Ch 18 Respiratory Quiz

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Ch 18 Respiratory Quiz - Quiz

Practice questions from Anatomy and Physiology Ch 18


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Name structure A.

    • A.

      External nares

    • B.

      Nasal cavity

    • C.

      Nasopharynx

    • D.

      Eustachian tubes

    Correct Answer
    B. Nasal cavity
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "nasal cavity" because it is the structure that comes after "external nares" in the given list. The nasal cavity is a hollow space behind the nose that filters, warms, and moistens the air we breathe. It also contains the olfactory receptors responsible for our sense of smell.

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  • 2. 

    B is an opening in the nasopharynx.  What is the opening called?

    • A.

      Tonsils

    • B.

      Vocal cords

    • C.

      Eustachian tubes

    • D.

      Uvula

    Correct Answer
    C. Eustachian tubes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is eustachian tubes. The eustachian tubes are small passages that connect the middle ear to the back of the throat. They help equalize pressure between the middle ear and the outside environment.

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  • 3. 

    Structure C is part of the lymphatic system, what type of structure is this?  

    • A.

      Tonsils

    • B.

      Eustachian tubes

    • C.

      Mucosal gland

    • D.

      Epiglottis

    Correct Answer
    A. Tonsils
    Explanation
    Structure C is part of the lymphatic system, and it is called tonsils.

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  • 4. 

    Name structure F  

    • A.

      Nasopharynx

    • B.

      Oropharynx

    • C.

      Trachea

    • D.

      Esophagus

    Correct Answer
    B. Oropharynx
    Explanation
    The oropharynx is the correct answer because it is a part of the name structure F. The other options, such as the nasopharynx, trachea, and esophagus, do not belong to this specific name structure.

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  • 5. 

    Structure H is a muscular tube that moves food to the stomach, what is it called?  

    • A.

      Trachea

    • B.

      Epiglottis

    • C.

      Esophagus

    • D.

      Eustachian tube

    Correct Answer
    C. Esophagus
    Explanation
    The structure that is described as a muscular tube that moves food to the stomach is called the esophagus.

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  • 6. 

    Structure I moves air from the upper airway to the lungs- what is it called?   

    • A.

      Trachea

    • B.

      Esophagus

    • C.

      External nares

    • D.

      Bronchi

    Correct Answer
    A. Trachea
    Explanation
    The trachea is a tube-like structure that connects the upper airway to the lungs. It is responsible for moving air from the nose and mouth to the lungs, allowing for respiration to occur. The trachea is lined with cilia and mucus, which help to filter and moisten the air as it passes through. It is a vital part of the respiratory system and plays a crucial role in the process of breathing.

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  • 7. 

    Structure J is a flap of tissue that covers the trachea when swallowing, so food or water goes into the esophagus and not the trachea.  What is this structure called?  

    • A.

      Epiglottis

    • B.

      Tonsils

    • C.

      Adams apple

    • D.

      Mucous membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. Epiglottis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is epiglottis. The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that covers the trachea when swallowing, preventing food or water from entering the trachea and directing it into the esophagus instead. It acts as a protective mechanism to ensure that we do not choke while eating or drinking.

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  • 8. 

    Structure L can be seen easily in a mirror.  It is the structure that hang down in the back of your throat.  What is that structure called?  

    • A.

      Uvula

    • B.

      Epiglottis

    • C.

      Voicebox

    • D.

      Trachea

    Correct Answer
    A. Uvula
    Explanation
    The structure that hangs down in the back of the throat and can be seen easily in a mirror is called the uvula.

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  • 9. 

    Ventilation is...

    • A.

      The flow of blood into the lungs

    • B.

      The delivery of gases to the body

    • C.

      The flow of air in and out of the lungs

    • D.

      The movement of gas into the blood

    Correct Answer
    C. The flow of air in and out of the lungs
    Explanation
    Ventilation refers to the process of the flow of air in and out of the lungs. It involves the inhalation of oxygen-rich air and the exhalation of carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is essential for the respiratory system to provide oxygen to the body and remove waste gases. Ventilation is not related to the flow of blood into the lungs or the movement of gases into the blood.

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  • 10. 

    Eupnea is...

    • A.

      Absence of breathing

    • B.

      Normal breathing

    • C.

      Snoring breathing

    • D.

