AP World History Final Exam Practice Test

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AP World History Final Exam Practice Test - Quiz

Today’s the day! It’s time to put your money where your mouth is and put those AP World History studies to the test and see if you’ve really learned anything. Take this AP World History Final Exam Practice Test and see once and for all if you’re ready for your finals!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The transformation that was most responsible for moving humans toward civilizations was the...

    • A.

      Use of fire.

    • B.

      Growth of towns and cities.

    • C.

      Rise of specialized classes.

    • D.

      Rise of agriculture.

    Correct Answer
    D. Rise of agriculture.
    Explanation
    The rise of agriculture was the most responsible transformation for moving humans toward civilizations. This is because the development of agriculture allowed humans to transition from a nomadic lifestyle to a settled one. With the ability to grow crops and domesticate animals, humans were able to establish permanent settlements, leading to the growth of towns and cities. Agriculture also provided a stable food supply, which allowed for population growth and the development of specialized classes within society. The use of fire and the growth of towns and cities were important factors as well, but they were secondary to the rise of agriculture.

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  • 2. 

    The start of sedentary agriculture...

    • A.

      Occurred simultaneously in various places and spread around the world.

    • B.

      Began only in the savannas of West Africa.

    • C.

      Began after the abandonment of hunting and gathering.

    • D.

      Started in the Middle East first but developed independently in other areas.

    Correct Answer
    D. Started in the Middle East first but developed independently in other areas.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that sedentary agriculture originated in the Middle East before spreading to other regions. However, it also states that the development of agriculture in other areas occurred independently, meaning that it was not a direct result of the Middle East's influence. This explanation implies that while the Middle East may have been the initial source of sedentary agriculture, other societies independently discovered and adopted agricultural practices in their own unique ways.

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  • 3. 

    All of the following are methods used by archaeologists to learn how pre-historic people lived, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Studying traces of early settlements.

    • B.

      Determining the age and meaning of ancient artifacts.

    • C.

      Mapping ancient trade routes to determine the distribution of goods.

    • D.

      Studying each region's cultural identities.

    • E.

      Discovering and interpreting fossils.

    Correct Answer
    C. Mapping ancient trade routes to determine the distribution of goods.
    Explanation
    Archaeologists use various methods to learn about prehistoric people's lives. They study traces of early settlements to understand how people lived in the past. They also determine the age and meaning of ancient artifacts to gain insights into their culture and practices. By studying each region's cultural identities, archaeologists can understand the diversity and similarities among prehistoric societies. Discovering and interpreting fossils helps in understanding ancient environments and the species that lived in them. However, mapping ancient trade routes to determine the distribution of goods is not a method used by archaeologists to learn about prehistoric people's lives.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the Five Characteristics of Human Civilization?

    • A.

      A Centralized Government

    • B.

      Job Specialization/Social Classes

    • C.

      Use of Tools

    • D.

      A Surplus of Food

    • E.

      Arts/Architecture

    • F.

      A Writing System

    Correct Answer
    C. Use of Tools
    Explanation
    The use of tools is not one of the five characteristics of human civilization. The five characteristics are a centralized government, job specialization/social classes, a surplus of food, arts/architecture, and a writing system. While the use of tools is an important aspect of human civilization, it is not considered one of the fundamental characteristics that define a civilization.

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  • 5. 

    Stone tools, hunting and gathering, and an increasing number of Homo sapiens sapiens are features of the...

    • A.

      Late Paleolithic Age

    • B.

      Mesolithic Age

    • C.

      Neolithic Age

    • D.

      Stone Age

    Correct Answer
    A. Late Paleolithic Age
    Explanation
    Stone tools, hunting and gathering, and an increasing number of Homo sapiens sapiens are features of the Late Paleolithic Age. During this time period, humans relied on stone tools for various purposes such as hunting, cutting, and scraping. They practiced a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, relying on hunting animals and gathering wild plants for sustenance. Additionally, the Late Paleolithic Age saw an increase in the population of Homo sapiens sapiens, indicating the development and spread of modern humans.

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  • 6. 

    Confucian social relationships...

    • A.

      Taught its practitioners to seek inner harmony with the natural way.

    • B.

      Were based on universal love and forgiveness.

    • C.

      Stressed the welfare and the interests of the state.

    • D.

      Established a hierarchy and insisted upon reciprocal duties between people.

    Correct Answer
    D. Established a hierarchy and insisted upon reciprocal duties between people.
    Explanation
    Confucian social relationships emphasized the establishment of a hierarchical structure and the importance of reciprocal duties between individuals. This means that individuals were expected to fulfill their responsibilities and obligations based on their position in society. The hierarchical structure ensured order and stability, while reciprocal duties promoted harmony and cooperation among people.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following groups would have most likely supported the Qin Dynasty?

    • A.

      Confucian scholars.

    • B.

      Trained bureaucrats from non-aristocratic groups.

    • C.

      Traditional aristocrats who lost their lands and positions.

    • D.

      Daoist priests.

