Advanced Placement World History: Modern! Practice Test

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AP World History Quizzes & Trivia

As part of advanced placement, different tests are given to ascertain and determine whether or not you will get through. The advanced placement world history quiz below specifically tests on the vast world history. All the best.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following was not a factor in starting World War I?

    • A.

      Nationalism

    • B.

      Weakening of the Ottoman Empire

    • C.

      Competition for resources in colonial territories to fuel ongoing technology development

    • D.

      Alliances and interactive military plans

    • E.

      The Monroe Doctrine

    Correct Answer
    E. The Monroe Doctrine
    Explanation
    The Monroe Doctrine was not a factor in starting World War I. The Monroe Doctrine was a United States foreign policy that stated that any intervention by external powers in the politics of the Americas is a potentially hostile act against the US. It was not directly related to the causes of World War I, which were primarily driven by factors such as nationalism, the weakening of the Ottoman Empire, competition for resources, and alliances between different countries.

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  • 2. 

    In the early twentieth century, the Ottoman Empire was referred to as the

    • A.

      "sick man of Europe."

    • B.

      "Turkish Colossus."

    • C.

      "Evil Empire."

    • D.

      "Threat from the East."

    • E.

      "Scarlet Knights."

    Correct Answer
    A. "sick man of Europe."
    Explanation
    The term "sick man of Europe" was used to describe the declining state of the Ottoman Empire in the early twentieth century. It reflected the empire's weakened political, economic, and military power, as well as its internal instability and struggles with modernization. This phrase was commonly used by European powers to highlight the empire's vulnerability and its inability to keep up with the progress and advancements of other European nations.

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  • 3. 

    What turned the political assassination of Franz Ferdinand into a world-wide event involving all of the Great Powers was:

    • A.

      Competition among industrialized nations.

    • B.

      The pre-existing system of alliances.

    • C.

      The familial squabbles of the royal houses of Europe, all grandchildren of Queen Victoria.

    • D.

      The opportunity to incite revolution in China and Russia.

    • E.

      The entry of the United States into the fray of war.

    Correct Answer
    B. The pre-existing system of alliances.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the pre-existing system of alliances. The assassination of Franz Ferdinand triggered a chain reaction of events due to the complex network of alliances between nations. When Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Serbia's allies, Russia and France, came to its defense. In response, Germany declared war on Russia and France, leading to the involvement of other Great Powers like Britain. The pre-existing system of alliances escalated the conflict and turned it into a worldwide event, ultimately leading to World War I.

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  • 4. 

      The policy decision that most affected future relations between the Jewish and Palestinian settlers was embodied in

    • A.

      The Balfour Declaration.

    • B.

      The Treaty of Brest Litovsk.

    • C.

      The Zimmerman Telegram.

    • D.

      The Dreyfus Affair.

    • E.

      The Doctors' Conspiracy.

    Correct Answer
    A. The Balfour Declaration.
    Explanation
    The Balfour Declaration is the correct answer because it had a significant impact on the future relations between Jewish and Palestinian settlers. The declaration, issued by the British government in 1917, expressed support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine. This policy decision was a key factor in the eventual establishment of the state of Israel and has been a source of ongoing conflict between Israelis and Palestinians. The other options listed do not have the same level of historical significance in relation to Jewish and Palestinian relations.

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  • 5. 

    Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the

    • A.

      Bolsheviks.

    • B.

      Mensheviks.

    • C.

      Social Revolutionaries.

    • D.

      Provisional Government.

    • E.

      Young Turks.

    Correct Answer
    A. Bolsheviks.
    Explanation
    Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks, a Marxist political party in Russia. The Bolsheviks played a crucial role in the Russian Revolution of 1917, overthrowing the Provisional Government and establishing a socialist government. Lenin's leadership and ideology were instrumental in shaping the direction of the Bolshevik party and its revolutionary activities. The Bolsheviks eventually became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with Lenin as its first leader.

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  • 6. 

    Which was not one of the significant parts of Wilson's fourteen-point plan to end the war?

    • A.

      German evacuation of occupied lands

    • B.

      Autonomy for nationalities under Ottoman rule

    • C.

      Forfeiture of all German agricultural lands

    • D.

      Formation of an association of nations to ensure the independence and territorial integrity of all states

    • E.

      Inclusion of local populations to settle territorial disputes

    Correct Answer
    C. Forfeiture of all German agricultural lands
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Forfeiture of all German agricultural lands." This was not one of the significant parts of Wilson's fourteen-point plan to end the war. Wilson's plan focused on issues such as German evacuation of occupied lands, autonomy for nationalities under Ottoman rule, formation of an association of nations, and inclusion of local populations to settle territorial disputes. However, there is no mention of forfeiting German agricultural lands in Wilson's plan.

