Exam Review Unit 1 Cardiopulmonary A&p Of Resp System

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Disease Quizzes & Trivia

Cardiopulmonary A&P Chapter 1


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following are primary components of the upper airway?

    • A.

      Nose, oral cavity, pharynx

    • B.

      Larynx, trachea, and bronchi

    • C.

      Nose, oral cavity, larynx and trachea

    • D.

      Nose, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and trachea

    Correct Answer
    A. Nose, oral cavity, pharynx
    Explanation
    The nose, oral cavity, and pharynx are the primary structures that compose the upper airway

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is NOT a primary function of the nose?

    • A.

      Humidfy inspired gas

    • B.

      Conduct gas and food to lower airway

    • C.

      Filter the inspired gas

    • D.

      Warm the inspired gas

    Correct Answer
    B. Conduct gas and food to lower airway
    Explanation
    The nose humdifies, warms, and filters the inspired gas, not food to the lower airway

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following are functions of the upper airway? I. Conduction of gas to lower airway II. Prevent foreign materials from entering lower airway III. Warm, filter, and humidify inspired gas IV Aid in speech and smell

    • A.

      I, II, III, and IV

    • B.

      I,  III, and IV only

    • C.

      I, II, and III only

    • D.

      I,  II, and IV only

    Correct Answer
    A. I, II, III, and IV
    Explanation
    The upper airway performs all of the listed functions

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  • 4. 

    Which structures form the upper third of the nose? I. Nasal bones II. Frontal process of maxilla III. Lateral nasal cartilage IV. Greater alar cartilage

    • A.

      I, II, III and IV

    • B.

      I, and II only

    • C.

      II, III, IV

    • D.

      II and IV only

    • E.

      I, III, IV

    Correct Answer
    B. I, and II only
    Explanation
    The upper third of the nose is composed of the nasal bones and frontal process of the maxilla.

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  • 5. 

    Which structure form the lower two-thirds of the nose? I. Lateral nasal cartilage II. Lesser and greater alar cartilages III. Septal cartilage IV. Fibrous fatty tissue

    • A.

      I, II, and III only

    • B.

      I,  III, and IV only

    • C.

       I, II, III, and IV

    • D.

      I,  II, and IV only

    Correct Answer
    C.  I, II, III, and IV
    Explanation
    All of the listed structures compose the lower two-thirds of the nose

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  • 6. 

    What is the term for widening of the nostrils that can occur during respiratory distress?

    • A.

      Grunting

    • B.

      Retractions

    • C.

      Alar collapse

    • D.

      Nasal flaring

    Correct Answer
    D. Nasal flaring
    Explanation
    Nasal flaring is the term for the widening of the nostrils, especially seen in respiratory distress in newborns

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  • 7. 

     Which of the following structures form the anterior nasal septum?

    • A.

      Septal cartilage

    • B.

      Vomer

    • C.

      Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone

    • D.

      Frontal process of maxilla

    Correct Answer
    A. Septal cartilage
    Explanation
    The anterior portion of the nasal septum if formed by the septal cartilage

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  • 8. 

    The lymphatic channels are larger and more numerous in what location?

    • A.

      Upper lobes

    • B.

      Right lower lobe

    • C.

      Left lower lobe

    • D.

      Middle lobes

    Correct Answer
    B. Right lower lobe
    Explanation
    The lymphatic channels on the left lower lobe are more numerous and larger in diameter than the lymphatic vessels on the surface of the right lower lobe.

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  • 9. 

    What is the term for the openings created by the alae nasi and septal cartilage?

    • A.

      Nares

    • B.

      Glottis

    • C.

      Vestibule

    • D.

      Choana

    Correct Answer
    A. Nares
    Explanation
    The nares or nostrils are the openings formed by the alae nasi and septal cartilage.

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  • 10. 

    What type of epithelium lines the anterior third of the nasal cavity?

    • A.

      Cuboidal

    • B.

      Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

    • C.

      Stratified squamous

    • D.

      Pseudostratified ciliated squamous

    Correct Answer
    C. Stratified squamous
    Explanation
    The anterior third of the nasal cavity is lined with stratified squamous epithelium.

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  • 11. 

    In which structure would vibrissae normally be found?

    • A.

      Oropharynx

    • B.

      Laryngopharynx

    • C.

      Nasal cavity

    • D.

      Trachea

    Correct Answer
    C. Nasal cavity
    Explanation
    Vibrissae are normally found in the vestibule of the nasal cavity.

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  • 12. 

    What is the submucosal layer of the tracheobronchial tree?

    • A.

      Lamina propria

    • B.

      Cartilaginous layer

    • C.