    Correct Answer
    B. Trained bureaucrats from non-aristocratic groups.
    Explanation
    Trained bureaucrats from non-aristocratic groups would have most likely supported the Qin Dynasty because the Qin Dynasty valued meritocracy and relied on a centralized bureaucracy to govern the empire. The dynasty implemented a system of recruiting officials based on their abilities rather than their social status or family background. This would have appealed to trained bureaucrats from non-aristocratic groups who had the necessary skills and qualifications to serve in the government.

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  • 8. 

    Chinese belief systems differ from single-deity religions and polytheism most in...

    • A.

      Their secular emphasis and lack of identifiable gods to worship.

    • B.

      Emphasizing correct behavior and performance of rituals and rites.

    • C.

      Concentrating on the need for the gods' saving grace.

    • D.

      Supporting a relative legally and social equality for women.

    Correct Answer
    A. Their secular emphasis and lack of identifiable gods to worship.
    Explanation
    Chinese belief systems differ from single-deity religions and polytheism most in their secular emphasis and lack of identifiable gods to worship. Unlike single-deity religions that focus on the worship of a specific god or polytheism that involves the worship of multiple gods, Chinese belief systems do not prioritize the worship of deities. Instead, they place more importance on secular matters such as correct behavior and performance of rituals and rites. This distinguishes Chinese belief systems from other religious practices that heavily rely on the worship of gods.

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  • 9. 

    All of the following are characteristics of Chandragupta Maurya's grandson, Ashoka, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      His extremely kind and outgoing attitude towards his subjects.

    • B.

      He followed the teachings of Buddhism.

    • C.

      He created the "Rock Edicts" and issued laws concerning the treatment of other humans.

    • D.

      His religious tolerance for all beliefs.

    Correct Answer
    A. His extremely kind and outgoing attitude towards his subjects.
    Explanation
    Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, possessed several characteristics, but one of them was not an extremely kind and outgoing attitude towards his subjects. Despite being known for his religious tolerance and following the teachings of Buddhism, Ashoka was initially a ruthless and ambitious ruler who expanded the Mauryan Empire through military conquests. However, after witnessing the horrors of war, he underwent a transformation and embraced Buddhism, leading him to promote peace and non-violence. While he issued laws and edicts promoting humane treatment of others, his early rule was marked by a more authoritarian approach rather than kindness and outgoingness towards his subjects.

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  • 10. 

    A major difference between Buddhism and Hinduism was that...?

    • A.

      Buddhism denied the need for caste, rites, and sacrifice to achieve nirvana.

    • B.

      Hinduism was monotheistic, while Buddhism was polytheistic.

    • C.

      Buddhism encouraged its followers to renounce the political world.

    • D.

      Hinduism taught respect for all living things and prohibited killing.

    Correct Answer
    A. Buddhism denied the need for caste, rites, and sacrifice to achieve nirvana.
    Explanation
    Buddhism denied the need for caste, rites, and sacrifice to achieve nirvana. This means that in Buddhism, one's social status or birth does not determine their spiritual progress or ability to attain enlightenment. Additionally, Buddhism does not emphasize the performance of rituals or sacrifices as a means to achieve nirvana. Instead, it focuses on the individual's personal efforts, such as practicing meditation and following the Eightfold Path, to attain liberation from suffering and reach enlightenment. This sets Buddhism apart from Hinduism, which traditionally upholds the importance of caste, rituals, and sacrifices in spiritual practices.

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  • 11. 

    All of the following are achievements of the Golden Age of the Gupta Empire, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      The virtual freedom of women from their male counterparts.

    • B.

      The making of a strong, less-centralized state.

    • C.

      The use of Hinduism as the main religion, with a clear use of the Caste System.

    • D.

      The discovery of π (Pi) and Zero, as well as the use of a decimal system.

    Correct Answer
    A. The virtual freedom of women from their male counterparts.
    Explanation
    During the Golden Age of the Gupta Empire, various achievements took place, including the making of a strong, less-centralized state. This means that the power and authority were not concentrated solely in the central government, but were distributed among different regions. Additionally, Hinduism was adopted as the main religion, and the Caste System was used to maintain social order. The discovery of π (Pi) and Zero, along with the use of a decimal system, also occurred during this time. However, the virtual freedom of women from their male counterparts was not an achievement of the Gupta Empire, as women still faced various restrictions and limitations in society.

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  • 12. 

    Buddhism spread primarily as a result of...

    • A.

      Gupta rulers.

    • B.

      Its monastic community.

    • C.

      Warfare with Brahman opponents.

    • D.

      The appeal of ritualistic sacrifice and the performing of intricate rites flawlessly.

    Correct Answer
    B. Its monastic community.
    Explanation
    Buddhism spread primarily as a result of its monastic community. The monastic community played a crucial role in the propagation of Buddhism by actively engaging in missionary activities, spreading the teachings of Buddha, and establishing monasteries and educational institutions. The monks and nuns traveled extensively, translating Buddhist scriptures into local languages and attracting followers through their exemplary way of life. Their commitment to renunciation and spiritual practice inspired many individuals to embrace Buddhism, leading to its widespread dissemination across different regions and cultures.