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  • 7. 

    The influenza epidemic of 1918-1919

    • A.

      Was a germ warfare attack by the Germans.

    • B.

      Killed 1 million.

    • C.

      Killed 20 million.

    • D.

      Did not kill people, but killed horses.

    • E.

      Was contained with the use of antibiotics.

    • F.

      Was contained with the use of antibiotics.

    Correct Answer
    C. Killed 20 million.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "killed 20 million." The influenza epidemic of 1918-1919 was a global pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus. It infected approximately one-third of the world's population and resulted in an estimated death toll of 20 to 50 million people worldwide. This pandemic was one of the deadliest in history, affecting all age groups and causing high mortality rates, particularly among young adults. Antibiotics were not effective in treating the influenza virus, as antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, not viral infections.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following was not one of the elements in the Treaty of Versailles that angered Germany?

    • A.

      The infamous "guilt clause"

    • B.

      The amount of reparations it had to pay

    • C.

      The loss of territory it sustained

    • D.

      High tariffs enacted by the allies

    • E.

      Elimination of the German air force

    Correct Answer
    D. High tariffs enacted by the allies
    Explanation
    The Treaty of Versailles imposed several harsh terms on Germany after World War I, including the infamous "guilt clause" that placed sole responsibility for the war on Germany. Germany was also required to pay large reparations to the Allied powers and lost significant territories. Additionally, the treaty mandated the disarmament of the German military, including the elimination of the air force. However, high tariffs enacted by the allies were not specifically mentioned as one of the elements that angered Germany in the Treaty of Versailles.

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  • 9. 

    The Communist Party of the Soviet Union planned to pay for industrialization by

    • A.

      Collecting taxes on agricultural production.

    • B.

      Raising tariffs on all imports.

    • C.

      Bleeding wealth from neighboring territories.

    • D.

      Squeezing the peasants.

    • E.

      Getting large loans from the World Bank.

    Correct Answer
    D. Squeezing the peasants.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "squeezing the peasants." During the industrialization period in the Soviet Union, the Communist Party implemented policies that heavily taxed and exploited the peasants to fund the rapid industrial growth. This was done through collectivization, where individual peasant farms were combined into large state-run farms, and the peasants were forced to give up their crops and livestock to the government at low prices. The government then sold these agricultural products at higher prices, effectively squeezing the peasants for their resources and wealth.

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  • 10. 

    The leader of the Guomindang after 1925 was:

    • A.

      Yuan Shikai

    • B.

      Chiang Kai-shek

    • C.

      Sun Yat-sen

    • D.

      Mao Tse Tung

    • E.

      Emperess Cixi

    Correct Answer
    B. Chiang Kai-shek
    Explanation
    Chiang Kai-shek was the leader of the Guomindang after 1925. He succeeded Sun Yat-sen, the founder of the party, and played a significant role in the Chinese Civil War against the Communist Party led by Mao Zedong. Chiang Kai-shek's leadership was characterized by his efforts to modernize China, his authoritarian rule, and his opposition to the Communists. Despite his initial successes, Chiang's leadership eventually faltered, leading to the retreat of the Guomindang to Taiwan after their defeat in the civil war.

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  • 11. 

    Japan had

    • A.

      Very few natural resources and little arable land.

    • B.

      Many natural resources and little arable land.

    • C.

      Very few natural resources and abundant arable land.

    • D.

      Many natural resources and abundant arable land.

    • E.

      A small and unmotivated population.

    Correct Answer
    A. Very few natural resources and little arable land.
    Explanation
    Japan's correct answer is "very few natural resources and little arable land." This is because Japan is a mountainous island country with limited access to natural resources such as oil, coal, and iron ore. Additionally, due to its mountainous terrain, Japan has limited arable land for agriculture. These factors have historically made Japan heavily dependent on importing resources and focusing on industries that require less land and resources, such as manufacturing and technology.

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  • 12. 

    What was the mandate system?

    • A.

      The League of Nations members divided a percentage of wealth generated by all colonies.

    • B.

      Colonial rulers administered territories but were held accountable to the League of Nations.

    • C.

      Colonialism was eliminated.

    • D.

      Colonies were incorporated into various nations with all the rights and liabilities of ordinary citizens.

    • E.

      An immigration system of guest workers was designed to supply the former colonizers with inexpensive laborers.

    Correct Answer
    B. Colonial rulers administered territories but were held accountable to the League of Nations.
    Explanation
    The mandate system refers to the practice of colonial rulers administering territories but being held accountable to the League of Nations. This means that although the colonial rulers had control over the territories, they were required to report to and follow the guidelines set by the League of Nations. This system aimed to provide a degree of oversight and ensure that the rights and interests of the local populations were protected.

