# A Business And Market Research Quiz!

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• 1.

### Which term below refers to a study involving the manipulation of one or more variables to determine the effect on another variable?

• A.

Ex post facto

• B.

Experiment

• C.

Monitoring study

• D.

Communication study

• E.

Descriptive study

B. Experiment
Explanation
An experiment refers to a study involving the manipulation of one or more variables to determine the effect on another variable. In an experiment, researchers intentionally change certain variables (independent variables) to observe the impact on another variable (dependent variable). This allows them to establish cause-and-effect relationships and draw conclusions about the effect of the manipulated variables on the outcome variable.

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• 2.

### Which variable in an experiment is manipulated by the researcher?

• A.

Dependent variable

• B.

Extraneous variable

• C.

Moderating variable

• D.

Independent variable

• E.

Mediating variable

D. Independent variable
Explanation
The independent variable is the variable that is manipulated by the researcher in an experiment. It is the variable that the researcher intentionally changes or controls in order to observe its effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable, on the other hand, is the variable that is measured or observed to determine the effect of the independent variable.

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• 3.

### Which variable in an experiment is the variable expected to be affected by the manipulation?

• A.

Dependent variable

• B.

Extraneous variable

• C.

Moderating variable

• D.

Independent variable

• E.

Mediating variable

A. Dependent variable
Explanation
The dependent variable is the variable in an experiment that is expected to be affected by the manipulation. It is the outcome or response variable that is measured or observed to determine the effect of the independent variable. In other words, changes in the independent variable are believed to cause changes in the dependent variable.

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• 4.

### All of the following are terms used to refer to an independent variable except _____.

• A.

Predictor

• B.

Explanatory

• C.

Criterion

• D.

All of the above refer to an independent variable

• E.

None of the above refer to an independent variable

C. Criterion
Explanation
The term "criterion" does not refer to an independent variable. In research, an independent variable is the variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher. It is the variable that is believed to have an effect on the dependent variable. "Predictor" and "explanatory" are terms that are commonly used to refer to an independent variable, as they imply a cause-and-effect relationship. However, "criterion" refers to a standard or measure used to evaluate or judge something, and it is typically used to refer to the dependent variable in research.

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• 5.

### In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.In the bystanders and thieves study, what is the independent variable?

• A.

The store environment

• B.

Exposure to a robbery

• C.

State of being alone or with another person

• D.

Act of reporting the robbery or not

• E.

Reaction of the accosted shopper following the robbery

C. State of being alone or with another person
Explanation
The independent variable in the bystanders and thieves study is the state of being alone or with another person. This means that the researchers are interested in how the presence or absence of another person affects the participants' likelihood of reporting a robbery. They want to determine whether participants are more likely to report the robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person. The other options mentioned in the question, such as the store environment, exposure to a robbery, act of reporting the robbery or not, and reaction of the accosted shopper following the robbery, are not the independent variable in this study.

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• 6.

### In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.What is the dependent variable in the bystanders and thieves study?

• A.

The store environment

• B.

Exposure to a robbery

• C.

State of being alone or with another person

• D.

Act of reporting the robbery or not

• E.

Reaction of the accosted shopper following the robbery

D. Act of reporting the robbery or not
Explanation
The dependent variable in the bystanders and thieves study is the act of reporting the robbery or not. This means that the researchers are interested in determining whether participants are more likely to report the robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person. The study aims to measure the effect of the presence of another person on the likelihood of reporting the crime.

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• 7.

### In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.The actors playing the role of the accosted shopper and thief in the bystanders and thieves study are known as _____.

• A.

Confederates

• B.

Assistants

• C.

Criterions

• D.

Affiliates

• E.

Accomplices

A. Confederates
Explanation
In the given scenario, the actors playing the role of the accosted shopper and thief are referred to as "confederates". Confederates are individuals who are part of a research study and are instructed to act in a certain way to manipulate the situation and gather data. They collaborate with the researchers to create specific conditions and interactions that are necessary for the experiment. In this case, the confederates are pretending to be a victim and a thief to observe how participants react to a robbery in different situations.

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• 8.

### In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.What type of research design is used in the bystanders and thieves study?

• A.

Descriptive

• B.

Causal

• C.

Exploratory

• D.

Monitoring

• E.