      Epithelial lining

    • D.

      Mucous blanket

    Correct Answer
    A. Lamina propria
    Explanation
    The lamina propria is the submucosal layer of the tracheobronchial tree.

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  • 13. 

    What is another term for conchae?

    • A.

      Alae

    • B.

      Choana

    • C.

      Vestibule

    • D.

      Turbinates

    Correct Answer
    D. Turbinates
    Explanation
    The conchae in the nasal cavity are also called nasal turninates.

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  • 14. 

    Where is the olfactory region located in the nasal cavity?

    • A.

      Choana

    • B.

      Vestibule

    • C.

      Superior and middle turbinates

    • D.

      Middle and inferior turbinates

    Correct Answer
    C. Superior and middle turbinates
    Explanation
    The olfactory region is located near the superior and middle turbinates.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following sinuses are considered to be paranasal sinuses? I. Maxillary II. Frontal III. Ethmoid IV. Sphenoid

    • A.

      I, II, III, and IV

    • B.

      I,  III, and IV only

    • C.

      I, II, and III only

    • D.

      I,  II, and IV only

    Correct Answer
    A. I, II, III, and IV
    Explanation
    The paranasal sinuses include the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses.

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  • 16. 

    What effect, if any, would be expected from the topical application of phenylephrine on the nasal mucosa?

    • A.

      Vasoconstriction

    • B.

      Vasodilation

    • C.

      No known effect

    • D.

      Bronchospasm

    Correct Answer
    A. Vasoconstriction
    Explanation
    When phenylephrine is applied to the nasal mucosa, vasoconstriction should occur.

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  • 17. 

    Among pediatric patients, in which age range is epistaxis most prevalent?

    • A.

      10-14 years

    • B.

      2-10 years

    • C.

      8-16 years

    • D.

      Newborn-2 years

    Correct Answer
    B. 2-10 years
    Explanation
    In pediatric patients, nosebleeds are most prevalent among the 2-10 year olds.

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  • 18. 

    Approximately what portion of the sense of taste is reliant upon the sense of smell?

    • A.

      60%

    • B.

      80%

    • C.

      40%

    • D.

      20%

    Correct Answer
    B. 80%
    Explanation
    approximately 80% of the sense of taste is reliant upon the sense of smell.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following can cause sinusitis? I. Upper respiratory infection II. Dental infection III. Air travel IV. Scuba diving

    • A.

      I, II, III, and IV  

    • B.

      I,  III, and IV only

    • C.

      I, II, and III only

    • D.

      I,  II, and IV only

    Correct Answer
    A. I, II, III, and IV  
    Explanation
    All of the listed factors can cause sinusitis

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  • 20. 

    In the oral cavity, what is the term for the space between the teeth and lips?

    • A.

      Vibrissae

    • B.

      Ventricle

    • C.

      Vallecula

    • D.

      Vestibule

    Correct Answer
    D. Vestibule
    Explanation
    The space between the teeth and lips is called the vestibule.

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  • 21. 

    What is the name of the structure that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth?

    • A.

      Uvula

    • B.

      Extrinsic lingual muscles

    • C.

      Instrinsic lingual muscles

    • D.

      Lingual frenulum

    Correct Answer
    D. Lingual frenulum
    Explanation
    The lingual frenulum secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth.

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  • 22. 

    How many ribs are identified as true ribs, attached directly to the sternum?

    • A.

      Seven

    • B.

      Eight

    • C.

      Four

    • D.

      Six

    Correct Answer
    A. Seven
    Explanation
    The first seven ribs are referred to as true ribs.

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  • 23. 

    To what structure is the uvula attached?

    • A.

      Hard palate

    • B.

      Palatopharyngeal arch

    • C.

      Palatoglossal arch

    • D.

      Soft palate

    Correct Answer
    D. Soft palate
    Explanation
    The uvula is attached to the soft palate.

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  • 24. 

    What is another name for the palatine tonsils?

    • A.

      Adenoids

    • B.

      Faucial

    • C.

      Lingual

    • D.

      Pharyngeal

    Correct Answer
    B. Faucial
    Explanation
    The palatine tonsils are also called faucial tonsils.

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  • 25. 

    Which structure extends from the posterior nares to the superior portion of the soft palate?

    • A.

      Oropharynx

    • B.

      Palatine tonsils

    • C.

      Nasopharynx

    • D.

      Tongue

    Correct Answer
    C. Nasopharynx
    Explanation
    The nasopharynx extends from the posterior portion of the nasal cavity to the superior portion of the soft palate.

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  • 26. 

    Which epithelium is present in the nasopharynx?