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  • 13. 

    In 1923, Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) turned Turkey into

    • A.

      A sultanate.

    • B.

      An Islamic state.

    • C.

      A secular republic.

    • D.

      A Communist state.

    • E.

      A "mega-state" through its merger with Greece.

    Correct Answer
    C. A secular republic.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a secular republic. In 1923, Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) transformed Turkey from a sultanate into a secular republic. Atatürk implemented a series of reforms aimed at modernizing Turkey and separating religion from politics. He abolished the sultanate and established a new political system based on secular principles, emphasizing the separation of religion and state. This included the introduction of a new legal code, the adoption of the Latin alphabet, and the promotion of Western-style education and dress. Atatürk's goal was to create a modern, secular, and Western-oriented Turkey.

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  • 14. 

    Stalin's First Five-Year Plan stressed

    • A.

      Increases in electricity and heavy industries.

    • B.

      Production of consumer goods for export.

    • C.

      Acquiring colonies to protect the Soviet economy.

    • D.

      Decentralized control and economic incentives.

    • E.

      Participation in the European Union.

    Correct Answer
    A. Increases in electricity and heavy industries.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is increases in electricity and heavy industries. This is because Stalin's First Five-Year Plan, implemented from 1928 to 1932, aimed to rapidly industrialize the Soviet Union. The plan emphasized the development of heavy industries such as iron, steel, and machinery, as well as the expansion of electricity production. The goal was to transform the Soviet Union into a modern industrialized nation and catch up with the more advanced Western countries. This focus on industrialization was prioritized over the production of consumer goods for export or acquiring colonies.

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  • 15. 

    The stock market crash of 1929 turned into

    • A.

      The deepest, most widespread depression in history.

    • B.

      An economic boon to the "common man," as he was now able to afford stock.

    • C.

      A minor depression followed by an economic recovery.

    • D.

      A "limited" depression in some countries, but not most Western countries.

    • E.

      A depression for the United States only.

    Correct Answer
    A. The deepest, most widespread depression in history.
    Explanation
    The stock market crash of 1929 resulted in the deepest, most widespread depression in history. This means that the economic downturn that followed the crash was severe and affected a large number of countries and regions. It was not limited to a specific country or a minor event with a quick recovery. The use of the phrase "most widespread depression in history" emphasizes the magnitude and global impact of the economic crisis that followed the stock market crash.

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  • 16. 

    Franklin D. Roosevelt's economic recovery plan was:

    • A.

      New Deal

    • B.

      Square Deal

    • C.

      New Frontier

    • D.

      Fair Deal

    • E.

      Trickle Down Economics

    Correct Answer
    A. New Deal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is New Deal. Franklin D. Roosevelt's economic recovery plan during the Great Depression was known as the New Deal. This plan aimed to provide relief, recovery, and reform to the American economy through various government programs and policies. The New Deal included initiatives such as the creation of the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Works Progress Administration, and the Social Security Act, among others, which aimed to create jobs, stimulate economic growth, and provide a safety net for citizens.

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  • 17. 

    Hitler's goal for Germany included all of the following except

    • A.

      The repeal of the Treaty of Versailles.

    • B.

      To take over all German-speaking territory.

    • C.

      To expand into Poland.

    • D.

      To eliminate the Jews from Europe.

    • E.

      To divide the Western world from the Eastern by a tripartite pact with Japan.

    Correct Answer
    E. To divide the Western world from the Eastern by a tripartite pact with Japan.
    Explanation
    Hitler's goal for Germany included the repeal of the Treaty of Versailles, taking over all German-speaking territory, expanding into Poland, and eliminating the Jews from Europe. However, his goal did not involve dividing the Western world from the Eastern by a tripartite pact with Japan. This answer is incorrect because Hitler did form a pact with Japan, known as the Tripartite Pact, but its purpose was to create an alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan to counter the growing influence of the United States, rather than dividing the Western world from the Eastern.

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  • 18. 

    In 1935, Mussolini took advantage of the weakness of the Western democracies and

    • A.

      Invaded Ethiopia.

    • B.

      Launched a bombing campaign against France.

    • C.

      Ended diplomatic relations with Britain.

    • D.

      Sent military aid to Germany.

    • E.

      Annexed Sicily.

    Correct Answer
    A. Invaded Ethiopia.
    Explanation
    In 1935, Mussolini saw an opportunity to expand Italy's empire and took advantage of the weakness of the Western democracies by invading Ethiopia. This was part of his plan to establish Italy as a major power and gain control over more territories. The invasion of Ethiopia was a significant event in history as it demonstrated Mussolini's aggressive foreign policy and disregard for international law. It also highlighted the failure of the League of Nations to prevent acts of aggression by its member states.

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  • 19. 