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  • 13. 

    Alexander the Great's invasion of India...

    • A.

      Led to the spread of Hinduism and Buddhism to the Mediterranean world.

    • B.

      Led to the rise of the Mauryans.

    • C.

      Disrupted the existing trade routes between India and the Mediterranean.

    • D.

      Had little lasting influence on either region.

    Correct Answer
    B. Led to the rise of the Mauryans.
    Explanation
    Alexander the Great's invasion of India led to the rise of the Mauryans. This is because after Alexander's conquest, his empire fragmented and left a power vacuum in the region. The Mauryans, under the leadership of Chandragupta Maurya, took advantage of this opportunity and established their own empire. The Mauryans went on to become one of the most powerful and influential dynasties in ancient India, with their empire encompassing a large part of the Indian subcontinent. Therefore, Alexander's invasion indirectly led to the rise of the Mauryans as a major political force in India.

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  • 14. 

    All of the following were characteristics of leaders of Ancient Egypt, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      They were the political and religious leaders of Egypt.

    • B.

      The rulers of Egypt were usually the sons or declared heirs of the preceding ruler.

    • C.

      They appointed priests and were very involved in the construction of temples.

    • D.

      They were to maintain "Universal Harmony" throughout Egypt.

    Correct Answer
    C. They appointed priests and were very involved in the construction of temples.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "They appointed priests and were very involved in the construction of temples." This is because in Ancient Egypt, the pharaohs or leaders were not directly responsible for appointing priests or overseeing temple construction. Instead, the priests held significant religious authority and were responsible for the temples and religious rituals. The pharaohs were the political and religious leaders of Egypt, usually inheriting the throne, and their role was to maintain "Universal Harmony" throughout the kingdom.

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  • 15. 

    All of the following are differences between the Athenian Culture and the Spartan Culture, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Athens was economically based on trade, while Sparta was economically based on agriculture.

    • B.

      Military service was optional in Athens, while mandatory in Sparta.

    • C.

      Athens had a democratic government, while Sparta had an Oligarchic government.

    • D.

      Athens encouraged education for women, while Sparta did not.

    Correct Answer
    D. Athens encouraged education for women, while Sparta did not.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Athens encouraged education for women, while Sparta did not. This statement is the exception because both Athens and Sparta did not prioritize education for women. In Athens, women were primarily expected to manage the household and raise children, while in Sparta, women were expected to focus on physical fitness and produce strong offspring for the military. Education in both societies was mainly reserved for males.

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  • 16. 

    While the types of government in the early Greek polis (city-states) varied, they were LEAST likely to have been...

    • A.

      Aristocracies

    • B.

      Monarchies

    • C.

      Democracies

    • D.

      Theocracies

    Correct Answer
    D. Theocracies
    Explanation
    In the early Greek polis (city-states), the government systems were least likely to have been theocracies. Theocracies are a form of government where religious leaders hold the ultimate power and authority. In ancient Greece, the government systems were more focused on the participation of citizens and the rule of law rather than religious authority. Therefore, theocracies were not commonly found in the early Greek polis.

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  • 17. 

    In comparison to the Hindus, Persians, and Chinese, religiously the Greeks...

    • A.

      Developed a compassionate system similar to Buddhism.

    • B.

      Sought universal harmony in manner similar to Daoism.

    • C.

      Never developed a major religion.

    • D.

      Avoided portraying gods with human characteristics.

    Correct Answer
    C. Never developed a major religion.
    Explanation
    The Greeks never developed a major religion. Unlike the Hindus, Persians, and Chinese who had well-established religious systems, the Greeks did not have a centralized religious authority or a unified set of beliefs. Instead, they practiced a polytheistic religion with various gods and goddesses, each associated with different aspects of life. Greek mythology played a significant role in their religious practices, but it did not evolve into a formalized religion like Buddhism, Daoism, or other major religions.

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  • 18. 

    Rome successfully expanded for all of the reasons, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      It possessed a disciplined, trained military.

    • B.

      Roman government proved flexible and tolerant.

    • C.

      Roman leaders made citizens out of conquered elites.

    • D.

      Rome had no organized and powerful rivals to oppose expansion in the area.

    Correct Answer
    D. Rome had no organized and powerful rivals to oppose expansion in the area.
    Explanation
    Rome successfully expanded for several reasons. Firstly, it possessed a disciplined and trained military, which allowed it to conquer and control new territories. Secondly, the Roman government proved to be flexible and tolerant, which helped in maintaining stability in the conquered regions. Additionally, Roman leaders had a policy of making citizens out of conquered elites, which helped to integrate these elites into the Roman society. However, the statement that Rome had no organized and powerful rivals to oppose expansion in the area is incorrect. Rome did face opposition from various powerful rivals such as Carthage, Gauls, and Parthians, which it had to overcome in order to expand its empire.

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  • 19. 

    Roman classic culture...