Communication

B. Causal
Explanation
The correct answer for this question is "causal" because the study aims to determine the causal relationship between the presence of another person and the likelihood of reporting a robbery. By comparing the participants' behavior when they observe the robbery alone versus when they are with another person, the study seeks to establish whether the presence of a companion causes a change in reporting behavior.

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• 9.

### In the study of bystanders and thieves presented in the text, participants are invited to a store where they see someone steal the purse of another customer. The accosted shopper and the thief are really acting their parts to set the stage for the experiment. Participants view the robbery alone or with another participant. The study sought to determine whether participants were more likely to report a robbery when they observe it alone or in the company of another person.Which of the following statements best represents the hypothesis in the bystanders and thieves study?

• A.

People exposed to a robbery will judge the seriousness of the situation according to the response of the victim

• B.

Bystanders will perceive a robbery as less frightening when in the company of another person

• C.

Reports of a robbery are more likely among victims of a robbery when a witness is present

• D.

Bystanders are more likely to report a theft if they view the theft alone than in another person's company

• E.

Bystanders to a theft will be less likely to shop at the store in which the theft occurred

D. Bystanders are more likely to report a theft if they view the theft alone than in another person's company
Explanation
The hypothesis in the bystanders and thieves study is that bystanders are more likely to report a theft if they view the theft alone than in another person's company. This means that when participants witness a robbery alone, they are more likely to take action and report the crime compared to when they are with another person. The study aims to test whether the presence of another person affects the likelihood of reporting a robbery.

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• 10.

### The district attorney's office wants further evidence of the results found in the bystanders and thieves study. It decides to conduct a study using data from reported thefts over the past 5 year period. Police records indicate whether bystanders who report a crime are alone when the crime is observed or are accompanied by one or more people. The district attorney's office will assess whether more theft reports indicate that the witness was alone or with other people.Which type of study is being conducted by the district attorney's office?

• A.

Survey

• B.

Experiment

• C.

Ex post facto

• D.

Interview

• E.

Observation

C. Ex post facto
Explanation
The district attorney's office is conducting an ex post facto study. This type of study involves analyzing existing data or records to determine the relationship between variables. In this case, the office is using police records of reported thefts over the past 5 years to assess whether more theft reports indicate that the witness was alone or with other people. The study does not involve manipulating variables or conducting experiments, but rather examines data that has already been collected.

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• 11.

### The district attorney's office wants further evidence of the results found in the bystanders and thieves study. It decides to conduct a study using data from reported thefts over the past 5 year period. Police records indicate whether bystanders who report a crime are alone when the crime is observed or are accompanied by one or more people. The district attorney's office will assess whether more theft reports indicate that the witness was alone or with other people.Which of the following statements best represents the hypothesis in the district attorney's study?

• A.

People exposed to a robbery will judge the seriousness of the situation according to the response of the victim

• B.

Bystanders will perceive a robbery as less frightening when in the company of another person

• C.

More robberies are reported by bystanders who view the theft alone than by bystanders who view the theft in the company of others

• D.

Reports of a robbery are more likely among victims of a robbery when a witness is present

• E.

Bystanders to a theft will be less likely to shop at the store in which the theft occurred

C. More robberies are reported by bystanders who view the theft alone than by bystanders who view the theft in the company of others
Explanation
The district attorney's study aims to assess whether more theft reports indicate that the witness was alone or with other people. This suggests that the study is investigating the correlation between the presence of bystanders and the number of reported robberies. The hypothesis being tested is that more robberies are reported by bystanders who view the theft alone than by bystanders who view the theft in the company of others.

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• 12.

### Which research design listed below is most appropriate for establishing causality?

• A.

Focus group

• B.

Individual depth interview

• C.

Experiment

• D.

Survey

• E.

Behavioral observation

C. Experiment
Explanation
An experiment is the most appropriate research design for establishing causality because it involves manipulating an independent variable and measuring its effect on a dependent variable while controlling for other variables. This allows researchers to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the variables and determine if changes in the independent variable lead to changes in the dependent variable. Other research designs listed, such as focus groups, individual depth interviews, surveys, and behavioral observations, may provide valuable insights and data, but they do not have the same level of control and ability to establish causality as experiments.

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• 13.

### The use of a(n) _____ serves as a comparison to assess the existence and potency of the manipulation.

• A.