      Mouth breathing

    Correct Answer
    B. Normal breathing
    Explanation
    Eupnea refers to normal breathing, which is the correct answer. It is the natural and regular pattern of breathing that occurs when a person is at rest. Eupnea involves the rhythmic inhalation and exhalation of air through the nose or mouth, without any difficulty or abnormal sounds. It is an essential physiological process that ensures the body receives an adequate supply of oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.

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  • 11. 

    Air moves from ___ to ___.

    • A.

      High pressure to low pressure

    • B.

      Low pressure to high pressure

    • C.

      Both are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. High pressure to low pressure
    Explanation
    Air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure. This is because air molecules move from an area where there are more of them (high pressure) to an area where there are fewer (low pressure). This movement creates a pressure gradient, causing air to flow from high pressure to low pressure until the pressure is equalized. Therefore, the correct answer is "High pressure to low pressure."

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  • 12. 

    When the diaphragm contracts, the volume of the lungs ___

    • A.

      Increase

    • B.

      Decrease

    • C.

      Stay the same

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase
    Explanation
    When the diaphragm contracts, it moves downward, causing the chest cavity to expand. This expansion creates a negative pressure within the lungs, causing air to rush in and increasing the volume of the lungs. Therefore, the correct answer is "increase".

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  • 13. 

    Relaxation of the diaphragm causes the lung volume to decrease, causing what?

    • A.

      Inhalation

    • B.

      Exhalation

    • C.

      Both are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. Exhalation
    Explanation
    When the diaphragm relaxes, it moves upwards, which reduces the volume of the thoracic cavity. As a result, the pressure inside the lungs increases, causing air to be forced out of the lungs. This process is known as exhalation. Therefore, the correct answer is exhalation.

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  • 14. 

    When the diaphragm contracts, what happens to the lungs?

    • A.

      Their volume increases

    • B.

      Their volume decreases

    • C.

      Both are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. Their volume increases
    Explanation
    When the diaphragm contracts, it moves downwards and flattens, causing the chest cavity to expand. This expansion creates more space for the lungs to expand into, leading to an increase in their volume. As a result, the lungs can fill with more air, allowing for inhalation and the exchange of gases during respiration.

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  • 15. 

    Why does only 70% of the tidal volume take part in gas exchange?

    • A.

      There is not enough blood to exchange 100%

    • B.

      It is breathed out before it can exchange

    • C.

      30% is stuck in the airways leading the alveoli

    • D.

      There is only 70% oxygen in the air

    Correct Answer
    C. 30% is stuck in the airways leading the alveoli
    Explanation
    Only 70% of the tidal volume takes part in gas exchange because 30% of it gets stuck in the airways leading to the alveoli. Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli, which are small air sacs in the lungs where oxygen is taken in and carbon dioxide is released. However, some of the air that is inhaled does not reach the alveoli and instead remains in the airways. This means that only 70% of the tidal volume, the amount of air inhaled and exhaled in a normal breath, actually reaches the alveoli and participates in gas exchange.

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  • 16. 

    In which action do the intercostal muscles contract?

    • A.

      Inspiration

    • B.

      Expiration

    • C.

      Both

    Correct Answer
    A. Inspiration
    Explanation
    During inspiration, the intercostal muscles contract. These muscles are located between the ribs and play a crucial role in expanding the chest cavity. When the intercostal muscles contract, they lift the ribs upward and outward, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity. This expansion creates a pressure gradient, causing air to rush into the lungs. Therefore, the contraction of the intercostal muscles is essential for the process of inhalation or inspiration.

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  • 17. 

    In which action does the diaphragm rise upward?

    • A.

      Inspiration

    • B.

      Expiration

    • C.

      Both

    Correct Answer
    B. Expiration
    Explanation
    During expiration, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upward, causing the volume of the thoracic cavity to decrease. This upward movement of the diaphragm reduces the space available for the lungs, resulting in the expulsion of air from the lungs. Therefore, expiration is the action in which the diaphragm rises upward.

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  • 18. 

    In which action does the lung capacity decrease?

    • A.

      Inspiration

    • B.

      Expiration

    • C.

      Both are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. Expiration
    Explanation
    Expiration is the correct answer because during expiration, the lungs release air from the body, causing a decrease in lung capacity. This is in contrast to inspiration, where the lungs take in air and expand, increasing lung capacity. Therefore, expiration is the action that leads to a decrease in lung capacity.

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  • 19. 

    Minute ventilation is...

    • A.

      The amount of air breathed in and out in one minute

    • B.

      The amount of air inhaled in one minute

    • C.