    • A.

      Pseudostratified squamous

    • B.

      Stratified squamous

    • C.

      Cuboidal

    • D.

      Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

    Correct Answer
    D. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
    Explanation
    The nasopharynx is lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.

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  • 27. 

    What is another name for pharyngeal tonsils?

    • A.

      Palatine tonsils

    • B.

      Lingual tonsils

    • C.

      Faucial tonsils

    • D.

      Adenoids

    Correct Answer
    D. Adenoids
    Explanation
    The pharyngeal tonsils are also called adenoids

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  • 28. 

    What is another name for the pharyngotympanic tubes?

    • A.

      Adenoids

    • B.

      Conchae

    • C.

      Auditory

    • D.

      Faucial

    Correct Answer
    C. Auditory
    Explanation
    The pharyngotympanic tubes are also called auditory tubes.

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  • 29. 

    What is the most frequent cause of hearing loss in young children?

    • A.

      Tonsillitis

    • B.

      Pharyngitis

    • C.

      Sinusitis

    • D.

      Otitis media

    Correct Answer
    D. Otitis media
    Explanation
    Otitis media is the most frequent cause of hearing loss in young children.

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  • 30. 

    Which structure extends from the soft palate to the base of the tongue?

    • A.

      Nasopharynx

    • B.

      Oropharynx

    • C.

      Uvula

    • D.

      Laryngopharynx

    Correct Answer
    B. Oropharynx
    Explanation
    The oropharynx extends from the soft palate to the base of the tongue.

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  • 31. 

    What type of epithelium is found in the oropharynx?

    • A.

      Stratified squamous

    • B.

      Pseudostratified squamous

    • C.

      Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

    • D.

      Cuboidal

    Correct Answer
    A. Stratified squamous
    Explanation
    The oropharynx is lined with stratified squamous epithelium.

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  • 32. 

    What structure is located between the glossoepiglottic folds in the posterior oropharynx?

    • A.

      Vallecula epiglottica

    • B.

      Lingual tonsils

    • C.

      Rima glottidis

    • D.

      Option 4

    • E.

      Palatine tonsils

    Correct Answer
    A. Vallecula epiglottica
    Explanation
    The vallecula epiglottica is located between the glossoepiglottic folds in the posterior oropharynx.

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  • 33. 

    What spoon-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure covers the opening of the larynx during swallowing?

    • A.

      Vocal folds

    • B.

      Base of the tongue

    • C.

      Vallecula

    • D.

      Epiglottis

    Correct Answer
    D. Epiglottis
    Explanation
    The epiglottis is a broad, spoon-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that prevents the aspiration of foods and liquids by covering the opening of the larynx during swallowing.

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  • 34. 

    What is a common site for misplacement of endotracheal tubes during emergency intubation?

    • A.

      Stomach

    • B.

      Left mainstem bronchus

    • C.

      Esophagus

    • D.

      Left upper lobar bronchus

    Correct Answer
    C. Esophagus
    Explanation
    During emergency intubation, the endotracheal tube could be misplaced into the esophagus

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  • 35. 

    Which structure extends from the base of the tongue to the upper end of the trachea?

    • A.

      Laryngopharynx

    • B.

      Thyroid gland

    • C.

      Larynx

    • D.

      Rima glottidis

    Correct Answer
    C. Larynx
    Explanation
    The larynx extends from the base of the tongue to the trachea.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following are functions of the larynx? I. Passageway for gas II. Protects against aspiration III. Generation of sounds for speech IV. Warming and filtration of inspired gas

    • A.

      I, II, III, and IV

    • B.

      I,  III, and IV only

    • C.

      I, II, and III only

    • D.

      I,  II, and IV only

    Correct Answer
    C. I, II, and III only
    Explanation
    The larynx conducts gas between the phaynx and trachea, protects against aspiration, and generates sound for speech.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the cartilages of the larynx are unpaired?

    • A.

      Thyroid, epiglottis, and arytenoid

    • B.

      Artyenoid, cuneiform, and corniculate

    • C.

      Thyroid, cricoid, and cuneiform

    • D.

      Thyroid, epiglottis, and cricoid

    Correct Answer
    D. Thyroid, epiglottis, and cricoid
    Explanation
    The unpaired laryngeal cartilages are the epiglottis, thyroid, and cricoid cartilages.

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  • 38. 

    To what structure does the upper portion of the thyroid cartilage attach by a membrane?

    • A.

      Mandible

    • B.

      Hyoid bone

    • C.

      Epiglottis

    • D.

      Tongue

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyoid bone
    Explanation
    The upper portion of the thyroid cartilage attaches by a membrane to the hyoid bone.