    • A.

      Developed in relative isolation.

    • B.

      Influenced heavily the cultures of Africa and Southwest Asia.

    • C.

      Was highly innovative in the arts and sciences.

    • D.

      Borrowed heavily, especially from the Greek and Hellenistic States.

    Correct Answer
    D. Borrowed heavily, especially from the Greek and Hellenistic States.
    Explanation
    The Roman classic culture borrowed heavily, especially from the Greek and Hellenistic States. This is evident in various aspects of Roman culture, including their art, architecture, literature, philosophy, and even their political and social systems. The Romans admired and emulated Greek culture, incorporating many Greek ideas, styles, and practices into their own society. They adopted Greek gods and goddesses, adapted Greek myths and legends, and even imitated Greek artistic techniques. The influence of the Hellenistic States, which were a blend of Greek and Eastern cultures, also played a significant role in shaping Roman culture. Overall, Roman classic culture was characterized by its extensive borrowing and assimilation of ideas and practices from other civilizations.

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  • 20. 

    All of these contributed to the decline and fall of Rome, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Nomadic invasions.

    • B.

      The collapse of effective government.

    • C.

      Plagues which decimated populations.

    • D.

      The spread of Christianity.

    Correct Answer
    D. The spread of Christianity.
    Explanation
    The spread of Christianity did not directly contribute to the decline and fall of Rome. In fact, Christianity played a significant role in the later Roman Empire, providing a unifying force and moral framework. The decline and fall of Rome can be attributed to factors such as nomadic invasions by groups like the Visigoths and Vandals, the collapse of effective government and political instability, as well as plagues that caused significant population decline.

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  • 21. 

    The fall of the Roman Empire...

    • A.

      Left behind a common culture unifying the Mediterranean Basin.

    • B.

      Divided Christianity into Catholic and Orthodox (Greek) sects.

    • C.

      Had little effect on artistic and cultural traditions.

    • D.

      Divided the Mediterranean into three different cultural zones.

    Correct Answer
    D. Divided the Mediterranean into three different cultural zones.
    Explanation
    The fall of the Roman Empire divided the Mediterranean into three different cultural zones. This means that after the fall, the region was no longer unified under a common culture. Instead, it became fragmented into distinct cultural areas. This division likely had significant implications for the development and preservation of different artistic and cultural traditions within each zone.

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  • 22. 

    Christianity differed from classic Mediterranean culture in all of the following ways, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      It offered salvation to the poor and slaves.

    • B.

      It adapted classical Roman governmental institutions to organize the Church.

    • C.

      It granted equal importance to the souls of men and women.

    • D.

      It emphasized eternal salvation instead of the pursuits of the secular world.

    Correct Answer
    B. It adapted classical Roman governmental institutions to organize the Church.
    Explanation
    Christianity differed from classic Mediterranean culture in all of the mentioned ways except for adapting classical Roman governmental institutions to organize the Church. While the other options highlight the unique aspects of Christianity, such as offering salvation to the poor and slaves, granting equal importance to the souls of men and women, and emphasizing eternal salvation over worldly pursuits, the adaptation of Roman governmental institutions is not a point of difference. This suggests that Christianity did not deviate from the existing political structure in organizing its own religious institution.

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  • 23. 

    At the end of the Classical Age...

    • A.

      Belief systems failed to survive the collapse of Classical Civilizations.

    • B.

      There was a religious upsurge as a result of social and economical problems.

    • C.

      Only the Mediterranean Greco-Roman Civilization experienced upheavals.

    • D.

      The Huns (Hsiung-Nu) destroyed all great Eurasian Classical Civilizations.

    Correct Answer
    B. There was a religious upsurge as a result of social and economical problems.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "There was a religious upsurge as a result of social and economical problems." This answer suggests that at the end of the Classical Age, there was a rise in religious beliefs and practices due to various social and economic issues. This explanation implies that people turned to religion as a way to find solace and meaning in a time of turmoil and instability. It also implies that belief systems were able to adapt and survive despite the collapse of Classical Civilizations.

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  • 24. 

    The "Mandate of Heaven" concept was designed to promote all of the following, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Loyalty to the Emperor.

    • B.

      The remoteness of the Emperor to his subjects.

    • C.

      Priests' control of the state.

    • D.

      An explanation for the decline of dynasties.

    Correct Answer
    C. Priests' control of the state.
    Explanation
    The "Mandate of Heaven" concept was designed to promote loyalty to the Emperor, emphasize the Emperor's connection to his subjects, and provide an explanation for the decline of dynasties. However, it did not promote priests' control of the state. This concept was rooted in the belief that the Emperor's right to rule came from a divine mandate, and it was used to justify the Emperor's authority and maintain social order. While priests may have had influence and played a role in religious rituals, the concept did not promote their control over the state.

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  • 25. 

    One of the strengths of Islam which made it a successful universalizing religion similar to Christianity was its...

    • A.

      Use of a common language, Arabic, to unite all members.

    • B.

      Insistence that there was only one God.

