Biology - Chapter 4 Self Quiz: DNA: The Molecular Basis Of Life

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SBI 4U1: BIOLOGY - CHAPTER 4 SELF QUIZ: DNA: THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF LIFE

This quiz is a replication of the actual quiz in the Nelson Biology 12 textbook.

Please report any mistakes/discrepancies.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Adenine and guanine are pyrimidines. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Adenine and guanine are purines.

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  • 2. 

    The DNA double helix makes a complete turn every 3.4 nm along its length. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The DNA double helix makes a complete turn every 3.4 nm along its length. This is a factual statement and is true. The double helix structure of DNA consists of two strands that are twisted around each other in a spiral shape. This twisting results in a complete turn, also known as a full rotation, every 3.4 nm. This property of DNA is important for various biological processes, including DNA replication and gene expression.

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  • 3. 

    DNA’s backbone is held together by hydrogen bonds while the complementary bases are held together by phosphodiester bonds. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Phosphodiester bonds hold DNA’s backbone together while the complementary bases are held together by hydrogen bonds.

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  • 4. 

    If the deoxynucleotide sequence in one strand of a short stretch of DNA double helix is 5'–CTGGAT–3', then the complementary sequence in the opposite strand is 3'–GACCTG–5'. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    If the deoxynucleotide sequence in one strand of a short stretch of DNA double helix is 5'–CTGGAT–3', then the complementary sequence in the opposite strand is 3'–GACCTA–5'.

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  • 5. 

    DNA helicase is an enzyme that ensures that the appropriate complementary base pairs have been added to the growing daughter strands during DNA replication. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    DNA polymerase III is an enzyme that ensures that the appropriate complementary base pairs have been added to the growing daughter strands during DNA replication.

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  • 6. 

    DNA replication is conservative. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    DNA replication is semi-conservative.

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  • 7. 

    Joachim Hammerling’s experiment using Acetabularia revealed that the hereditary information is found in the foot of the alga where the nucleus resides. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Joachim Hammerling's experiment using Acetabularia demonstrated that the hereditary information is located in the foot of the alga where the nucleus resides. This suggests that the nucleus plays a crucial role in transmitting genetic material and is responsible for the hereditary traits of the organism. Hence, the statement "True" is the correct answer.

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  • 8. 

    DNA polymerase III builds a complementary DNA strand during DNA replication in the 3' to 5' direction. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    DNA polymerase III builds a complementary DNA strand during DNA replication in the 5' to 3' direction.

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  • 9. 

    After one replication of double-stranded DNA, some of the daughter DNA molecules contain no parental material. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    After one replication of double-stranded DNA, the daughter DNA molecules are comprised of 50% parental material.

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  • 10. 

    Erwin Chargaff’s rules state that adenine bonds with thymine, and cytosine bonds with guanine. True or false?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Erwin Chargaff's rules, also known as Chargaff's base pairing rules, state that adenine (A) bonds with thymine (T) and cytosine (C) bonds with guanine (G). This means that in a DNA molecule, A always pairs with T, and C always pairs with G. Therefore, the statement that adenine bonds with thymine and cytosine bonds with guanine is true.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following best describes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?

    • A.

      It consists of a linear backbone of the sugar deoxyribose and phosphates, with nitrogenous bases attached to the sugar residues.

    • B.

      It consists of a linear backbone of sugar and bases, with a phosphate group attached to each base.

    • C.

      It consists of a linear backbone of phosphates and bases, with a sugar group attached to each end.

    • D.

      It is a double helix when present in single-stranded form.

    • E.

      It consists of a linear backbone of the deoxyribose sugar.

    Correct Answer
    A. It consists of a linear backbone of the sugar deoxyribose and phosphates, with nitrogenous bases attached to the sugar residues.
    Explanation
    DNA is a molecule that contains genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of a linear backbone made up of the sugar deoxyribose and phosphates. Nitrogenous bases, including adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine, are attached to the sugar residues. This structure forms the famous double helix shape of DNA. The other options do not accurately describe the composition and structure of DNA.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is associated with only the lagging strand during DNA replication?

    • A.

      RNA primers

    • B.

      DNA polymerase I

    • C.

      DNA polymerase III

    • D.

      Okazaki fragments

    • E.

      DNA gyrase

    Correct Answer
    D. Okazaki fragments
    Explanation
    Okazaki fragments are short, discontinuous segments of DNA that are synthesized on the lagging strand during DNA replication. The lagging strand is synthesized in the opposite direction of the replication fork, resulting in the need for these fragments to be synthesized in small pieces. DNA polymerase III is responsible for synthesizing the leading strand continuously, while DNA polymerase I is involved in removing the RNA primers and replacing them with DNA. DNA gyrase is an enzyme involved in relieving the torsional strain that builds up ahead of the replication fork. Therefore, only Okazaki fragments are specifically associated with the lagging strand during DNA replication.

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  • 13. 

    The molecule depicted in Figure 1 is which one of the following?Figure 1

    • A.

      Sugar

    • B.

      Nucleotide

    • C.

      Amino acid

    • D.

      Purine

    • E.

      Pyrimidine

    Correct Answer
    D. Purine
    Explanation
    The molecule depicted in Figure 1 is a purine. Purines are heterocyclic aromatic compounds that consist of a pyrimidine ring fused with an imidazole ring. They are one of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA, the other being pyrimidines. Purines include adenine and guanine, which are essential components of nucleotides and play a crucial role in the structure and function of nucleic acids.

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  • 14. 

    The percent composition of adenine in a DNA molecule is found to be 35%. Therefore which of the following is the percent composition of guanine?

    • A.

      35%

    • B.

      30%

    • C.

      15%

    • D.

      Cannot be determined

    • E.

      Depends on the species

    Correct Answer
    C. 15%
    Explanation
    The percent composition of adenine and guanine in a DNA molecule is always equal. This is because adenine always pairs with thymine and guanine always pairs with cytosine in DNA. Since adenine is found to be 35%, the percent composition of guanine would also be 35%. Therefore, the given answer of 15% is incorrect.

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  • 15. 

    DNA replication occurs in which of the following ways?

    • A.

      In the 5' to 3' direction only

    • B.

      In the 3' to 5' direction only

    • C.

      In both the 5' to 3' direction and the 3' to 5' direction

    • D.

      In the 3' to 5' direction in the lagging strand

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. In the 5' to 3' direction only
    Explanation
    DNA replication occurs in the 5' to 3' direction only because DNA polymerase can only add new nucleotides to the 3' end of a growing DNA strand. This means that the DNA strand being replicated is read in the 3' to 5' direction, and the new complementary strand is synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction. The leading strand is synthesized continuously in the 5' to 3' direction, while the lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously in short fragments called Okazaki fragments, also in the 5' to 3' direction.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following did Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl’s experiment illustrate?

    • A.

      DNA is the hereditary material.

    • B.

      DNA is found in the nucleus.

    • C.

      DNA replicates semiconservatively.

    • D.

      DNA replicates conservatively.

    • E.

      DNA is composed of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

    Correct Answer
    C. DNA replicates semiconservatively.
    Explanation
    Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl's experiment illustrated that DNA replicates semiconservatively. This means that during DNA replication, each strand of the original DNA molecule serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. As a result, each newly formed DNA molecule consists of one original strand and one newly synthesized strand. This experiment provided evidence to support the semiconservative model of DNA replication, which was proposed by James Watson and Francis Crick.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 26, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Rflores314
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