    Many Japanese nationalists thought that the answer to the Depression was to

    • A.

      Once again close Japan to Western influence.

    • B.

      Have Japanese colonies.

    • C.

      Better support Japanese agriculture.

    • D.

      Make prayers and sacrifices to their ancestors.

    • E.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. Make prayers and sacrifices to their ancestors.
    Explanation
    During the Great Depression, many Japanese nationalists believed that the solution to the economic crisis was to turn to traditional spiritual practices and honor their ancestors through prayers and sacrifices. They believed that by seeking guidance and blessings from their ancestors, they could find a way to overcome the challenges they were facing. This approach reflects a deep-rooted cultural and religious belief in the importance of ancestral worship and the power of spiritual intervention in times of difficulty.

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  • 20. 

    Mao Zedong's variety of communism was a radical departure from the traditional ideology because it

    • A.

      Emphasized the urban proletariat.

    • B.

      Involved no land distribution.

    • C.

      Relied on the peasantry.

    • D.

      Was the same as Stalin's brand of communism.

    • E.

      Only accepted individuals under twelve years old so they could be properly indoctrinated.

    Correct Answer
    C. Relied on the peasantry.
    Explanation
    Mao Zedong's variety of communism was a radical departure from the traditional ideology because it relied on the peasantry. Unlike traditional communism which focused on the urban proletariat, Mao's communism placed a strong emphasis on the rural peasantry. He believed that the peasants were the true revolutionary class and that they held the power to bring about a communist revolution. This departure from the traditional ideology made Mao's communism unique and distinct from other forms of communism, including Stalin's brand. The answer "relied on the peasantry" accurately captures this key aspect of Mao's communist ideology.

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  • 21. 

    Mao Zedong's 1934 escape from the Guomindang to Shaanxi was called the

    • A.

      Miracle of Mao.

    • B.

      Long March.

    • C.

      Trek to the Mountain.

    • D.

      March of Madness.

    • E.

      Night of Terror.

    Correct Answer
    B. Long March.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Long March." Mao Zedong's escape from the Guomindang to Shaanxi in 1934 is commonly referred to as the Long March. This was a strategic retreat by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, covering a distance of over 6,000 miles. The Long March lasted for about a year and involved crossing difficult terrains, enduring harsh weather conditions, and engaging in multiple battles with enemy forces. It played a crucial role in solidifying Mao's leadership and establishing the Communist Party as a significant force in China.

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  • 22. 

    The German Blitzkrieg meant, literally,

    • A.

      Death from above.

    • B.

      No surrender.

    • C.

      Total war.

    • D.

      Lightning war.

    • E.

      Secret war.

    Correct Answer
    D. Lightning war.
    Explanation
    The term "Blitzkrieg" refers to a military tactic used by the German forces during World War II. It involved the use of a fast and overwhelming attack, combining air and ground forces to quickly penetrate enemy lines and disrupt their defenses. The term "lightning war" accurately captures the essence of this strategy, emphasizing the speed and intensity of the German offensive operations.

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  • 23. 

    The Battle of Britain was conducted primarily by

    • A.

      Air attacks.

    • B.

      Submarines.

    • C.

      Naval warships.

    • D.

      Ground force invasion on the beaches at Hastings.

    • E.

      Detonating a magneto-electric pulse on London to wipe out all electric power.

    Correct Answer
    A. Air attacks.
    Explanation
    The Battle of Britain was primarily conducted by air attacks. This means that the main form of warfare used during this battle was through aerial bombings and dogfights between aircraft. The use of submarines, naval warships, ground force invasion, and magneto-electric pulse detonation are not mentioned as the primary methods used in this battle.

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  • 24. 

    On December 7, 1941,

    • A.

      The Yalta Conference took place and set in motion the plans for the Axis defeat.

    • B.

      Japanese planes bombed the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor.

    • C.

      Japan surrender to the United States to end World War II.

    • D.

      The Soviet Union invaded north China.

    • E.

      The United States army invaded the home islands of Japan.

    Correct Answer
    B. Japanese planes bombed the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Japanese planes bombed the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor. This event, which occurred on December 7, 1941, was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II and was a significant factor in the eventual defeat of the Axis powers.

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  • 25. 

    The key to victory in the Pacific Ocean was

    • A.

      Holding the Philippine Islands.

    • B.

      Aircraft carriers.

    • C.

      The base at Pearl Harbor.

    • D.

      The atomic bomb.

    • E.

      Short supply lines.