    • C.

      Condemnation of violence and incompatible with faith.

    • D.

      Egalitarianism that transcended previous loyalties, ethnicities, or allegiances.

    Correct Answer
    D. Egalitarianism that transcended previous loyalties, ethnicities, or allegiances.
    Explanation
    Islam's strength as a successful universalizing religion, similar to Christianity, can be attributed to its egalitarianism. This principle of equality transcended previous loyalties, ethnicities, and allegiances, allowing Islam to unite people from diverse backgrounds under a common belief system. By promoting equality among its followers, Islam created a sense of unity and inclusivity, which contributed to its widespread acceptance and growth as a global religion.

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  • 26. 

    Christianity spread to the Balkans and Russia through...

    • A.

      Mass migration by Greeks to these regions.

    • B.

      Military conquests.

    • C.

      Missionary activities.

    • D.

      Christian merchants who intermarried and settled amongst non-Christians.

    Correct Answer
    C. Missionary activities.
    Explanation
    Christianity spread to the Balkans and Russia through missionary activities. Missionaries were individuals who were dedicated to spreading the teachings of Christianity to non-believers. They traveled to different regions, including the Balkans and Russia, to convert people to Christianity and establish churches. Through their efforts, the religion gradually gained followers and became widespread in these areas.

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  • 27. 

    The schism between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches was due to all of these issues, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Papal interference in Byzantine political and religious affairs.

    • B.

      Muslim influence on the Orthodox branch of Christianity.

    • C.

      Dispute over the type of bread to be used in religious ceremonies.

    • D.

      The Byzantine State controlled the Church in the Eastern lands.

    Correct Answer
    B. Muslim influence on the Orthodox branch of Christianity.
    Explanation
    The schism between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches was not due to Muslim influence on the Orthodox branch of Christianity. The other options, such as Papal interference in Byzantine political and religious affairs, dispute over the type of bread to be used in religious ceremonies, and the Byzantine State controlling the Church in the Eastern lands, were contributing factors to the schism.

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  • 28. 

    Under the emperors after Justinian, the chief concern of the Byzantine state was...

    • A.

      Religious heresy and controversy.

    • B.

      The defense against Slavs, Russians, and Arab invaders.

    • C.

      The conversion of the Slavs to Christianity.

    • D.

      The support of the arts, including new building projects such as the Hagia Sophia.

    Correct Answer
    B. The defense against Slavs, Russians, and Arab invaders.
    Explanation
    Under the emperors after Justinian, the chief concern of the Byzantine state was the defense against Slavs, Russians, and Arab invaders. This is because during this time period, the Byzantine Empire faced constant threats from these external forces. The Slavs, Russians, and Arab invaders posed a significant military and territorial threat to the Byzantine Empire, and defending against them became a top priority for the Byzantine state.

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  • 29. 

    The period known as the Middle Ages in Europe...

    • A.

      Began with the fall of Rome and ended with the decline of Europe's feudal and religious institutions.

    • B.

      Saw Christianity confined to a few lands in western Europe.

    • C.

      Began with feudal kings in control and ended with the Roman Catholic church the dominant power in Europe.

    • D.

      Was an era in which European culture and civilization dominated the Mediterranean Region.

    Correct Answer
    A. Began with the fall of Rome and ended with the decline of Europe's feudal and religious institutions.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the first option, "Began with the fall of Rome and ended with the decline of Europe's feudal and religious institutions." This is because the Middle Ages in Europe is generally considered to have started after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and lasted until the 15th century. During this time, feudalism and the influence of the Catholic Church were prominent aspects of European society, and both of these institutions experienced a decline towards the end of the Middle Ages.

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  • 30. 

    Manorialism was characterized by all of these conditions, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Most peasants were serfs.

    • B.

      Peasants were obligated to give their lord a portion of their produce.

    • C.

      Levels of production and technology were low and limited.

    • D.

      Manors and peasants depended on merchants for most necessities.

    Correct Answer
    D. Manors and peasants depended on merchants for most necessities.
    Explanation
    Manorialism was a socio-economic system that prevailed in medieval Europe. It was characterized by several conditions, including most peasants being serfs, peasants being obligated to give their lord a portion of their produce, and low levels of production and technology. However, manors and peasants did not depend on merchants for most necessities. Instead, manors were largely self-sufficient, with peasants producing their own food and goods within the manor. They relied on their own resources and the land they cultivated rather than external merchants for their basic needs.

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  • 31. 

    Serfs differed from slaves in that...

    • A.

      Serfs were largely commercialized artisans while slaves were agricultural.

    • B.

      They could not be bought or sold, and owned some of the land they farmed.

    • C.

      Serfs were ethnically Europeans while slaves were Muslims, pagans, and Africans.

    • D.

      Serfs could serve in the military, while slaves could not.

    Correct Answer
    B. They could not be bought or sold, and owned some of the land they farmed.
    Explanation
    Serfs differed from slaves in that they could not be bought or sold and owned some of the land they farmed. This means that serfs had a certain level of autonomy and were not considered property like slaves were. Serfs had the ability to work the land they owned and had some control over their own labor. In contrast, slaves were considered property and could be bought, sold, and owned by others without any rights or ownership of land.