Experimental group

• B.

Control group

• C.

Criterion variable

• D.

Explanatory variable

• E.

Field experiment

B. Control group
Explanation
A control group is used in an experiment to serve as a comparison to the experimental group. It allows researchers to assess the existence and potency of any manipulation or intervention being tested. By comparing the results of the control group to the experimental group, researchers can determine whether any observed effects are due to the intervention or simply due to chance. The control group provides a baseline against which the effects of the manipulation can be evaluated.

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• 14.

### When an experiment is conducted in actual environmental conditions, it is called a(n) _____ experiment.

• A.

Replication

• B.

Simulation

• C.

Field

• D.

Extraneous

• E.

Test market

C. Field
Explanation
When an experiment is conducted in actual environmental conditions, it is called a field experiment. This type of experiment takes place in real-world settings, such as a natural environment or a specific location, rather than in a controlled laboratory setting. Field experiments allow researchers to observe and measure behavior and outcomes in a more realistic and authentic context, providing insights that may not be possible to obtain in a laboratory setting.

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• 15.

### Which source of evidence to support experimental results is most threatened by the use of a field experiment?

• A.

Agreement between the IV and DV

• B.

Time order of the occurrence of the variables

• C.

Control of contamination from extraneous variables

• D.

Use of a control group

• E.

Manipulation of the IV

C. Control of contamination from extraneous variables
Explanation
A field experiment involves conducting an experiment in a real-world setting, which makes it difficult to control or eliminate extraneous variables that could influence the results. Contamination from extraneous variables refers to the presence of factors other than the independent variable that may impact the dependent variable. Since field experiments are conducted in natural settings, it is challenging to control or minimize the influence of these extraneous variables. Therefore, the control of contamination from extraneous variables is most threatened by the use of a field experiment.

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• 16.

### The process of repeating an experiment with different participant groups and conditions to determine the average effect of the IV across people, situations, and times is known as _____.

• A.

Replication

• B.

Evaluation

• C.

Repetition

• D.

Norming

• E.

Multi-model

A. Replication
Explanation
Replication refers to the process of repeating an experiment with different participant groups and conditions to determine the average effect of the independent variable (IV) across people, situations, and times. It helps to ensure the reliability and validity of research findings by demonstrating that the results can be consistently reproduced.

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• 17.

### The use of a control group in experimentation _____.

• A.

Provides for the manipulation of the IV

• B.

Serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation

• C.

Minimizes the cost of experimentation

• D.

Allows for discovery of the average effect of the IV in different situations

• E.

Increases generalizability of results

B. Serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation
Explanation
The use of a control group in experimentation serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation. By having a control group that does not receive the manipulation or treatment, researchers can compare the results of the experimental group with the control group. This allows them to determine the effect of the manipulation and assess whether it had any significant impact. The control group provides a baseline against which the experimental group can be compared, helping to establish cause and effect relationships and evaluate the effectiveness of the manipulation.

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• 18.

### The use of a replication in experimentation _____.

• A.

Provides for the manipulation of the IV

• B.

Serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation

• C.

Minimizes the cost of experimentation

• D.

Allows for discovery of the average effect of the IV in different situations

• E.

Increases generalizability of results

D. Allows for discovery of the average effect of the IV in different situations
Explanation
Replication in experimentation allows for the discovery of the average effect of the independent variable (IV) in different situations. By conducting the experiment multiple times with different participants or in different settings, researchers can observe how the IV consistently influences the dependent variable. This helps to establish the generalizability of the results and determine if the effect of the IV is consistent across various conditions.

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• 19.

### The use of a field setting in experimentation _____.

• A.

Provides for the manipulation of the IV

• B.

Serves as a comparison to assess the manipulation

• C.

Minimizes the cost of experimentation

• D.

Allows for discovery of the average effect of the IV in different situations

• E.

Increases generalizability of results

E. Increases generalizability of results
Explanation
The use of a field setting in experimentation increases generalizability of results. This means that conducting experiments in real-world settings, rather than in controlled laboratory environments, allows researchers to obtain findings that are more applicable and relevant to the broader population or real-life situations. By conducting experiments in field settings, researchers can observe how the independent variable (IV) affects the dependent variable (DV) in various contexts and situations, leading to more comprehensive and generalizable results.

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• 20.

