. 

      Controlled

    • E. 

      Debriefed

  • 25. 
    • A. 

      Control groups

    • B. 

      Matching

    • C. 

      Replication

    • D. 

      Purposive assignment

    • E. 

      Pilot testing

  • 26. 
    Measurement in research consists of assigning numbers to _____ in compliance with a set of rules.
    • A. 

      Events

    • B. 

      Objects

    • C. 

      Properties

    • D. 

      Activities

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 27. 
    A _____ is a scheme for assigning numbers of symbols to represent aspects of the event being measured.
    • A. 

      Measurement tool

    • B. 

      Mapping rule

    • C. 

      Ruler

    • D. 

      Scale

    • E. 

      Property

  • 28. 
    • A. 

      To reflect bothquantitative and qualitative concepts

    • B. 

      To provide the highest-quality, lowest error data for data analysis

    • C. 

      To describe, explain, and make predictions based on the information

    • D. 

      To attach meaning to symbols

    • E. 

      To specify the empirical information needed

  • 29. 
    A(n) _____ defines a variable in terms of specific measurement criteria.
    • A. 

      Operational definition

    • B. 

      Empirical definition

    • C. 

      Measurement rule

    • D. 

      Mapping rule

    • E. 

      Conceptual definition

  • 30. 
    Which of the following is not an example of an object?
    • A. 

      Attitude

    • B. 

      Furniture

    • C. 

      Dog

    • D. 

      Class affiliation

    • E. 

      Weight

  • 31. 
    Weight, height, and temperature are all types of _____.
    • A. 

      Objects

    • B. 

      Physical properties

    • C. 

      Psychological properties

    • D. 

      Constructs

    • E. 

      Mapping

  • 32. 
    Attitudes are a type of _____.
    • A. 

      Object

    • B. 

      Physical property

    • C. 

      Psychological property

    • D. 

      Social property

    • E. 

      Mapping rule

  • 33. 
    Socioeconomic class affiliation is a type of _____.
    • A. 

      Object

    • B. 

      Physical property

    • C. 

      Psychological property

    • D. 

      Social property

    • E. 

      Mapping rule

  • 34. 
    Which characteristic of mapping rules refers to the numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists?
    • A. 

      Classification

    • B. 

      Order

    • C. 

      Distance

    • D. 

      Origin

    • E. 

      Exclusivity

  • 35. 
    Which characteristic of mapping rules refers to ordered numbers in which one number is greater than, less than, or equal to another number?
    • A. 

      Classification

    • B. 

      Order

    • C. 

      Distance

    • D. 

      Origin

    • E. 

      Exclusivity

  • 36. 
    Order, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to _____.
    • A. 

      The use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one

    • B. 

      The use of numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists

    • C. 

      The use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next

    • D. 

      The use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero

    • E. 

      The use of a number that is not used again

  • 37. 
    Which characteristic of mapping rules refers to a series of numbers in which each number in the series is an equal distance from the next number?
    • A. 

      Classification

    • B. 

      Order

    • C. 

      Distance

    • D. 

      Origin

    • E. 

      Exclusivity

  • 38. 
    Distance, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to _____.
    • A. 

      The use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one

    • B. 

      The use of numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists

    • C. 

      The use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next

    • D. 

      The use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero

    • E. 

      The use of a number that is not used again

  • 39. 
    14. Origin, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to _____.
    • A. 

      The use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one

    • B. 

      The use of numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists

    • C. 

      The use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next

    • D. 

      The use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero

    • E. 

      The use of a number that is not used again

  • 40. 
    • A. 

      Classification only

    • B. 

      Classification and order

    • C. 

      Classification, order, and distance

    • D. 

      Classification, order, distance, and origin

    • E. 

      Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

  • 41. 
    LeBron James wears the number 23 on his jersey. Which of the following characteristics is exhibited by this number?
    • A. 

      Distance

    • B. 

      Order

    • C. 

      Classification

    • D. 

      Origin

    • E. 

      Exclusivity

  • 42. 
    To ride the roller coaster ride at an amusement park, customers must report their weight to the ride attendant. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by weight?
    • A. 

      Classification only

    • B. 

      Classification and order

    • C. 

      Classification, order, and distance

    • D. 

      Classification, order, distance, and origin

    • E. 

      Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

  • 43. 
    Attendance at raceways most recent two races have hit attendance records with 60,000 present at one and 65,000 present at another. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by these attendance measures?
    • A. 

      Classification only

    • B. 

      Classification and order

    • C. 

      Classification, order, and distance

    • D. 

      Classification, order, distance, and origin

    • E. 

      Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

  • 44. 
    The record low in Buffalo, New York for February 16th is 20 degrees below 0. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by this temperature?
    • A. 

      Classification only

    • B. 

      Classification and order

    • C. 

      C. Classification, order, and distance

    • D. 

      Classification, order, distance, and origin

    • E. 

      Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

  • 45. 
    The New York Times Dining Section rates the restaurants it reviews using a system such that one star means good, two stars means very good, three stars means excellent, and four stars means extraordinary. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by this rating scheme?
    • A. 

      Classification only

    • B. 

      Classification and order

    • C. 

      Classification, order, and distance

    • D. 

      Classification, order, distance, and origin

    • E. 

      Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

  • 46. 
    A nominal scale contains _____.
    • A. 

      Mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories as well as the property of order, but not distance or unique origin

    • B. 

      The properties of order, classification, and equal distance between points but no unique origin

    • C. 

      Mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories, but without the properties of order, distance, and origin

    • D. 

      The properties of classification, order, equal distance, and unique origin

    • E. 

      The four major sources of error

  • 47. 
    In a survey of football fans, each respondent is asked to indicate whether they have ever attended an NFL game. This question can be categorized as a(n) _____ scale.
    • A. 

      Ratio

    • B. 

      Interval

    • C. 

      Ordinal

    • D. 

      Nominal

    • E. 

      Semantic differential

  • 48. 
    • A. 

      Two

    • B. 

      Three

    • C. 

      Five

    • D. 

      Ten

    • E. 

      There is no limit

  • 49. 
    • A. 

      Mean

    • B. 

      Mode

    • C. 

      Median

    • D. 

      Range

    • E. 

      Dispersion

  • 50. 
    _____ describes how scores cluster or scatter in a distribution.
    • A. 

      Mode

    • B. 

      Mean

    • C. 

      Median

    • D. 

      Dispersion

    • E. 

      Range

  • 51. 
    Which of the following terms refers to a learned, stable predisposition to respond to oneself, other persons, objects, or issues in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way?
    • A. 

      Opinion

    • B. 

      Attitude

    • C. 

      Personality trait

    • D. 

      Construct

    • E. 

      Behavior