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  • 39. 

    Which laryngeal cartilage is primarily responsible for preventing food, liquids, and foreign bodies from entering the lower airways?

    • A.

      Cricoid

    • B.

      Epiglottis

    • C.

      Thyroid

    • D.

      Corniculate

    Correct Answer
    B. Epiglottis
    Explanation
    The epiglottis normally protects the lower airway from aspiration.

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  • 40. 

    Which laryngeal cartilage is shaped like a signet ring and forms a large portion of the posterior laryngeal wall?

    • A.

      Epiglottis

    • B.

      Cricoid

    • C.

      Cuneiform

    • D.

      Corniculate

    Correct Answer
    B. Cricoid
    Explanation
    The cricoid cartilage is shaped like a signet ring and forms most of the posterior laryngeal wall.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the laryngeal cartilages are single? I. Cuneiform II. Thyroid III. Epiglottis IV. Cricoid

    • A.

      I, II, III, and IV

    • B.

      II,  III, and IV only

    • C.

      I, II, and III only

    • D.

      I,  II, and IV only

    • E.

      Option 5

    Correct Answer
    B. II,  III, and IV only
    Explanation
    The thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and epiglottis are single cartilages of the larynx.

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  • 42. 

    What is the space between the true vocal cords called?

    • A.

      Vallecula

    • B.

      Vestibule

    • C.

      Rima glottidis

    • D.

      Choana

    Correct Answer
    C. Rima glottidis
    Explanation
    The space between the vocal cords is called the rima glottidis or glottis.

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  • 43. 

    What is not a common cause of posterior nosebleeds?

    • A.

      Nasal tumors

    • B.

      Serious nose trauma

    • C.

      High altitude

    • D.

      Drug abuse

    Correct Answer
    C. High altitude
    Explanation
    Common causes of posterior nosebleeds include serious nose trauma, nasal mucosal infections, high blood pressure, nasal tumors, atherosclerosis, drug abuse, and leukemia.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following is a subglottic airway obstruction usually caused by the parainfluenza virus?

    • A.

      Pharyngitis

    • B.

      Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)

    • C.

      Epiglottitis

    • D.

      Tonsillitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)
    Explanation
    LTB is a subglottic airway obstruction usually caused by a parainfluenza virus.

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  • 45. 

    What is causative agent in the majority of cases of acute epiglottitis?

    • A.

      Streptococcus

    • B.

      MRSA

    • C.

      Parainfluenza virus

    • D.

      Haemophilus influenzae type B

    Correct Answer
    D. Haemophilus influenzae type B
    Explanation
    The majority of acute epiglotittis cases is caused by Haemophilus inflenzae type B.

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  • 46. 

    Which type of epithelium is present in the larynx above the vocal cords?

    • A.

      Pseudostratified squamous

    • B.

      Stratified squamous

    • C.

      Cuboidal

    • D.

      Pseudostratified ciliated columnar

    Correct Answer
    B. Stratified squamous
    Explanation
    Above the cords, the larynx is lined with stratified squamous epithelium.

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  • 47. 

    Which laryngeal muscles are primarily responsible for adduction of the vocal cords?

    • A.

      Transverse arytenoid

    • B.

      Lateral cricoarytenoid

    • C.

      Posterior cricoarytenoid

    • D.

      Thyroarytenoid

    Correct Answer
    B. Lateral cricoarytenoid
    Explanation
    The lateral cricoarytenoid muscles cause the vocal cords to move together.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following muscles pull the larynx and hyoid downward?

    • A.

      Suprahyoid group

    • B.

      Cricothyroid muscles

    • C.

      Posterior cricoarytenoid muscles

    • D.

      Infrahyoid group

    Correct Answer
    D. Infrahyoid group
    Explanation
    The infrahyoid muscle group pull the larynx and hyoid downward.

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  • 49. 

    What is the secondary vital function of the larynx?

    • A.

      Gag reflex

    • B.

      Babinski reflex

    • C.

      Valsalva’s maneuver

    • D.

      Moro maneuver

    Correct Answer
    C. Valsalva’s maneuver
    Explanation
    Effort closure during exhalation (Valsalva’s maneuver) is an important secondary function of the larynx.

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  • 50. 

    What type of epithelium extends from the trachea to the respiratory bronchioles?

    • A.

      Stratified squamous

    • B.

      Pseudostratified squamous

    • C.

      Cuboidal

    • D.

      Pseudostratified ciliates columnar

    Correct Answer
    D. Pseudostratified ciliates columnar
    Explanation
    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium extends from the trachea to the respiratory bronchioles.

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