### Which of the following is a threat to a researcher's ability to generalize the results of an experiment?

• A.

Artificiality of a laboratory

• B.

Use of a field setting

• C.

Use of a probability sample

• D.

Control of extraneous variables

• E.

All of the above

A. Artificiality of a laboratory
Explanation
The artificiality of a laboratory is a threat to a researcher's ability to generalize the results of an experiment because it may not accurately represent real-world conditions. In a laboratory setting, variables can be controlled and manipulated, which can lead to results that may not be applicable to the larger population or real-life situations. Therefore, the findings may not be generalizable to the broader context outside of the controlled environment of the laboratory.

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• 21.

### A tentative descriptive statement of the relationship between the variables is called a(n) _____.

• A.

Research question

• B.

Postulation

• C.

Hypothesis

• D.

Educated guess

• E.

Theory

C. Hypothesis
Explanation
A tentative descriptive statement of the relationship between the variables is called a hypothesis. A hypothesis is an educated guess or a proposed explanation that can be tested through research. It is a statement that suggests a possible relationship or outcome between variables and serves as the basis for conducting research and gathering evidence to support or refute it.

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• 22.

### Which term refers to the process of transforming concepts and constructs into measurable variables suitable for testing?

• A.

Generalization

• B.

Control

• C.

Hypothetical

• D.

Operationalization

• E.

Transformation

D. Operationalization
Explanation
Operationalization refers to the process of converting abstract concepts or constructs into concrete and measurable variables that can be tested or observed. It involves defining and specifying the variables in a way that allows researchers to collect data and analyze it. This process is essential in research as it enables researchers to make their concepts or constructs tangible and measurable, ensuring that their studies are valid and reliable.

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• 23.

### What is the first step in conducting an experiment?

• A.

Specify the level(s) of the treatment

• B.

Choose the experimental design

• C.

Control the experimental environment

• D.

Select and assign participants

• E.

Select relevant variables

E. Select relevant variables
Explanation
The first step in conducting an experiment is to select relevant variables. This is important because the variables chosen will determine the focus and scope of the experiment. By selecting relevant variables, researchers can ensure that they are measuring and analyzing the factors that are most likely to have an impact on the outcome of the experiment. This step is crucial in designing a well-structured and meaningful experiment.

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• 24.

### When participants do not know if they are being exposed to the experimental treatment, they are said to be _____.

• A.

Blind

• B.

Deceived

• C.

Concealed

• D.

Controlled

• E.

Debriefed

A. Blind
Explanation
When participants do not know if they are being exposed to the experimental treatment, they are said to be blind. This term refers to the concept of blinding in research studies, where participants are kept unaware of whether they are receiving the actual treatment or a placebo. Blinding helps to eliminate bias and ensures that the results of the study are not influenced by participants' expectations or beliefs.

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• 25.

### When it is not possible to randomly assign participants to groups, _____ should be used.

• A.

Control groups

• B.

Matching

• C.

Replication

• D.

Purposive assignment

• E.

Pilot testing

B. Matching
Explanation
When it is not possible to randomly assign participants to groups, matching should be used. Matching involves selecting participants for different groups based on specific characteristics that are relevant to the study. This helps to create comparable groups and reduce the influence of confounding variables. By matching participants on key variables, researchers can ensure that any differences observed between groups are more likely to be due to the treatment or intervention being studied, rather than other factors. Matching is especially useful in situations where random assignment is not feasible or ethical.

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• 26.

### Measurement in research consists of assigning numbers to _____ in compliance with a set of rules.

• A.

Events

• B.

Objects

• C.

Properties

• D.

Activities

• E.

All of the above

E. All of the above
Explanation
Measurement in research involves assigning numbers to events, objects, properties, and activities in accordance with a set of rules. This means that researchers use measurement to quantify and assign numerical values to various aspects of their study, such as the occurrence of events, characteristics of objects, attributes or properties being studied, and the behaviors or activities being observed. By doing so, researchers can collect and analyze data in a systematic and standardized manner, allowing for meaningful comparisons and statistical analysis. Therefore, all of the options listed (events, objects, properties, and activities) can be assigned numbers in research measurement.

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• 27.

### A _____ is a scheme for assigning numbers of symbols to represent aspects of the event being measured.

• A.

Measurement tool

• B.

Mapping rule

• C.