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  • 32. 

    The major lasting result of the Crusades was the...

    • A.

      Conversion of Eastern Europe to Roman Catholicism.

    • B.

      Conquest of the Holy Land and Jerusalem.

    • C.

      Establishment of cultural and economic contact between Western Europe and the Middle East.

    • D.

      Creation of a new Holy Roman Empire ruling many Mediterranean lands.

    Correct Answer
    C. Establishment of cultural and economic contact between Western Europe and the Middle East.
    Explanation
    The Crusades resulted in the establishment of cultural and economic contact between Western Europe and the Middle East. As European armies traveled to the Holy Land, they came into contact with different cultures, ideas, and goods. This led to an exchange of knowledge, technology, and trade between the two regions. The Crusades also sparked an interest in the Middle East among Europeans, leading to increased exploration and trade in the following centuries. Additionally, the Crusades brought back ancient Greek and Roman texts, which had been preserved in the Middle East, to Europe, contributing to the Renaissance and the spread of knowledge.

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  • 33. 

    What was the purpose of the First Crusade in 1095?

    • A.

      To establish a Roman Republic in the Middle East.

    • B.

      To get to Jerusalem.

    • C.

      To drive all non-Christians out of Israel.

    • D.

      To unify the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.

    Correct Answer
    B. To get to Jerusalem.
    Explanation
    The purpose of the First Crusade in 1095 was to get to Jerusalem. This was a military campaign initiated by Pope Urban II with the goal of recapturing the Holy Land from the Muslims. The Crusaders believed that Jerusalem should be under Christian control and saw the expedition as a way to fulfill their religious duty and secure their place in heaven. The Crusaders successfully captured Jerusalem in 1099, establishing several Christian states in the region.

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  • 34. 

    In order to supply food to Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs...

    • A.

      Obtained food through tribute from conquered city-states.

    • B.

      Built floating agricultural islands on the lake.

    • C.

      Relied largely on trade for foodstuffs.

    • D.

      Filled in lake Texaco to obtain agricultural lands.

    Correct Answer
    B. Built floating agricultural islands on the lake.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Built floating agricultural islands on the lake." This is because Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztec Empire, was located on an island in Lake Texcoco. To overcome the lack of arable land, the Aztecs constructed artificial islands called chinampas. These floating gardens were made by layering mud and vegetation on rafts, creating fertile land for growing crops. This innovative agricultural technique allowed the Aztecs to produce a significant amount of food to sustain their population.

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  • 35. 

    All of the following are staple crops of early Mesoamerica, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Maize

    • B.

      Coffee

    • C.

      Potatoes

    • D.

      Beans

    Correct Answer
    B. Coffee
    Explanation
    Coffee is not considered a staple crop of early Mesoamerica because it is not native to the region. Maize, potatoes, and beans were all important staple crops that were cultivated and consumed by the ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica such as the Maya and Aztecs. However, coffee was introduced to the region much later, during the colonial period, by European settlers. Therefore, it is not included in the list of staple crops of early Mesoamerica.

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  • 36. 

    What was the first, great West African Empire?

    • A.

      Mali

    • B.

      Songhay

    • C.

      Ghana

    • D.

      Malinke

    Correct Answer
    C. Ghana
    Explanation
    The first great West African Empire was Ghana. Ghana was a powerful empire that emerged around the 8th century and lasted until the 13th century. It was known for its wealth, control over trade routes, and strong centralized government. Ghana's rulers, known as the Ghana kings, were able to amass great wealth through the taxation of trade and the control of valuable resources such as gold. The empire's decline was due to various factors, including internal conflicts and invasions from neighboring empires.

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  • 37. 

    The group which most directly challenged Chinese influences in Japan and Vietnam during the postclassical era was...

    • A.

      The merchants.

    • B.

      Buddhist monks and priests.

    • C.

      The imperial bureaucracy.

    • D.

      Aristocrats and local provincial administrators.

    Correct Answer
    D. Aristocrats and local provincial administrators.
    Explanation
    During the postclassical era, aristocrats and local provincial administrators were the group that most directly challenged Chinese influences in Japan and Vietnam. These groups sought to maintain their own power and authority and resisted the imposition of Chinese cultural and political norms. They often promoted their own local traditions and customs, which were distinct from Chinese practices. This resistance to Chinese influence helped to shape the unique cultural and political identities of Japan and Vietnam during this period.

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  • 38. 

    The typical pattern for relations between China and its neighbors during the Postclassical period was...

    • A.

      Military occupation by the Chinese armies.

    • B.

      Incorporation of these states as provinces in the Chinese Empire.

    • C.

      To maintain no formal relations or treaties with neighboring states.

    • D.

      For these states to acknowledge Chinese superiority and pay tribute, but remain independent.