    Correct Answer
    B. Aircraft carriers.
    Explanation
    During World War II, aircraft carriers played a crucial role in the Pacific Ocean. They provided a mobile and flexible platform for launching air strikes against enemy forces and targets. The ability to project air power over long distances allowed the United States to effectively counter Japanese aggression and regain control of the Pacific. Holding the Philippine Islands was important strategically, but it was the aircraft carriers that provided the means to achieve victory by dominating the skies and supporting amphibious operations. The base at Pearl Harbor was significant but was severely damaged during the surprise attack in 1941. The atomic bomb was a game-changer in ending the war, but it was not the key to victory in the Pacific. Short supply lines were important for logistical support, but they did not directly contribute to military success in the region.

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  • 26. 

    The start of the final Allied push to end the war in Europe began on June 6, 1944, known as

    • A.

      The Big One

    • B.

      D-Day

    • C.

      Operation Caprica

    • D.

      The Norman Invasion

    • E.

      Battle of the Bulge

    Correct Answer
    B. D-Day
    Explanation
    D-Day refers to the start of the final Allied push to end the war in Europe, which began on June 6, 1944. It was a significant military operation during World War II, where Allied forces landed on the beaches of Normandy in France. The invasion marked a turning point in the war and ultimately led to the liberation of Western Europe from Nazi control.

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  • 27. 

    The final defeat of Japan took longer than victory over Germany in large part because

    • A.

      Of fanatical Japanese resistance.

    • B.

      The Japanese had captured so much more territory.

    • C.

      The United States had concentrated its efforts on Germany.

    • D.

      The Allies were unsure of whether to use the atomic bomb.

    • E.

      Ice floes surrounded the islands of Japan.

    Correct Answer
    C. The United States had concentrated its efforts on Germany.
    Explanation
    During World War II, the United States focused its military efforts primarily on defeating Germany. This was due to the fact that Germany posed a greater threat to the Allies and had a stronger military compared to Japan. The United States, along with its allies, dedicated significant resources, troops, and strategic planning to the European theater of war, which ultimately led to the defeat of Germany before Japan. This concentration of efforts delayed the final defeat of Japan, as the Allies had to redirect their attention and resources towards the Pacific theater to effectively combat the Japanese forces.

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  • 28. 

    The end of the war in the Pacific arena was controversial because of

    • A.

      The U.S. use of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    • B.

      The refusal of the United States to consider any alternatives.

    • C.

      International objection to the slaughter of civilian populations.

    • D.

      The environmental effects of radioactivity.

    • E.

      The economic devastation that would occur to the rest of Japan.

    Correct Answer
    A. The U.S. use of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
    Explanation
    The end of the war in the Pacific arena was controversial because of the U.S. use of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This decision to drop atomic bombs resulted in the loss of thousands of civilian lives and caused immense destruction. It sparked international objection and raised ethical concerns about the use of such devastating weapons. The use of atomic bombs also had long-lasting environmental effects due to radioactivity. The economic devastation that would occur to the rest of Japan is not mentioned as a reason for the controversy.

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  • 29. 

    Which group was not murdered by the Nazis in the interest of "racial purity"?

    • A.

      Homosexuals

    • B.

      The disabled and mentally ill

    • C.

      Aryans

    • D.

      Gypsies

    • E.

      The Polish elite

    Correct Answer
    C. Aryans
    Explanation
    The Nazis did not murder Aryans in the interest of "racial purity" as they considered Aryans to be the superior race. The concept of racial purity was based on their belief in the superiority of the Aryan race and the need to eliminate other groups that they considered inferior, such as Jews, homosexuals, the disabled and mentally ill, Gypsies, and the Polish elite.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following was not a result of increased United States production during World War II?

    • A.

      It ended the Depression and unemployment.

    • B.

      It created a post-World War II consumer boom.

    • C.

      It helped improve nutrition in the United States.

    • D.

      The economy performed at a minimal level.

    • E.

      It was double that of all the Axis nations.

    Correct Answer
    D. The economy performed at a minimal level.
    Explanation
    During World War II, increased United States production had several positive effects. It ended the Depression and unemployment by providing jobs and stimulating economic growth. It created a post-World War II consumer boom as people had more disposable income to spend. Additionally, it helped improve nutrition in the United States as the increased production of food ensured a steady supply. However, the statement that the economy performed at a minimal level is incorrect. The increased production actually led to a thriving economy and a significant increase in the nation's GDP.

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  • 31. 

    Christian religions proved attractive in some parts of Africa because

    • A.

      They did not disrupt African culture.

    • B.

      Africans were willing to abandon Islam.

    • C.

      They established mission schools.

    • D.

      They could be adapted to African needs.

    • E.

      Missionaries gave fifty pounds sterling to new converts.

    Correct Answer
    C. They established mission schools.
    Explanation
    Christian religions proved attractive in some parts of Africa because they established mission schools. This allowed Africans to receive education and literacy skills, which were highly valued. The mission schools also provided opportunities for Africans to learn about Christianity and its teachings, which appealed to some individuals. Additionally, the establishment of mission schools allowed for the integration of African cultural practices and traditions with Christian beliefs, making it more adaptable to African needs.