Ruler

• D.

Scale

• E.

Property

B. Mapping rule
Explanation
A mapping rule is a scheme that assigns numbers or symbols to represent different aspects of the event being measured. It is a method or system used to map or assign values to specific properties or characteristics of the event. This allows for a standardized and consistent way of representing and quantifying the measurements taken.

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• 28.

### What is the goal of measurement in research?

• A.

To reflect bothquantitative and qualitative concepts

• B.

To provide the highest-quality, lowest error data for data analysis

• C.

To describe, explain, and make predictions based on the information

• D.

To attach meaning to symbols

• E.

To specify the empirical information needed

B. To provide the highest-quality, lowest error data for data analysis
Explanation
The goal of measurement in research is to provide the highest-quality, lowest error data for data analysis. This means that researchers aim to collect accurate and reliable data that can be analyzed and interpreted effectively. By ensuring high-quality measurements with minimal error, researchers can increase the validity and reliability of their findings, leading to more accurate conclusions and predictions.

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• 29.

### A(n) _____ defines a variable in terms of specific measurement criteria.

• A.

Operational definition

• B.

Empirical definition

• C.

Measurement rule

• D.

Mapping rule

• E.

Conceptual definition

A. Operational definition
Explanation
An operational definition defines a variable by specifying the specific measurement criteria or procedures used to measure it. It provides clear and concrete guidelines for measuring the variable, ensuring consistency and objectivity in the measurement process. This allows for replicability and comparability of results across different studies or researchers.

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• 30.

### Which of the following is not an example of an object?

• A.

Attitude

• B.

Furniture

• C.

Dog

• D.

Class affiliation

• E.

Weight

E. Weight
Explanation
Weight is not an example of an object because it is a physical property or characteristic of an object, rather than an object itself. Objects are tangible entities that can be seen and touched, such as furniture or a dog. Attitude and class affiliation are abstract concepts, but they can still be considered objects in certain contexts. Weight, on the other hand, is a measurement or attribute of an object's mass and does not qualify as an object on its own.

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• 31.

### Weight, height, and temperature are all types of _____.

• A.

Objects

• B.

Physical properties

• C.

Psychological properties

• D.

Constructs

• E.

Mapping

B. pHysical properties
Explanation
Weight, height, and temperature are all measurable characteristics of an object that fall under the category of physical properties. These properties can be observed and quantified, and they provide information about the physical attributes of an object. In contrast, psychological properties refer to mental or emotional characteristics, making it an incorrect option. Constructs and mapping do not accurately describe weight, height, and temperature. Therefore, physical properties is the most suitable answer.

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• 32.

### Attitudes are a type of _____.

• A.

Object

• B.

Physical property

• C.

Psychological property

• D.

Social property

• E.

Mapping rule

C. Psychological property
Explanation
Attitudes are a type of psychological property. Attitudes refer to a person's evaluations, beliefs, and feelings towards a particular object, person, or situation. They are internal mental states that influence an individual's behavior and decision-making process. As psychological properties, attitudes are subjective and can vary from person to person. They are not tangible objects or physical properties but rather reflect the cognitive and emotional aspects of an individual's mindset.

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• 33.

### Socioeconomic class affiliation is a type of _____.

• A.

Object

• B.

Physical property

• C.

Psychological property

• D.

Social property

• E.

Mapping rule

D. Social property
Explanation
Socioeconomic class affiliation is a characteristic that pertains to a person's social standing and position within society. It is not an object, physical property, or psychological property, but rather a social property that defines one's social status and privileges based on factors such as income, occupation, and education. It is a concept that relates to the social structure and dynamics of a society, highlighting the importance of social factors in determining an individual's socioeconomic class.

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• 34.

### Which characteristic of mapping rules refers to the numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists?

• A.

Classification

• B.

Order

• C.

Distance

• D.

Origin

• E.

Exclusivity

A. Classification
Explanation
Classification refers to the process of grouping or sorting responses based on certain characteristics or criteria. In this context, the characteristic of mapping rules that refers to the numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists is classification. Classification allows for organizing and categorizing data or information in a meaningful way, even when there is no inherent order or sequence to the numbers being used.

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• 35.

### Which characteristic of mapping rules refers to ordered numbers in which one number is greater than, less than, or equal to another number?

• A.