      The amount of air exhaled in one minute

    Correct Answer
    A. The amount of air breathed in and out in one minute
    Explanation
    Minute ventilation refers to the total volume of air that is inhaled and exhaled in one minute. It takes into account both the amount of air breathed in (inhaled) and the amount of air breathed out (exhaled) during this time period. This measurement is important in assessing the overall respiratory function and efficiency of an individual.

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  • 20. 

    Tidal volume is ...

    • A.

      The volume of one lung

    • B.

      The volume of both lungs

    • C.

      The volume of one breath

    • D.

      The diameter of the trachea

    Correct Answer
    C. The volume of one breath
    Explanation
    Tidal volume refers to the volume of air that is inhaled or exhaled during one normal breath. It represents the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each breath. This volume is typically around 500 milliliters in a healthy adult at rest. It is important in determining the efficiency of gas exchange in the lungs and can be affected by factors such as respiratory diseases or physical activity.

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  • 21. 

    What happens in the alveoli?

    • A.

      Gas is exchanged with the blood

    • B.

      Oxygen is removed from the atmosphere

    • C.

      Carbon dioxide is removed from the blood

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    In the alveoli, gas exchange occurs between the air in the lungs and the bloodstream. Oxygen is removed from the atmosphere and transferred into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and expelled into the air. Therefore, all of the above options are correct as they describe different aspects of what happens in the alveoli.

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  • 22. 

    What is the role of surfactant in the alveoli?

    • A.

      Helps O2 move

    • B.

      Delivers blood

    • C.

      Fights invaders

    • D.

      Keeps the sac from collapsing

    Correct Answer
    D. Keeps the sac from collapsing
    Explanation
    Surfactant is a substance that reduces the surface tension in the alveoli, which are tiny air sacs in the lungs. This reduction in surface tension helps to prevent the collapse of the alveoli during exhalation. Without surfactant, the alveoli would stick together and make it difficult for the lungs to expand and contract properly, leading to respiratory difficulties. Therefore, the role of surfactant in the alveoli is to keep the sac from collapsing.

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  • 23. 

    External respiration is...

    • A.

      The absorption of blood into the skin

    • B.

      The movement of air from the outside into the lungs

    • C.

      Exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood

    • D.

      The absorption of oxygen through the skin

    Correct Answer
    C. Exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood
    Explanation
    External respiration refers to the exchange of gases between the alveoli (tiny air sacs in the lungs) and the blood. This process involves the diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, diffuses from the bloodstream into the alveoli to be exhaled. This exchange of gases is essential for the body to obtain oxygen for cellular respiration and to remove carbon dioxide, a byproduct of metabolism.

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  • 24. 

    Internal respiration is...

    • A.

      The exchange of gases between the blood and the cells

    • B.

      The movement of blood to the cells

    • C.

      The exchange of air with the atmosphere

    • D.

      The movement of air into the nose

    Correct Answer
    A. The exchange of gases between the blood and the cells
    Explanation
    Internal respiration refers to the process of exchanging gases between the blood and the cells. It occurs at the cellular level, where oxygen from the blood is delivered to the cells, and carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular respiration, is transported from the cells back into the bloodstream to be eliminated from the body. This process is essential for providing oxygen to the cells for energy production and removing waste products.

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  • 25. 

    In external respiration, does oxygen enter or exit the bloodstream?

    • A.

      Enter

    • B.

      Exit

    • C.

      Both

    Correct Answer
    A. Enter
    Explanation
    During external respiration, oxygen enters the bloodstream. This occurs in the lungs where oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses across the thin walls of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) into the capillaries surrounding them. The oxygen then binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells and is transported throughout the body to be utilized by cells for various metabolic processes.

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  • 26. 

    In internal respiration, does oxygen enter or exit the bloodstream?

    • A.

      Enter

    • B.

      Exit

    • C.

      Both

    Correct Answer
    B. Exit
    Explanation
    In internal respiration, oxygen exits the bloodstream. This is because internal respiration refers to the exchange of gases between the bloodstream and the body's tissues. Oxygen is transported from the bloodstream into the tissues, where it is used for cellular respiration. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular respiration, is produced and enters the bloodstream to be transported back to the lungs for elimination. Therefore, oxygen exits the bloodstream during internal respiration.

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  • 27. 

    Partial pressure of a gas...

    • A.

      The force of a gas when you breathe

    • B.

      The pressure exerted by a gas

    • C.