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  • 32. 

    World War II was most important for African independence movements because

    • A.

      The German colonies were destroyed during the war.

    • B.

      Many Africans served in Allied armies and returned with radical new ideas.

    • C.

      Africans listened closely to German propaganda.

    • D.

      Africans liberated their countries during the war.

    • E.

      Colonialism was exposed as a corrupt practice.

    Correct Answer
    B. Many Africans served in Allied armies and returned with radical new ideas.
    Explanation
    During World War II, many Africans served in the Allied armies, which exposed them to new ideas and experiences. This exposure to different cultures and ideologies influenced their thinking and sparked a desire for independence. The experience of fighting alongside soldiers from other countries also highlighted the inequalities and injustices of colonialism, further fueling the African independence movements. Therefore, the answer "many Africans served in Allied armies and returned with radical new ideas" is the most plausible explanation for why World War II was important for African independence movements.

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  • 33. 

    Significant internal conflict was found in India among which two groups?

    • A.

      Bengalis and Mughals

    • B.

      Hindus and Muslims

    • C.

      Calcuttese and Delhians

    • D.

      Shudra and Brahmin castes

    • E.

      Tamir and Pakastani

    Correct Answer
    B. Hindus and Muslims
    Explanation
    The significant internal conflict in India was found between Hindus and Muslims. This conflict has historical roots and has been a major issue in the country for many years. The conflict stems from religious differences and has led to violence and tensions between the two groups.

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  • 34. 

    Gandhi's "unusual" political ideas included

    • A.

      Terrorist plans to bomb civilian locations.

    • B.

      Democratic reforms through legislation and lobbying.

    • C.

      Nonviolence

    • D.

      The vote for women.

    • E.

      Guerilla tactics.

    Correct Answer
    C. Nonviolence
    Explanation
    Gandhi's "unusual" political ideas included nonviolence. This means that he believed in resolving conflicts and achieving political goals without the use of force or violence. Gandhi promoted peaceful protests, civil disobedience, and passive resistance as effective means of bringing about social and political change. He believed in the power of love, truth, and nonviolent resistance to overcome oppression and injustice. Gandhi's philosophy of nonviolence had a significant impact on the Indian independence movement and inspired many other civil rights and peace movements around the world.

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  • 35. 

    Gandhi protested British violence and policies by

    • A.

      Fighting.

    • B.

      Fasting.

    • C.

      Leaving India.

    • D.

      Extensive writing and newspaper ads.

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Fasting.
    Explanation
    Gandhi protested British violence and policies through fasting. Fasting was one of the nonviolent methods used by Gandhi to draw attention to his cause and to put pressure on the British government. By abstaining from food, Gandhi demonstrated his commitment to his beliefs and his willingness to sacrifice himself for the cause of Indian independence. Fasting was a powerful tool for Gandhi as it not only showcased his personal strength and determination but also appealed to the moral conscience of the British rulers and the international community.

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  • 36. 

    The British finally recognized Indian independence in 1947 with

    • A.

      A partitioning of the subcontinent into speakers of Urdu and Tamil.

    • B.

      A partitioning of India into Pakistan and India.

    • C.

      Separation of Kashmir from Mongolia.

    • D.

      The British maintaining favored-nation status for cotton and tea exports.

    • E.

      Gandhi elected as president.

    Correct Answer
    B. A partitioning of India into Pakistan and India.
  • 37. 

    Hindering Latin American development was the fact that Latin American countries

    • A.

      Were economically dependent on the United States and Britain.

    • B.

      Had achieved independence in the nineteenth century but had not industrialized.

    • C.

      Were torn by class divisions of indigenous elites versus European-born people.

    • D.

      Had significantly different evolutions.

    • E.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    E. All of these
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of these." This means that all of the given options - economic dependence on the United States and Britain, lack of industrialization despite achieving independence, class divisions between indigenous elites and European-born people, and significant differences in evolution - hindered Latin American development.

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  • 38. 

    What did Emiliano Zapata do with the land he seized?

    • A.

      Sold it and used it to purchase guns

    • B.

      Started building forts

    • C.

      Returned it to the Indian villages

    • D.

      Declared it a separate nation

    • E.

      Drilled for oil

    Correct Answer
    C. Returned it to the Indian villages
    Explanation
    Emiliano Zapata, a Mexican revolutionary, returned the land he seized to the Indian villages. This action demonstrates Zapata's commitment to the principles of agrarian reform and social justice, as he sought to restore land rights to the indigenous communities who had been historically marginalized and dispossessed. By returning the land to the Indian villages, Zapata aimed to empower and uplift these communities, allowing them to regain control over their own resources and livelihoods.