Classification

• B.

Order

• C.

Distance

• D.

Origin

• E.

Exclusivity

B. Order
Explanation
The characteristic of mapping rules that refers to ordered numbers in which one number is greater than, less than, or equal to another number is "order".

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• 36.

### Order, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to _____.

• A.

The use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one

• B.

The use of numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists

• C.

The use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next

• D.

The use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero

• E.

The use of a number that is not used again

A. The use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one
Explanation
Order, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to the use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one. This means that there is a clear sequence and hierarchy in the numbers used, with each number having a specific position in relation to the others. The concept of order allows for comparisons and relationships to be established between the numbers, providing a structured framework for organizing and analyzing data.

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• 37.

### Which characteristic of mapping rules refers to a series of numbers in which each number in the series is an equal distance from the next number?

• A.

Classification

• B.

Order

• C.

Distance

• D.

Origin

• E.

Exclusivity

C. Distance
Explanation
Distance refers to a series of numbers in which each number in the series is an equal distance from the next number. It represents the measurement or interval between each value in the series, indicating the equal spacing or intervals between the numbers. This characteristic is important in mapping rules as it helps to establish the relationship and pattern between the numbers in the series.

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• 38.

### Distance, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to _____.

• A.

The use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one

• B.

The use of numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists

• C.

The use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next

• D.

The use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero

• E.

The use of a number that is not used again

C. The use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next
Explanation
Distance, as a characteristic of mapping rules, refers to the use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next. This means that the numbers are arranged in a sequential order, with each number being a consistent interval away from the previous number. This allows for a systematic representation of data or values, making it easier to understand and analyze the information being presented.

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• 39.

### 14. Origin, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to _____.

• A.

The use of ordered numbers such that two is less than three but greater than one

• B.

The use of numbers used to group or sort responses when no order to the numbers exists

• C.

The use of a series of numbers in which each number is an equal distance from the next

• D.

The use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero

• E.

The use of a number that is not used again

D. The use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero
Explanation
Origin, one of the four characteristics of mapping rules, refers to the use of a series of numbers with a unique origin indicated by the number zero. This means that the numbering system starts from zero and each subsequent number represents a specific value or category. The origin is important in mapping rules as it provides a reference point for interpreting the data or responses being mapped.

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• 40.

### Which characteristics of data are exhibited by the variable, gender?

• A.

Classification only

• B.

Classification and order

• C.

Classification, order, and distance

• D.

Classification, order, distance, and origin

• E.

Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

A. Classification only
Explanation
The variable "gender" exhibits the characteristic of classification only. This means that it can be categorized into distinct groups or classes, such as male and female. It does not have any specific order or distance associated with it, nor does it have an origin or exclusivity.

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• 41.

### LeBron James wears the number 23 on his jersey. Which of the following characteristics is exhibited by this number?

• A.

Distance

• B.

Order

• C.

Classification

• D.

Origin

• E.

Exclusivity

C. Classification
Explanation
The number 23 on LeBron James' jersey exhibits the characteristic of classification. This is because the number serves to classify or identify LeBron James as a player on the team. It distinguishes him from other players and helps to categorize him as a member of a specific team.

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• 42.

### To ride the roller coaster ride at an amusement park, customers must report their weight to the ride attendant. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by weight?

• A.

Classification only

• B.

Classification and order

• C.

Classification, order, and distance

• D.

Classification, order, distance, and origin

• E.

Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

D. Classification, order, distance, and origin
Explanation
Weight exhibits the characteristics of classification, order, distance, and origin. Classification because weight can be categorized into different classes or groups (e.g. light, average, heavy). Order because weight can be arranged in a specific sequence (e.g. from lightest to heaviest). Distance because weight can be measured and compared in terms of numerical values (e.g. 100 pounds vs 200 pounds). Origin because weight is derived from the mass of an object and the force of gravity acting on it.

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• 43.

### Attendance at raceways most recent two races have hit attendance records with 60,000 present at one and 65,000 present at another. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by these attendance measures?

• A.

Classification only

• B.

Classification and order

• C.

Classification, order, and distance

• D.

Classification, order, distance, and origin

• E.

Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

D. Classification, order, distance, and origin
Explanation
The attendance measures in this scenario exhibit classification because they are categorized into specific groups (60,000 and 65,000). They also exhibit order because the attendance records are presented in a specific sequence, with one race having 60,000 attendees and another race having 65,000 attendees. Additionally, they exhibit distance because there is a numerical difference between the two attendance records (5,000). Finally, they exhibit origin because the attendance measures are specific to the raceways' recent two races.

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• 44.

### The record low in Buffalo, New York for February 16th is 20 degrees below 0. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by this temperature?

• A.

Classification only

• B.

Classification and order

• C.

C. Classification, order, and distance

• D.

Classification, order, distance, and origin

• E.

Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

C. C. Classification, order, and distance
Explanation
This temperature of 20 degrees below 0 in Buffalo, New York on February 16th exhibits the characteristics of classification, order, and distance. Classification refers to the categorization of the temperature as "20 degrees below 0", order refers to the specific ranking or arrangement of this temperature as the record low, and distance refers to the numerical value of 20 degrees below 0 indicating the extent of how much below freezing it is.

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• 45.

### The New York Times Dining Section rates the restaurants it reviews using a system such that one star means good, two stars means very good, three stars means excellent, and four stars means extraordinary. Which of the following characteristics are exhibited by this rating scheme?

• A.

Classification only

• B.

Classification and order

• C.

Classification, order, and distance

• D.

Classification, order, distance, and origin

• E.

Classification, order, distance, origin, and exclusivity

B. Classification and order
Explanation
The New York Times Dining Section rating scheme exhibits classification and order. The restaurants are classified into different categories based on their rating, ranging from one star to four stars. Additionally, the ratings are ordered in ascending order, with one star representing good, two stars representing very good, three stars representing excellent, and four stars representing extraordinary.

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• 46.

### A nominal scale contains _____.

• A.

Mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories as well as the property of order, but not distance or unique origin

• B.

The properties of order, classification, and equal distance between points but no unique origin

• C.

Mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories, but without the properties of order, distance, and origin

• D.

The properties of classification, order, equal distance, and unique origin

• E.

The four major sources of error

C. Mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories, but without the properties of order, distance, and origin
Explanation
A nominal scale contains mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories, which means that each observation can only belong to one category and all possible categories are accounted for. However, it does not have the properties of order, distance, and origin. This means that the categories cannot be ranked or ordered in any meaningful way, the differences between categories cannot be measured or compared, and there is no unique starting point or reference point.

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• 47.

### In a survey of football fans, each respondent is asked to indicate whether they have ever attended an NFL game. This question can be categorized as a(n) _____ scale.

• A.

Ratio

• B.

Interval

• C.

Ordinal

• D.

Nominal

• E.

Semantic differential

D. Nominal
Explanation
This question can be categorized as a nominal scale because it is asking respondents to indicate whether they have ever attended an NFL game. The responses to this question can only be categorized into distinct categories, such as "Yes" or "No," without any inherent order or numerical value attached to them.

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• 48.

### When the groups are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive, nominal scales must be limited to _____ groups.

• A.

Two

• B.

Three

• C.

Five

• D.

Ten

• E.

There is no limit

E. There is no limit
Explanation
When the groups are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive, nominal scales can have any number of groups. This means that there is no limit to the number of groups that can be used on a nominal scale.

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• 49.

### When analyzing nominal data, which measure of central tendency is appropriate?

• A.

Mean

• B.

Mode

• C.

Median

• D.

Range

• E.

Dispersion

B. Mode
Explanation
When analyzing nominal data, the mode is the most appropriate measure of central tendency. Nominal data consists of categories or labels that cannot be ordered or ranked. The mode represents the category that appears most frequently in the data set. Unlike the mean or median, which require numerical values, the mode can be calculated for nominal data and provides a clear representation of the most common category. The range and dispersion measures are not appropriate for analyzing central tendency in nominal data.

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• 50.

### _____ describes how scores cluster or scatter in a distribution.

• A.

Mode

• B.

Mean

• C.

Median

• D.

Dispersion

• E.

Range

D. Dispersion
Explanation
Dispersion describes how scores are spread out or scattered in a distribution. It measures the extent to which individual data points deviate from the central tendency of the data set. A high dispersion indicates a wide spread of scores, while a low dispersion suggests that scores are closely clustered together. It is a measure of variability and provides information about the spread or diversity of the data.

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• Oct 26, 2010
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