    Correct Answer
    D. For these states to acknowledge Chinese superiority and pay tribute, but remain independent.
    Explanation
    During the Postclassical period, China had a pattern of maintaining its dominance over neighboring states without directly occupying them or incorporating them into the Chinese Empire. Instead, these states were expected to acknowledge Chinese superiority and pay tribute to China, while still retaining their independence. This allowed China to exert its influence and control over the region without the need for military occupation or formal treaties.

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  • 39. 

    When the Mongols divided their empire, the only region that did NOT become a center for one of their Khanates was...

    • A.

      Iran and Mesopotamia

    • B.

      India

    • C.

      East Asia

    • D.

      The steppes of Russia, Ukraine, and Siberia

    Correct Answer
    B. India
    Explanation
    When the Mongols divided their empire, India did not become a center for one of their Khanates. This is because the Mongols did not have a significant presence or control over India during their empire. They primarily focused their conquests on Central Asia, the Middle East, and parts of Europe, leaving India relatively untouched. Therefore, India was not included in the division of the Mongol empire and did not become a center for one of their Khanates.

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  • 40. 

    Kublai Khan's major concern in governing China was... 

    • A.

      Creating integrated Chinese and military units.

    • B.

      Educating Mongol leaders and elites in Chinese Confucian culture.

    • C.

      Reestablishing the Confucian Civil Service Exams and scholar-bureaucrats.

    • D.

      To avoid the Mongols being assimilated by Chinese culture and practices.

    Correct Answer
    D. To avoid the Mongols being assimilated by Chinese culture and practices.
    Explanation
    Kublai Khan's major concern in governing China was to avoid the Mongols being assimilated by Chinese culture and practices. This can be inferred from the fact that Kublai Khan implemented policies to maintain a distinct Mongol identity and prevent cultural assimilation. He discouraged intermarriage between Mongols and Chinese, maintained separate legal systems for Mongols and Chinese, and promoted Mongol traditions and customs. By doing so, Kublai Khan aimed to preserve Mongol culture and prevent the Mongols from losing their identity in the Chinese-dominated society.

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  • 41. 

    The first Western European nation to establish an overseas empire in the 15th Century was...

    • A.

      Holland

    • B.

      Sweden

    • C.

      Portugal

    • D.

      Spain

    Correct Answer
    C. Portugal
    Explanation
    Portugal is the correct answer because it was the first Western European nation to establish an overseas empire in the 15th Century. Through the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator, Portugal began exploring and colonizing new territories, including Africa, Asia, and South America. This period of exploration and colonization, known as the Age of Discovery, laid the foundation for Portugal's vast overseas empire and established it as a major global power during that time.

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  • 42. 

    The main reason European conquerors and navigators were able to sail and continue to explore, and the reason the Ming Chinese fleets in the Indian Ocean failed was...

    • A.

      Europeans had superior military technologies and the Chinese did not.

    • B.

      European nations were wealthier than the Chinese.

    • C.

      China had a smaller population base than Europe and could not afford to send people abroad.

    • D.

      European governments supported and encouraged overseas expeditions; the Ming did not.

    Correct Answer
    D. European governments supported and encouraged overseas expeditions; the Ming did not.
    Explanation
    European governments supported and encouraged overseas expeditions, while the Ming Chinese did not. This support and encouragement provided the necessary resources, funding, and political backing for European conquerors and navigators to sail and continue exploring. In contrast, the lack of support from the Ming Chinese government hindered their fleets in the Indian Ocean. This difference in government support played a crucial role in the success of European exploration and the failure of the Ming Chinese fleets.

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  • 43. 

    All of the following are examples of technological innovations that contributed to voyages of exploration between 1450 and 1750, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      The Lateen sail

    • B.

      Caravels

    • C.

      The Astrolabe

    • D.

      Gunpowder

    Correct Answer
    D. Gunpowder
    Explanation
    Gunpowder is not an example of a technological innovation that contributed to voyages of exploration between 1450 and 1750. While gunpowder was certainly a significant technological advancement during this time period, it was primarily used for warfare and not specifically for exploration purposes. On the other hand, the lateen sail, caravels, and the astrolabe were all crucial innovations that greatly aided in the navigation and efficiency of voyages of exploration during this era.

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  • 44. 

    All of these were examples of the Columbian exchange, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Muslim and Chinese merchants came to monopolize Atlantic trade.

    • B.

      The spread of smallpox and measles in the Americas.

    • C.

      New World crops such as corn and potatoes spread around the world.

    • D.

      Africans and Europeans migrated or were forcibly settled in the Americas.

    Correct Answer
    A. Muslim and Chinese merchants came to monopolize Atlantic trade.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Muslim and Chinese merchants came to monopolize Atlantic trade." This answer is incorrect because the Columbian exchange refers to the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, technology, and diseases between the Americas and the rest of the world following Christopher Columbus's voyages in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The other three options all relate to different aspects of the Columbian exchange, such as the spread of diseases, crops, and migration of people.

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  • 45. 

    In Africa during the Early Modern Period, Europeans...