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  • 39. 

    Decolonization was

    • A.

      The political ideology of the East versus the West.

    • B.

      Largely complete before the onset of World War II.

    • C.

      Often shaped by the need to align with either the United States or the Soviet Union.

    • D.

      Limited to South Africa.

    • E.

      The root cause of war in El Salvador.

    Correct Answer
    C. Often shaped by the need to align with either the United States or the Soviet Union.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is often shaped by the need to align with either the United States or the Soviet Union. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in a global power struggle, and many newly decolonized nations found themselves caught in the middle. These nations often had to align with one of the superpowers in order to receive economic aid, military support, or protection. This alignment influenced their political ideologies, foreign policies, and even internal conflicts.

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  • 40. 

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was a

    • A.

      Military alliance consisting of the United States and western European countries.

    • B.

      Military alliance consisting of the USSR and eastern European countries.

    • C.

      Military alliance of newly freed African countries.

    • D.

      Military alliance of the recently defeated countries of World War II.

    • E.

      Military compact among the nonaligned states.

    Correct Answer
    A. Military alliance consisting of the United States and western European countries.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is military alliance consisting of the United States and western European countries. NATO was formed in 1949 as a collective defense agreement between the United States, Canada, and several European countries. Its purpose was to provide mutual defense and security against the potential threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The alliance was based on the principle of collective defense, where an attack on one member would be considered an attack on all. NATO played a significant role in maintaining stability and deterring aggression during the Cold War period.

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  • 41. 

    The Soviet-dominated counterpart to NATO was the

    • A.

      Warsaw Pact

    • B.

      Green Revolution

    • C.

      Helsinki Accords

    • D.

      Détente agreements

    • E.

      Bretton Woods Collective

    Correct Answer
    A. Warsaw Pact
    Explanation
    The Warsaw Pact was the Soviet-dominated counterpart to NATO. It was a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries. The purpose of the Warsaw Pact was to counter the influence of NATO and to maintain Soviet control over the Eastern Bloc. The member countries of the Warsaw Pact pledged to provide mutual military assistance to each other in the event of an attack. This alliance played a significant role in the Cold War and the division of Europe between the Eastern and Western Blocs.

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  • 42. 

    The Marshall Plan

    • A.

      Used currency reserves from member nations to finance temporary trade deficits.

    • B.

      Launched a process of economic cooperation and integration.

    • C.

      Provided 12.5 billion dollars in economic aid to friendly European countries.

    • D.

      Was never enacted due to partisan political feuds in Congress.

    • E.

      Helped to rebuild Japan.

    Correct Answer
    C. Provided 12.5 billion dollars in economic aid to friendly European countries.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the Marshall Plan provided 12.5 billion dollars in economic aid to friendly European countries. The Marshall Plan was a program initiated by the United States after World War II to provide financial assistance to European countries in order to help them rebuild their economies. The plan aimed to promote economic stability and prevent the spread of communism in Europe. The funds provided through the Marshall Plan were used for various purposes such as infrastructure development, industrial modernization, and agricultural improvements. This aid played a crucial role in the post-war recovery of Europe.

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  • 43. 

    The triumph of the Green Revolution was:

    • A.

      Construction of the Aswan Dam in Egypt

    • B.

      Khrushchev's success in the Virgin Lands Campaign.

    • C.

      The development of "miracle rice"

    • D.

      Mandating cleanup of toxic waste in third world countries abused by the Industrial Nations

    • E.

      Raising public awareness of ecology and recycling in the 1960s.

    Correct Answer
    C. The development of "miracle rice"
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the development of "miracle rice". The Green Revolution refers to a series of technological advancements in agriculture that took place in the mid-20th century. One of the major achievements of the Green Revolution was the development of high-yielding varieties of crops, such as "miracle rice". These new varieties of rice had higher yields and were more resistant to pests and diseases, helping to increase food production and alleviate hunger in many developing countries. The development of "miracle rice" played a significant role in the success of the Green Revolution.

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  • 44. 

    The United Nations Security Council included all of the following nations as permanent members except

    • A.

      The United States.

    • B.

      Britain.

    • C.

      Sweden.

    • D.

      France.

    • E.

      The USSR.

    Correct Answer
    C. Sweden.
    Explanation
    The United Nations Security Council consists of five permanent members, known as the P5, who have the power of veto. These members are the United States, Britain, France, China, and Russia (which was formerly the USSR). Sweden is not included as a permanent member of the Security Council, making it the correct answer.

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  • 45. 

    The Korean War was limited to the Korean peninsula because

    • A.

      The United States feared that attacking China might prompt Soviet retaliation.

    • B.