      The pressure put on a gas when you breathe

    • D.

      The force of flatulance

    Correct Answer
    B. The pressure exerted by a gas
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the pressure exerted by a gas." Partial pressure refers to the pressure exerted by a specific gas in a mixture of gases. It is the contribution of that gas to the total pressure of the mixture. Each gas in a mixture exerts its own partial pressure, and the total pressure is the sum of all the partial pressures.

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  • 28. 

    PO2 stands for.

    • A.

      Percent of oxygen

    • B.

      Pressure of oxygen

    • C.

      Place of oxygen

    • D.

      Pulmonary oxygen

    Correct Answer
    B. Pressure of oxygen
    Explanation
    PO2 stands for "pressure of oxygen." This term is commonly used in medical and scientific contexts to refer to the partial pressure of oxygen in a given environment, such as the blood or lungs. It is an important measure in assessing oxygenation levels and respiratory function.

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  • 29. 

    Why does oxygen move from the blood cells to the cells of the body?

    • A.

      The PO2 of the blood is higher than the PO2 of the body cells.

    • B.

      The hemoglobin physically moves the oxygen

    • C.

      The ribosomes of the cells move the oxygen

    • D.

      The PO2 of the blood is lower than the PO2 of the body cells

    Correct Answer
    A. The PO2 of the blood is higher than the PO2 of the body cells.
  • 30. 

    What determines the speed at which the gases move into and out of the blood?

    • A.

      Pressure of the gases

    • B.

      The pressure gradient

    • C.

      The amount of gases inside and outside of the blood

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The speed at which gases move into and out of the blood is determined by multiple factors. The pressure of the gases plays a role, as there needs to be a difference in pressure between the blood and the surrounding environment for gases to move. The pressure gradient, which is the difference in pressure between two points, also affects the speed of gas movement. Additionally, the amount of gases inside and outside of the blood affects the rate of gas exchange. Therefore, all of the above factors contribute to determining the speed at which gases move into and out of the blood.

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  • 31. 

    Cellular respiration is...

    • A.

      How plants manufacture O2

    • B.

      The activities of an organism that use CO2 and produce O2

    • C.

      The activities of a cell that use O2 and produce CO2

    • D.

      The jobs that cells to to move oxygen in and out of the body

    Correct Answer
    C. The activities of a cell that use O2 and produce CO2
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration refers to the activities of a cell that use oxygen (O2) and produce carbon dioxide (CO2). It is the process by which cells break down glucose and other organic molecules to release energy in the form of ATP, while also producing CO2 as a waste product. This process occurs in the mitochondria of cells and is essential for the survival and functioning of living organisms.

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  • 32. 

    When “dirty blood” passes against the alveoli, CO2 moves from the blood through the capillary wall and alveloi wall, into the air in the alveoli.  Why?

    • A.

      The PCO2 is high in the blood

    • B.

      The PCO2 is low in the air

    • C.

      CO2 moves from high to low pressure

    • D.

      All of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are correct
    Explanation
    When "dirty blood" passes against the alveoli, CO2 moves from the blood through the capillary wall and alveoli wall, into the air in the alveoli. This occurs because the PCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) is high in the blood, while it is low in the air. According to the principle of diffusion, substances move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, which is why CO2 moves from high to low pressure. Therefore, all of the above statements are correct.

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  • 33. 

    What does the brain use to monitor the respiratory system?

    • A.

      PCO2 in the blood

    • B.

      PO2 in the air

    • C.

      PCO2 in the cerebrospinal fluid

    • D.

      H in the kidneys

    Correct Answer
    D. H in the kidneys
    Explanation
    The brain uses H (hydrogen ions) in the kidneys to monitor the respiratory system. The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining the acid-base balance in the body. When the respiratory system is not functioning properly and there is a buildup of CO2 in the blood, the kidneys respond by excreting H ions to restore the pH balance. This helps the brain monitor and regulate the respiratory system.

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  • 34. 

    What chemical(s) does the body monitor to see that the respiratory system is working properly

    • A.

      PCO2

    • B.

      PO2

    • C.

      H

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. PO2
    Explanation
    The body monitors the level of PO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) to ensure that the respiratory system is functioning properly. This is because the level of oxygen in the blood is an important indicator of how well the lungs are able to oxygenate the body's tissues. If the PO2 is too low, it may indicate a problem with the lungs or the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. Therefore, monitoring PO2 is crucial in assessing the respiratory system's effectiveness.

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  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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