    • A.

      Controlled the slave trade.

    • B.

      Exported gold and raw minerals.

    • C.

      Had to negotiate with African leaders, who controlled the slave trade.

    • D.

      Settled widely in West Africa.

    Correct Answer
    C. Had to negotiate with African leaders, who controlled the slave trade.
    Explanation
    During the Early Modern Period in Africa, Europeans had to negotiate with African leaders who controlled the slave trade. This suggests that the African leaders held significant power and authority over the trade, and Europeans had to engage in diplomatic negotiations in order to gain access to slaves. This also implies that the African leaders had control over the supply and distribution of slaves, making them crucial players in the slave trade.

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  • 46. 

    The Reformation in Germany was equally a religious and political revolution because it challenged all of these authorities, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      The papal position as the head of the Western Church.

    • B.

      The influence of the Emperor as head of the Holy Roman Empire.

    • C.

      The Church's ownership of land in Germany.

    • D.

      The noble and aristocratic class structure within society.

    Correct Answer
    D. The noble and aristocratic class structure within society.
    Explanation
    The Reformation in Germany was a religious and political revolution because it challenged the authority of the papal position as the head of the Western Church, the influence of the Emperor as head of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Church's ownership of land in Germany. However, it did not directly challenge the noble and aristocratic class structure within society. The Reformation primarily focused on religious reforms and the questioning of the Church's teachings and practices, rather than advocating for a complete overhaul of the social hierarchy.

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  • 47. 

    In Western Europe following the religious wars in the 16th and 17th Centuries...

    • A.

      The different Christian sects accepted a limited toleration of other groups.

    • B.

      The popes reestablished their dominant religious and political positions.

    • C.

      Christian unity was restored, but the pope was no longer head of the Church.

    • D.

      Full religious freedoms were granted to practice one's faith.

    Correct Answer
    A. The different Christian sects accepted a limited toleration of other groups.
    Explanation
    In Western Europe following the religious wars in the 16th and 17th Centuries, the different Christian sects accepted a limited toleration of other groups. This means that although there was still some level of religious tolerance, it was not complete or unrestricted. This limited toleration allowed for coexistence between different Christian groups, but it did not grant full religious freedoms or restore Christian unity. The other options, such as the reestablishment of the popes' dominant positions or the restoration of Christian unity without the pope as the head of the Church, are not supported by the information given in the question.

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  • 48. 

    The 17th Century Scientific Revolution in Western Europe was heavily influenced by...

    • A.

      Hindu mathematicians.

    • B.

      Greek rational philosophies and classical scientists, such as Aristotle.

    • C.

      The work of Muslim scientists.

    • D.

      Christian theology.

    Correct Answer
    B. Greek rational philosophies and classical scientists, such as Aristotle.
    Explanation
    The 17th Century Scientific Revolution in Western Europe was heavily influenced by Greek rational philosophies and classical scientists, such as Aristotle. During this period, European scholars began to question traditional beliefs and turned towards rational thinking and empirical observation. They drew inspiration from the works of ancient Greek philosophers like Aristotle, who emphasized logic and reason in understanding the natural world. These ideas laid the foundation for the scientific method and led to groundbreaking discoveries and advancements in various fields, marking a significant shift in scientific thinking during the 17th century.

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  • 49. 

    The relationship between the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment is...

    • A.

      That the Scientific Revolution's rational approach was rejected by the Enlightenment.

    • B.

      That both rejected the empirical approach to the truth.

    • C.

      That Enlightenment philosophies were founded on the rational approach of the Scientific Revolution.

    • D.

      That Enlightenment ideas formed the basis of the Scientific Revolution.

    Correct Answer
    C. That Enlightenment philosophies were founded on the rational approach of the Scientific Revolution.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that Enlightenment philosophies were founded on the rational approach of the Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment was heavily influenced by the ideas and methods of the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution emphasized the use of reason, observation, and experimentation to understand the natural world, which laid the foundation for the Enlightenment's belief in the power of human reason and the pursuit of knowledge. The Enlightenment philosophers built upon the scientific discoveries and applied the rational approach to various areas of human life, including politics, ethics, and social organization.

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  • 50. 

    The export of silver from the Americas led to all of these outcomes, EXCEPT...?

    • A.

      Paying for Spain's religious and dynastic wars.

    • B.

      Causing a sharp inflation in Western Europe.

    • C.

      Discouraging foreign rivals and pirates.

    • D.

      The increasing impoverishment and bankruptcy of Spain.

    Correct Answer
    C. Discouraging foreign rivals and pirates.
    Explanation
    The export of silver from the Americas caused a sharp inflation in Western Europe because the influx of silver increased the money supply, leading to higher prices. It also led to the increasing impoverishment and bankruptcy of Spain as the Spanish government heavily relied on silver exports to finance its wars and expenses. Additionally, the export of silver helped Spain pay for its religious and dynastic wars. However, it did not discourage foreign rivals and pirates as the increased wealth from silver attracted more competition and attacks from other European powers and pirates.

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