      Neither side could win a decisive victory.

    • C.

      Military technology had stagnated.

    • D.

      Geographic conditions favored a defensive war.

    • E.

      Of the inaccessibility of its location.

    Correct Answer
    A. The United States feared that attacking China might prompt Soviet retaliation.
    Explanation
    During the Korean War, the United States feared that attacking China might prompt Soviet retaliation. The conflict had already escalated with the involvement of China, and a direct attack on Chinese territory could have potentially drawn the Soviet Union into the war. The United States was concerned about the possibility of a larger conflict with the Soviets, which could have had severe consequences. Therefore, they chose to limit the war to the Korean peninsula, focusing on defending South Korea rather than expanding the conflict further.

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  • 46. 

    Who were the Viet Cong?

    • A.

      A North Vietnamese supported communist guerilla movement.

    • B.

      Chinese military advisors to the North Vietnamese.

    • C.

      CIA sponsored freedom troops for South Vietnam.

    • D.

      Neutral Vietnamese who wanted decolonization.

    • E.

      Westernized, pro-French South Vietnamese middle classes

    Correct Answer
    A. A North Vietnamese supported communist guerilla movement.
    Explanation
    The Viet Cong were a communist guerilla movement in Vietnam that was supported by North Vietnam. They fought against the South Vietnamese government and the United States during the Vietnam War. The Viet Cong aimed to unify Vietnam under communist rule and were a significant force in the conflict.

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  • 47. 

    The discovery by the United States that the Soviet Union had deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba in 1962 sparked

    • A.

      The blockade of Cuba.

    • B.

      United States deployment of nuclear missiles in Turkey

    • C.

      Rebellion in Czechoslovakia.

    • D.

      The Bay of Pigs invasion.

    • E.

      The Cuban missile crisis.

    Correct Answer
    E. The Cuban missile crisis.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Cuban missile crisis. In 1962, the United States discovered that the Soviet Union had deployed nuclear missiles in Cuba, which led to a tense standoff between the two superpowers. This event, known as the Cuban missile crisis, brought the world to the brink of nuclear war and was a major turning point in the Cold War. The United States responded with a naval blockade of Cuba, demanding the removal of the missiles. Ultimately, a diplomatic agreement was reached, with the Soviet Union agreeing to remove their missiles from Cuba in exchange for the United States removing their missiles from Turkey.

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  • 48. 

    What event was the catalyst for the space race?

    • A.

      The United States landing of a man on the moon

    • B.

      The successful Soviet flight of a man around the earth

    • C.

      The Soviet Sputnik satellite launch

    • D.

      The crash of the Apollo 11

    • E.

      The U-2 incident of 1960

    Correct Answer
    C. The Soviet Sputnik satellite launch
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Soviet Sputnik satellite launch. This event marked the first time that a man-made object was successfully launched into space, and it sparked a sense of urgency and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union. The launch of Sputnik in 1957 by the Soviet Union was seen as a technological and scientific achievement, and it led to increased investments in space exploration and the development of new technologies. This event ultimately set the stage for the space race between the two superpowers.

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  • 49. 

    The first humans to walk on the moon in the 20th century were:

    • A.

      Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong.

    • B.

      Chuck Yeager and Sally Ride.

    • C.

      Michael Collins and James Lovell

    • D.

      Sergei Korolov and Yuri Gagarin

    • E.

      Vladimir Komarov and Alexei Leonov

    Correct Answer
    A. Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong.
    Explanation
    Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong were the first humans to walk on the moon in the 20th century. They were part of the Apollo 11 mission, which successfully landed on the moon on July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong famously took the first step onto the lunar surface, followed shortly by Buzz Aldrin. Together, they spent a total of about two and a half hours outside the lunar module, conducting experiments and collecting samples before returning to Earth. Their historic achievement marked a significant milestone in human space exploration.

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  • 50. 

    Ho Chi Minh inspired

    • A.

      Nationalist movements in Vietnam against China.

    • B.

      The building of the Contra regime in Hanoi.

    • C.

      A treaty between North and South Korea.

    • D.

      A nationalist coalition against the French.

    • E.

      Students to go to Europe and study Marxism.

    Correct Answer
    D. A nationalist coalition against the French.
    Explanation
    Ho Chi Minh played a crucial role in inspiring nationalist movements in Vietnam against the French colonial rule. He advocated for the unification of various nationalist groups and formed a coalition to fight against French imperialism. Ho Chi Minh believed in the importance of national independence and led the Vietnamese people in their struggle for self-determination. His efforts culminated in the establishment of the Viet Minh, a nationalist coalition that fought for the liberation of Vietnam from French colonial rule. This answer accurately reflects Ho Chi Minh's role in inspiring a nationalist coalition against the French.

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